Paul Ehrlich was a Nobel prize-winning German-Jewish physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology and antimicrobial chemotherapy. He is credited with finding a cure for syphilis in 1909, he invented the precursor technique to Gram staining bacteria. The methods he developed for staining tissue made it possible to distinguish between different types of blood cells, which led to the capability to diagnose numerous blood diseases, his laboratory discovered arsphenamine, the first effective medicinal treatment for syphilis, thereby initiating and naming the concept of chemotherapy. Ehrlich popularized the concept of a magic bullet, he made a decisive contribution to the development of an antiserum to combat diphtheria and conceived a method for standardizing therapeutic serums. In 1908, he received the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his contributions to immunology, he was the founder and first director of. Born 14 March 1854 in Strehlen in Silesia in what is now south-west Poland. Paul Ehrlich was the second child of Ismar Ehrlich.
His father was an innkeeper and distiller of liqueurs and the royal lottery collector in Strehelen, a town of some 5,000 inhabitants in the province of Lower Silesia, now in Poland. His grandfather, Heymann Ehrlich, had been a successful distiller and tavern manager. Ismar Ehrlich was the leader of the local Jewish community. After elementary school, Paul attended the time-honored secondary school Maria-Magdalenen-Gymnasium in Breslau, where he met Albert Neisser, who became a professional colleague; as a schoolboy, he became fascinated by the process of staining microscopic tissue substances. He retained that interest during his subsequent medical studies at the universities of Breslau, Freiburg im Breisgau and Leipzig. After obtaining his doctorate in 1882, he worked at the Charité in Berlin as an assistant medical director under Theodor Frerichs, the founder of experimental clinical medicine, focusing on histology and color chemistry, he married Hedwig Pinkus in 1883. The couple had two daughters and Marianne.
After completing his clinical education and habilitation at the prominent Charité medical school and teaching hospital in Berlin in 1886, Ehrlich traveled to Egypt and other countries in 1888 and 1889, in part to cure a case of tuberculosis which he had contracted in the laboratory. Upon his return he established a private medical practice and small laboratory in Berlin-Steglitz. In 1891, Robert Koch invited Ehrlich to join the staff at his Berlin Institute of Infectious Diseases, where in 1896 a new branch, the Institute for Serum Research and Testing, was established for Ehrlich's specialization. Ehrlich was named its founding director. In 1899 his institute moved to Frankfurt am Main and was renamed the Institute of Experimental Therapy. One of his important collaborators there was Max Neisser. In 1904, Ehrlich received a full position of honorary professor from the University of Göttingen. In 1906 Ehrlich became the director of the Georg Speyer House in Frankfurt, a private research foundation affiliated with his institute.
Here he discovered in 1909 the first drug to be targeted against a specific pathogen: Salvarsan, a treatment for syphilis, at that time one of the most lethal and infectious diseases in Europe. Among the foreign guest scientists working with Ehrlich were two Nobel Prize winners, Henry Hallett Dale and Paul Karrer; the institute was renamed Paul Ehrlich Institute in Ehrlich's honour in 1947. In 1914 Ehrlich signed the controversial Manifesto of the Ninety-Three, a defense of Germany's World War I politics and militarism. On 17 August 1915 Ehrlich died on 20 August in Bad Homburg vor der Höhe. Wilhelm II the German emperor, wrote in a telegram of condolence, “I, along with the entire civilized world, mourn the death of this meritorious researcher for his great service to medical science and suffering humanity. Paul Ehrlich was buried at Frankfurt. In the early 1870s, Ehrlich's cousin Karl Weigert was the first person to stain bacteria with dyes and to introduce aniline pigments for histological studies and bacterial diagnostics.
During his studies in Strassburg under the anatomist Heinrich Wilhelm Waldeyer, Ehrlich continued the research started by his cousin in pigments and staining tissues for microscopic study. He spent his eighth university semester in Freiburg im Breisgau investigating the red dye dahlia, giving rise to his first publication. In 1878 he followed his dissertation supervisor Julius Friedrich Cohnheim to Leipzig, that year obtained a doctorate with a dissertation entitled "Contributions to the Theory and Practice of Histological Staining". One of the most outstanding results of his dissertation investigations was the discovery of a new cell type. Ehrlich discovered in the protoplasm of supposed plasma cells a granulate which could be made visible with the help of an alkaline dye, he thought this granulate was a sign of good nourishment, accordingly named these cells mast cells. This focus on chemistry was unusual for a medical dissertation. In it, Ehrlich presented the entire spectrum of known staining techniques and the chemistry of the pigments employed
The Junkers were members of the landed nobility in Prussia. They owned great estates that were worked by peasants with few rights; these estates stood in the countryside outside of major cities or towns. They were an important factor in Prussia and, after 1871, in German military and diplomatic leadership; the most famous Junker was Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Bismark held power in Germany from 1871 to 1890 as Chancellor of the German Empire, he was removed from power by Kaiser Wilhelm II. Many Junkers lived in the eastern provinces that after World War II were annexed by either Poland or the Soviet Union. Junkers fled or were expelled alongside other German-speaking population by the incoming Polish and Soviet administrations, their lands were confiscated. In western and southern Germany, the land was owned by small independent farmers or a mixture of small farmers and estate owners, this system was contrasted with the dominance of the large estate owners of the east. Junker is derived from Middle High German Juncherre, meaning "young nobleman" or otherwise "young lord", was the title of members of the higher edelfrei nobility without or before the accolade.
It evolved to a general denotation of a young or lesser noble poor and politically insignificant, understood as "country squire". As part of the nobility, many Junker families only had prepositions such as von or zu before their family names without further ranks; the abbreviation of the title is Jkr. Most placed before the given name and titles, for example: Jkr. Heinrich von Hohenberg; the female equivalent Junkfrau was used only sporadically. In some cases, the honorific Jkr. was used for Freiherren and Grafen. A good number of poorer Junkers took up careers as soldiers and officials at the court of territorial princes; these families were part of the German medieval Uradel and had carried on the colonization and Christianization of the northeastern European territories during the Ostsiedlung. Over the centuries, they had become influential commanders and landowners in the lands east of the Elbe River in the Kingdom of Prussia; as landed aristocrats, the Junkers owned most of the arable land in Prussia.
Being the bulwark of the ruling House of Hohenzollern, the Junkers controlled the Prussian Army, leading in political influence and social status, owning immense estates in the north-eastern half of Germany. This was in contrast to the predominantly Catholic southern states such as the kingdoms of Bavaria or the Grand Duchy of Baden, where land was owned by small farms, or the mixed agriculture of the western states like the Grand Duchy of Hesse or the Prussian Rhine and Westphalian provinces; the Junkers held a virtual monopoly on all agriculture in the part of the German Reich lying east of the River Elbe. Since the Junker estates were inherited by the eldest son alone, younger sons, all well educated and with a sense of noble ancestry, turned to the civil and military services, dominated all higher civil offices, as well as the officer corps. Around 1900 they modernized their farming operations to increase productivity, they sold off less productive land, invested more in new breeds of cattle and pigs, used new fertilizers, increased grain production, improved productivity per worker.
Their influence achieved the imposition of high tariffs that reduced competition from American grain and meat. Their political influence extended from the German Empire of 1871–1918 through the Weimar Republic of 1919–1933, it was said that "if Prussia ruled Germany, the Junkers ruled Prussia, through it the Empire itself." A policy, known as Osthilfe granted Junkers 500,000,000 marks in subsidies to help pay for certain debts and to improve equipment.. Junkers continued to demand and receive more and more subsidies, which gave them more money in their pockets, thus resulting in political power. Junkers created a monopoly through storing corn; as more money was profited, they were able to control political offices. Junkers were able to force people to continue paying more money for their product, while keeping who they wanted in office.. Through the controlling of politics behind a veil, Junkers were able to influence politicians to create a law that prohibited collecting of debts from agrarians, thus pocketing more money and strengthening their power.
Supporting monarchism and military traditions, they were seen as reactionary, anti-democratic, protectionist by liberals and Socialists, as they had sided with the conservative monarchist forces during the Revolution of 1848. Their political interests were served by the German Conservative Party in the Reichstag and the extraparliamentary Agriculturists' League; this political class held tremendous power over industrial classes and government alike through the Prussian three-class franchise. When the German chancellor Leo von Caprivi in the 1890s reduced the protective duties on imports of grain, these landed magnates demanded and obtained his dismissal. Having been coined during disputes over the domestic policies of the German Empire the expression was perpetuated through its use by sociologist
Baron Kitasato Shibasaburō was a Japanese physician and bacteriologist. He is remembered as the co-discoverer of the infectious agent of bubonic plague in Hong Kong in 1894 simultaneously with Alexandre Yersin. Kitasato was nominated for the first annual Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1901. Kitasato and Emil von Behring, working together in Berlin in 1890, announced the discovery of diphtheria antitoxin serum. Von Behring was awarded the 1901 Nobel Prize because of this work. Kitasato was born in Higo Province, he was educated at Tokyo Imperial University. He studied under Dr. Robert Koch in the University of Berlin from 1885 to 1891. In 1889, he became the first person to grow the tetanus bacillus in pure culture, in 1890 cooperated with Emil von Behring in developing a serum therapy for tetanus using this pure culture, he worked on antitoxins for diphtheria and anthrax. Kitasato and Behring demonstrated the value of antitoxin in preventing disease by causing passive immunity to tetanus in an animal that received graded injections of blood serum from another animal infected with the disease.
After returning to Japan in 1891, he founded the Institute for Study of Infectious Diseases with the assistance of Fukuzawa Yukichi. One of his early assistants was August von Wassermann. Kitasato demonstrated, he studied the mode of infection in tuberculosis. He traveled to Hong Kong in 1894 at the request of the Japanese government during an outbreak of the bubonic plague, identified a bacterium that he concluded was causing the disease. Yersin, working separately, found the same organism several days later; because Kitasato's initial reports were vague and somewhat contradictory, some scientific historians give Yersin sole credit for the discovery. However, a thorough analysis of the morphology of the organism discovered by Kitasato by microbiologists determined that although his samples became contaminated leading to the conflicting reports from his laboratory, there is "little doubt that Kitasato did isolate and reasonably characterize the plague bacillus" in Hong Kong and "should not be denied this credit".
Four years Kitasato and his student Shiga Kiyoshi were able to isolate and describe the organism that caused dysentery. When the Institute for Infectious Diseases was incorporated into Tokyo Imperial University in 1914, he resigned in protest and founded the Kitasato Institute, which he headed for the rest of his life. In September 1921, Kitasato founded, together with several medical scientists, the Sekisen Ken-onki Corporation, with the intention of manufacturing the most reliable clinical thermometer possible; the company was renamed Terumo Corporation. Kitasato was the first dean of medicine at Keio University, first president of the Japan Medical Association, served on the House of Peers, he was ennobled with the title of danshaku in the kazoku peerage system in February 1924. Kitasato died of an intracranial hemorrhage at his home in Azabu, Tokyo, on June 13, 1931, his grave is at the Aoyama Cemetery in Tokyo. Kitasato flask, laboratory glassware named in his honor Kitasatospora, an Actinobacteria genus named after Kitasato Shibasaburō Satoshi Ōmura Sri Kantha, S.
A Centennial review. Keio Journal of Medicine, March 1991, 40: 35-39. Sri Kantha, S; the legacy of von Behring and Kitasato. Immunology Today, Sept.1992, 13: 374. Kyle, Robert A. Shibasaburo Kitasato-Japanese bacteriologist. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 1999 Orent, Wendy. Plague: The Mysterious Past and Terrifying Future of the World's Most Dangerous Disease. Free Press 2004, ISBN 0-7432-3685-8 Porter, Roy. Blood and Guts: A Short History of Medicine. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-32569-5 Kitasato University homepage Portraits of Modern Japanese Historical Figures
Prussia was a prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor Franz von Papen in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg and from 1701 in Berlin, decisively shaped the history of Germany. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership. In November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19; the Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, a state of Germany from 1918 until 1933. From 1933, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, when the Nazi regime was establishing its Gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state.
With the end of the Nazi regime, in 1945, the division of Germany into allied-occupation zones and the separation of its territories east of the Oder–Neisse line, which were incorporated into Poland and the Soviet Union, the State of Prussia ceased to exist de facto. Prussia existed de jure until its formal abolition by the Allied Control Council Enactment No. 46 of 25 February 1947. The name Prussia derives from the Old Prussians. In 1308, the Teutonic Knights conquered the region of Pomerelia with Gdańsk, their monastic state was Germanised through immigration from central and western Germany, and, in the south, it was Polonised by settlers from Masovia. The Second Peace of Thorn split Prussia into the western Royal Prussia, a province of Poland, the eastern part, from 1525 called the Duchy of Prussia, a fief of the Crown of Poland up to 1657; the union of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. Prussia entered the ranks of the great powers shortly after becoming a kingdom, exercised most influence in the 18th and 19th centuries.
During the 18th century it had a major say in many international affairs under the reign of Frederick the Great. During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck united the German principalities into a "Lesser Germany", which excluded the Austrian Empire. At the Congress of Vienna, which redrew the map of Europe following Napoleon's defeat, Prussia acquired rich new territories, including the coal-rich Ruhr; the country grew in influence economically and politically, became the core of the North German Confederation in 1867, of the German Empire in 1871. The Kingdom of Prussia was now so large and so dominant in the new Germany that Junkers and other Prussian élites identified more and more as Germans and less as Prussians; the Kingdom ended in 1918 along with other German monarchies that collapsed as a result of the German Revolution. In the Weimar Republic, the Free State of Prussia lost nearly all of its legal and political importance following the 1932 coup led by Franz von Papen. Subsequently, it was dismantled into Nazi German Gaue in 1935.
Some Prussian ministries were kept and Hermann Göring remained in his role as Minister President of Prussia until the end of World War II. Former eastern territories of Germany that made up a significant part of Prussia lost the majority of their German population after 1945 as the People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union both absorbed these territories and had most of its German inhabitants expelled by 1950. Prussia, deemed a bearer of militarism and reaction by the Allies, was abolished by an Allied declaration in 1947; the international status of the former eastern territories of Germany was disputed until the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany in 1990, while its return to Germany remains a topic among far right politicians, the Federation of Expellees and various political revisionists. The term Prussian has been used outside Germany, to emphasise professionalism, aggressiveness and conservatism of the Junker class of landed aristocrats in the East who dominated first Prussia and the German Empire.
The main coat of arms of Prussia, as well as the flag of Prussia, depicted a black eagle on a white background. The black and white national colours were used by the Teutonic Knights and by the Hohenzollern dynasty; the Teutonic Order wore a white coat embroidered with a black cross with gold insert and black imperial eagle. The combination of the black and white colours with the white and red Hanseatic colours of the free cities Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck, as well as of Brandenburg, resulted in the black-white-red commercial flag of the North German Confederation, which became the flag of the German Empire in 1871. Suum cuique, the motto of the Order of the Black Eagle created by King Frederick I in 1701, was associated with the whole of Prussia; the Iron Cross, a military decoration created by King Frederick William III in 1813, was commonly associated with the country. The region populated by Baltic Old Prussians who were Christianised, became a favoured location for immigration by Germans, as well as Poles and Lithuanians along the border regions.
Before its abolition, the territory of the Kingdom of Prussia included the provinces of West Prussia.
The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895; the prizes in Chemistry, Peace and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. The prizes are regarded as the most prestigious awards available in the fields of chemistry, peace activism and physiology or medicine. In 1968, Sweden's central bank, Sveriges Riksbank, established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, although not a Nobel Prize, has become informally known as the "Nobel Prize in Economics"; the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. Between 1901 and 2018, the Nobel Prizes were awarded 590 times to 935 organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 27 organizations and 908 individuals.
The prize ceremonies take place annually in Sweden. Each recipient receives a gold medal, a diploma, a sum of money, decided by the Nobel Foundation. Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23-carat gold, in 18-carat green gold plated with a 24-carat gold coating; the prize is not awarded posthumously. A prize may not be shared among more than three individuals, although the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to organizations of more than three people. Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, into a family of engineers, he was a chemist and inventor. In 1894, Nobel purchased the Bofors iron and steel mill, which he made into a major armaments manufacturer. Nobel invented ballistite; this invention was a precursor to many smokeless military explosives the British smokeless powder cordite. As a consequence of his patent claims, Nobel was involved in a patent infringement lawsuit over cordite. Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, with most of his wealth coming from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous.
In 1888, Nobel was astonished to read his own obituary, titled The merchant of death is dead, in a French newspaper. As it was Alfred's brother Ludvig who had died, the obituary was eight years premature; the article made him apprehensive about how he would be remembered. This inspired him to change his will. On 10 December 1896, Alfred Nobel died in his villa in San Remo, from a cerebral haemorrhage, he was 63 years old. Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, he composed the last over a year before he died, signing it at the Swedish–Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. To widespread astonishment, Nobel's last will specified that his fortune be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, physiology or medicine and peace. Nobel bequeathed 94 % of 31 million SEK, to establish the five Nobel Prizes; because of skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that it was approved by the Storting in Norway. The executors of Nobel's will, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organised the award of prizes.
Nobel's instructions named a Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom were appointed shortly after the will was approved in April 1897. Soon thereafter, the other prize-awarding organizations were designated; these were Karolinska Institute on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for. In 1905, the personal union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved. According to his will and testament read in Stockholm on 30 December 1896, a foundation established by Alfred Nobel would reward those who serve humanity; the Nobel Prize was funded by Alfred Nobel's personal fortune. According to the official sources, Alfred Nobel bequeathed from the shares 94% of his fortune to the Nobel Foundation that now forms the economic base of the Nobel Prize; the Nobel Foundation was founded as a private organization on 29 June 1900. Its function is to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.
In accordance with Nobel's will, the primary task of the Foundation is to manage the fortune Nobel left. Robert and Ludvig Nobel were involved in the oil business in Azerbaijan, according to Swedish historian E. Bargengren, who accessed the Nobel family archives, it was this "decision to allow withdrawal of Alfred's money from Baku that became the decisive factor that enabled the Nobel Prizes to be established". Another important task of the Nobel Foundation is to market the prizes internationally and to oversee informal ad
In blood, the serum is the component, neither a blood cell, nor a clotting factor. Serum includes all proteins not used in blood clotting and all the electrolytes, antigens and any exogenous substances; the study of serum is serology. Serum is used in numerous diagnostic tests, as well as blood typing. Measurements of serum concentrations has proved useful in many fields including clinical trials of therapeutic vs toxic response. Blood is centrifuged to remove cellular components. Anti-coagulated blood yields plasma containing clotting factors. Coagulated blood yields serum without fibrinogen. Serum is an essential factor for the self-renewal of embryonic stem cells in combination with the cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor; the serum of convalescent patients recovering from an infectious disease can be used as a biopharmaceutical in the treatment of other people with that disease, because the antibodies generated by the successful recovery are potent fighters of the pathogen. Such convalescent serum is a form of immunotherapy.
Blood serum and plasma are some of the largest sources of biomarkers, whether for diagnostics or therapeutics. Its vast dynamic range, further complicated by the presence of lipids and post-translational modifications, as well multiple mechanisms of degradation, presents challenges in analytical reproducibility, sensitivity and potential efficacy. For analysis of biomarkers in blood serum samples, it is possible to do a pre-separation by free-flow electrophoresis that consists of a depletion of serum albumin protein; this method enables greater penetration of the proteome via separation of a wide variety of charged or chargeable analytes, ranging from small molecules to cells. Like many other mass nouns, the word serum can be pluralized. To speak of multiple serum specimens from multiple people, physicians sometimes speak of sera. Blood
Daniel Coit Gilman
Daniel Coit Gilman was an American educator and academic. Gilman was instrumental in founding the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale College, subsequently served as the third president of the University of California, as the first president of Johns Hopkins University, as founding president of the Carnegie Institution, he was co-founder of the Russell Trust Association, which administers the business affairs of Yale's Skull and Bones society. Gilman served for twenty five years as president of Johns Hopkins. S." Born in Norwich, the son of Eliza and mill owner William Charles Gilman, a descendant of Edward Gilman, one of the first settlers of Exeter, New Hampshire, of Thomas Dudley, Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and one of the founders of Harvard College, of Thomas Adgate, one of the founders of Norwich in 1659. Daniel Coit Gilman graduated from Yale College in 1852 with a degree in geography. At Yale he was a classmate of Andrew Dickson White, who would serve as first president of Cornell University.
The two were members of the Skull and Bones secret society, traveled to Europe together after graduation and remained lifelong friends. Gilman was a member of the Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity. Gilman would co-found the Russell Trust Association, the foundation behind Skull and Bones. After serving as attaché of the United States legation at St. Petersburg, Russia from 1853 to 1855, he returned to Yale and was active in planning and raising funds for the founding of Sheffield Scientific School. Gilman contemplated going into the ministry, took out a license to preach, but settled on a career in education. From 1856 to 1865 Gilman served as librarian of Yale College, was concerned with improving the New Haven public school system; when the Civil War broke out, Gilman became the recruiting sergeant for the Norton Cadets, a group of Yale graduates and faculty who drilled on the New Haven Green under the oversight of Yale professor William Augustus Norton. In 1863, Gilman was appointed professor of geography at the Sheffield Scientific School, became secretary and librarian as well in 1866.
Having been passed over for the presidency of Yale, for which post Gilman was said to have been the favorite of the younger faculty, he resigned these posts in 1872 to become the third president of the newly organized University of California. His work there was hampered by the state legislature, in 1875 Gilman accepted the offer to establish and become first president of Johns Hopkins University. Before being formally installed as president in 1876, he spent a year studying university organization and selecting an outstanding staff of teachers and scholars, his formal inauguration, on 22 February 1876, has become Hopkins' Commemoration Day, the day on which many university presidents have chosen to be installed in office. Among the legendary educators he assembled to teach at Johns Hopkins were classicist Basil Lanneau Gildersleeve, mathematician James Joseph Sylvester, historian Herbert Baxter Adams and chemist Ira Remsen. Gilman's primary interest was in fostering advanced instruction and research, as president he developed the first American graduate university in the German tradition.
The aim of the modern research university, said Gilman, was to "extend by minute accretions, the realm of knowledge" At his inaugural address at Hopkins, Gilman asked: "What are we aiming at?" The answer, he said, was "the encouragement of research and the advancement of individual scholars, who by their excellence will advance the sciences they pursue, the society where they dwell." In 1884, Gilman was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society. Gilman was active in founding Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins Medical School, he founded and was for many years president of the Charity Organization of Baltimore, in 1897 he served on the commission to draft a new charter for Baltimore. From 1896 to 1897, he was a member of the commission to settle the boundary line between Venezuela and British Guiana. Gilman served as a trustee of the John F. Slater and Peabody education funds and as a member of John D. Rockefeller's General Education Board. In this capacity, he became active in the promotion of education in the southern United States.
He was president of the National Civil Service Reform League and the American Oriental Society, vice president of the Archaeological Institute of America, executive officer of the Maryland Geological Survey. He retired from Johns Hopkins in 1901, but accepted the presidency of the newly founded Carnegie Institution of Washington, his books include biographies of James Monroe and James Dwight Dana, a collection of addresses entitled University Problems, The Launching of a University. Gilman married twice, his first wife was daughter of Tredwell Ketcham of New York. They married on December 4, 1861, had two daughters: Alice, who married Everett Wheeler. Mary Ketcham Gilman died in 1869, Daniel Coit Gilman married his second wife, Elizabeth Dwight Woolsey, daughter of John M. Woolsey of Cleveland and niece of Yale president Theodore Dwight Woolsey, in 1877. Daniel Gilman's brother Dr. Edward Whiting Gilman was married to Julia Silliman, daughter of Yale Professor and chemist Benjamin Silliman. Daniel Coit Gilman died in Connecticut.
The original academic building on the Homewood campus of the Johns Hopkins University