Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Roman emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia and his maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesars will as his adopted son and heir, known as Octavianus. He, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar, following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvate was eventually torn apart by the ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, in reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and it took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule.
He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis, the resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of peace known as the Pax Romana. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Pannonia and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, expanding into Germania, beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy. Augustus died in AD14 at the age of 75 and he probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him. He was succeeded as Emperor by his adopted son Tiberius, Augustus was known by many names throughout his life, At birth, he was named Gaius Octavius after his biological father. Historians typically refer to him simply as Octavius between his birth in 63 until his adoption by Julius Caesar in 44 BC, upon his adoption, he took Caesars name and became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus in accordance with Roman adoption naming standards.
He quickly dropped Octavianus from his name, and his contemporaries referred to him as Caesar during this period, historians. In 27 BC, following his defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra and it is the events of 27 BC from which he obtained his traditional name of Augustus, which historians use in reference to him from 27 BC until his death in AD14. While his paternal family was from the town of Velletri, approximately 40 kilometres from Rome and he was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum. He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen possibly commemorating his fathers victory at Thurii over a band of slaves. Due to the nature of Rome at the time, Octavius was taken to his fathers home village at Velletri to be raised. Octavius only mentions his fathers equestrian family briefly in his memoirs and his paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War
The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic, to partial and restricted, to completely autocratic. Traditionally and in most cases, the monarchs post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication, occasionally this might create a situation of rival claimants whose legitimacy is subject to effective election. Finally, there have been cases where the term of a reign is either fixed in years or continues until certain goals are achieved. Thus there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy, Monarchy was the most common form of government until the 19th century, but it is no longer prevalent. Currently,47 sovereign nations in the world have monarchs acting as heads of state,19 of which are Commonwealth realms that recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their head of state. The monarchs of Cambodia and Malaysia reign, the word monarch comes from the Greek language word μονάρχης, monárkhēs which referred to a single, at least nominally absolute ruler. In current usage the word usually refers to a traditional system of hereditary rule.
Depending on the held by the monarch, a monarchy may be known as a kingdom, duchy, grand duchy, tsardom, sultanate, khaganate. The form of societal hierarchy known as chiefdom or tribal kingship is prehistoric, the Greek term monarchia is classical, used by Herodotus. The monarch in classical antiquity is often identified as king, the Chinese and Nepalese monarchs continued to be considered living Gods into the modern period. Since antiquity, monarchy has contrasted with forms of democracy, where power is wielded by assemblies of free citizens. In antiquity, monarchies were abolished in favour of such assemblies in Rome, much of 19th century politics was characterised by the division between anti-monarchist Radicalism and monarchist Conservativism. Many countries abolished the monarchy in the 20th century and became republics, advocacy of republics is called republicanism, while advocacy of monarchies is called monarchism. In the modern era, monarchies are more prevalent in small states than in large ones, most monarchs, both historically and in the modern day, have been born and brought up within a royal family, the centre of the royal household and court.
Growing up in a family, future monarchs are often trained for the responsibilities of expected future rule. Different systems of succession have been used, such as proximity of blood and agnatic seniority. While most monarchs have been male, many female monarchs have reigned in history, rule may be hereditary in practice without being considered a monarchy, such as that of family dictatorships or political families in many democracies. The principal advantage of hereditary monarchy is the continuity of leadership
Legalism (Chinese philosophy)
Fǎ-Jiā or Legalism is one of the six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy that developed during the Warring States period. Much of Legalism was principally the development of ideas that lay behind his reforms. The grouping together of thinkers that would eventually be dubbed Fa-Jia or Legalists can be traced to Han Fei, written around 240 BC, the Han Feizi is commonly thought of as the greatest of all Legalist texts, bringing together his predecessors ideas into a coherent ideology. They attracted the attention of the First Emperor, and are believed to contain the first commentaries on the Tao te Ching in history and it is often said that succeeding emperors followed the template set by Han Fei. The Han dynasty took over the institutions of the Qin dynasty almost unchanged. Endorsement for this school of thought peaked under Mao Zedong, hailed as a progressive intellectual current and they owed allegiance to the local prince, who owed allegiance to the Son of Heaven. The Zhou operated according to the principles of Li and punishment, the earliest Zhou kings kept a firm personal hand on the government, depending on their personal capacities, personal relations between ruler and minister, and upon military might.
The technique of centralized government being so little developed, they deputed authority to feudal lords, when the Zhou kings could no longer grant new fiefs, their power began to decline, vassals began to identify with their own regions, and schismatic hostility occurred between the Chinese states. Aristocratic families became very important, by virtue of their ancestral prestige wielding great power, for the Confucians, the Classics provided the preconditions for knowledge. For Xun Kuang they contained the logical categories on which knowledge of things was based, orthodox Confucians tended to consider organizational details beneath both minister and ruler, leaving such matters to underlings, and furthermore wanted ministers to control the ruler. Concerned with goodness, the Confucians became the most prominent, followed by the Taoists and reformers that Sima Tan termed the Fa-Jia. But the Taoists focused on the development of powers. A new type of ruler emerged intent on breaking the power of the aristocrats and those that failed were conquered or deposed.
As disenfranchised or opportunist aristocrats were increasingly attracted by the reform-oriented rulers, Shang Yang was a leading reformer of his time, concerned largely with administrative and sociopolitical innovation. Considering the power struggle between ruler and minister irreconcilable, they insist on impersonal norms and regulations in their relations, though Han Fei considers people naturally self-interested, he suggests that “Once law and decrees prevail, the way of selfishness collapses. Han Feis prince must make use of Fa, surround himself with an aura of wei and shi, the ruler who follows Tao moves away from benevolence and righteousness, and discards reason and ability, subduing the people through Fa. Only an absolute ruler can restore the world, the belief in the necessity of an absolute monarch for the attainment of stability and order is common to most political theorists of the Warring States period. Successful reforms made the Fa-Jia significant, promoting the growth of the Qin state that applied reforms most thoroughly
Spanish transition to democracy
The Spanish transition to democracy, or simply the Transition refers to the restoration of democracy in Spain after the death of Francisco Franco in 1975. Though faced with political and economic crises at the time, the transition to democracy was one of the factors that allowed Spain to join the European Economic Community and NATO. Francisco Franco came to power in 1939 following the Spanish Civil War, in 1969, he designated Prince Juan Carlos, grandson of Spains former king, Alfonso XIII, as his official successor. For the next six years, Prince Juan Carlos initially remained in the background during public appearances, once in power as King of Spain, however, he facilitated the development of a constitutional monarchy as his father, Don Juan de Borbón, had advocated since 1946. The transition was a plan that counted on ample support both within and outside of Spain. Western governments, headed by the United States, now favoured a Spanish constitutional monarchy, as did many Spanish, the transition proved challenging, as the spectre of the Civil War still haunted Spain.
Francoists on the far right enjoyed considerable support within the Spanish Army, King Juan Carlos began his reign as head of state without leaving the confines of Francos legal system. Only in his speech before the Cortes did he indicate his support for a transformation of the Spanish political system, in this manner he would formally act within the Francoist legal system and thus avoid the prospect of military intervention in the political process. Suárez was appointed as the 138th Prime Minister of Spain by Juan Carlos on 3 July 1976, a call for democratic elections in June 1977 to elect a Cortes charged with drawing up a new democratic constitution. This program was clear and unequivocal, but its realization tested the capacity of Suárez. Despite these challenges, Suárezs project was carried out without delay between July 1976 and June 1977, in this short period of time Suárez had to act on many fronts to achieve his aims. The draft of the Law for Political Reform was written by Don Torcuato Fernández-Miranda, speaker of the Cortes, the project was approved by the Suarez Government in September 1976.
Throughout the month of November the Cortes, under the presidency of Fernández-Miranda, debated this law, which it ultimately approved with 425 votes in favor,59 against. The Suárez government sought to gain legitimacy for the changes through a popular referendum. On 15 December 1976, with a 77. 72% participation rate, with this part of his plan fulfilled, Suárez had to resolve a crucial issue, should he include the opposition groups who had not participated at the beginning of the transition. Suárez had to deal with another issue, coming to terms with the anti-Francoist opposition. Suárez adopted a series of measured policies to add credibility to his project, in July 1976 he issued a partial political amnesty, freeing 400 prisoners. He extended this in March 1977, and finally granted an amnesty in May of the same year
Rise of the Ottoman Empire
The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality in c. 1299, and ended with the conquest of Constantinople on May 29,1453. For this reason, this period in the history has been described as the Proto-Imperial Era. Throughout most of period, the Ottomans were merely one of many competing states in the region. The cause of Ottoman success cannot be attributed to any single factor, the earlier part of this period, the fourteenth century, is particularly difficult for historians to study due to the scarcity of sources. Not a single written document survives from the reign of Osman I, the Ottomans, did not begin to record their own history until the fifteenth century, more than a hundred years after many of the events they describe. At the beginning of the thirteenth century Anatolia was divided between two powerful states, the Byzantine Empire in the west and the Anatolian Seljuks in the central plateau. Mongol pressure pushed nomadic Turkish tribes to migrate westward, into the now poorly-defended Byzantine territory, the power of these groups was largely dependent upon their ability to attract military manpower.
Western Anatolia was a hotbed of raiding activity, with warriors switching allegiance at will to whichever chief seemed most able to provide them opportunities for plunder. The Ottoman dynasty is named after the first independent ruler of the Ottoman polity, according to Ottoman tradition, he was descended from a Turkic tribe which migrated out of Central Asia in the wake of the Mongol Conquests. As evidenced by coins minted during his reign, Osmans father was named Ertuğrul, the origins of the Ottoman dynasty thus remain obscure, shrouded in myth and legend, and the identity of Osmans tribe and ancestors is not known for certain. Likewise, nothing is known about how Osman first established his principality as the sources, none of contemporary, provide many different. Osmans principality was initially supported by the manpower of nomadic Turkish groups. This Ottoman tribe was based not on blood-ties, but on political expedience, thus it was inclusive of all who wished to join, including people of Byzantine origin.
The Ottoman enterprise came to be led by several great families, at least one of which was of Greek Christian origin. Nevertheless, Islam played a role in Ottoman self-identity from the start, as evidenced by a land grant issued by Osmans son Orhan in 1324. Such a war was known as gaza, and a fighting in it was called a gazi. Beginning in the 1980s, historians began to criticize Witteks thesis. Scholars now recognize that the terms gaza and gazi did not have religious connotations for the early Ottomans
First French Empire
The First French Empire, Note 1 was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Its name was a misnomer, as France already had colonies overseas and was short lived compared to the Colonial Empire, a series of wars, known collectively as the Napoleonic Wars, extended French influence over much of Western Europe and into Poland. The plot included Bonapartes brother Lucien, serving as speaker of the Council of Five Hundred, Roger Ducos, another Director, on 9 November 1799 and the following day, troops led by Bonaparte seized control. They dispersed the legislative councils, leaving a rump legislature to name Bonaparte, Sieyès, although Sieyès expected to dominate the new regime, the Consulate, he was outmaneuvered by Bonaparte, who drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul. He thus became the most powerful person in France, a power that was increased by the Constitution of the Year X, the Battle of Marengo inaugurated the political idea that was to continue its development until Napoleons Moscow campaign.
Napoleon planned only to keep the Duchy of Milan for France, setting aside Austria, the Peace of Amiens, which cost him control of Egypt, was a temporary truce. He gradually extended his authority in Italy by annexing the Piedmont and by acquiring Genoa, Parma and Naples, he laid siege to the Roman state and initiated the Concordat of 1801 to control the material claims of the pope. Napoleon would have ruling elites from a fusion of the new bourgeoisie, on 12 May 1802, the French Tribunat voted unanimously, with exception of Carnot, in favour of the Life Consulship for the leader of France. This action was confirmed by the Corps Législatif, a general plebiscite followed thereafter resulting in 3,653,600 votes aye and 8,272 votes nay. On 2 August 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed Consul for life, pro-revolutionary sentiment swept through Germany aided by the Recess of 1803, which brought Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden to Frances side. The memories of imperial Rome were for a time, after Julius Caesar and Charlemagne.
The Treaty of Pressburg, signed on 26 December 1805, did little other than create a more unified Germany to threaten France. On the other hand, Napoleons creation of the Kingdom of Italy, the occupation of Ancona, to create satellite states, Napoleon installed his relatives as rulers of many European states. The Bonapartes began to marry into old European monarchies, gaining sovereignty over many nations, in addition to the vassal titles, Napoleons closest relatives were granted the title of French Prince and formed the Imperial House of France. Met with opposition, Napoleon would not tolerate any neutral power, Prussia had been offered the territory of Hanover to stay out of the Third Coalition. With the diplomatic situation changing, Napoleon offered Great Britain the province as part of a peace proposal and this, combined with growing tensions in Germany over French hegemony, Prussia responded by forming an alliance with Russia and sending troops into Bavaria on 1 October 1806. In this War of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon destroyed the armies of Frederick William at Jena-Auerstedt, the Eylau and the Friedland against the Russians finally ruined Frederick the Greats formerly mighty kingdom, obliging Russia and Prussia to make peace with France at Tilsit.
The Treaties of Tilsit ended the war between Russia and the French Empire and began an alliance between the two empires that held power of much of the rest of Europe, the two empires secretly agreed to aid each other in disputes
Embroiled parties included the Kingdom of Portugal, Portuguese rebels, the United Kingdom, the Church of Rome, and Spain. The death of King João VI in 1826 created a dispute over royal succession, while Dom Pedro, the Emperor of Brazil, was the kings oldest son, his younger brother Miguel contended that Pedro had forfeited his claim to the throne by declaring Brazilian independence. Pedro briefly entitled himself Dom Pedro IV of Portugal, neither the Portuguese nor the Brazilians wanted a unified monarchy, Pedro abdicated the throne in favor of his daughter, Maria, a child of 7. In April 1826, to settle the dispute, Pedro revised the 1st constitution of Portugal granted in 1822 and left the throne to Maria. In the Portuguese Constitutional Charter, Pedro attempted to reconcile absolutists, unlike the Constitution of 1822, this new document established four branches of government. The Legislature was divided into two chambers, the upper chamber, the Chamber of Peers, was composed of life and hereditary peers and clergy appointed by the king.
Judicial power was exercised by the courts, executive power by the ministers of the government, and moderative power by the king, in February 1828, Miguel returned to Portugal, ostensibly to take the oath of allegiance to the Charter and assume the regency. He was immediately proclaimed king by his supporters, who pressed him to return to absolutism, the Cortes of 1828 assented to Miguels wish, proclaiming him king as Miguel I of Portugal and nullifying the Constitutional Charter. This alleged usurpation did not go unchallenged by the Liberals, on May 18, the garrison in Porto, the center of Portuguese progressives, declared its loyalty to Pedro, to Maria da Glória, and the Constitutional Charter. The rebellion against the spread to other cities. Miguel suppressed these rebellions, and many thousands of Liberals were either arrested or fled to Spain and Britain, there followed five years of repression. Meanwhile, in Brazil, relations between Pedro and Brazils agricultural magnates had become strained, in April 1831, Pedro abdicated in Brazil in favor of his son, Pedro II, and sailed for Britain.
He organized an expedition there and went to Terceira island in the Azores. The government of Miguel blockaded the island, but the squadron was attacked by a French squadron during the run-up to the Battle of the Tagus. To protect British interests, a squadron under Commander William Glascock in HMS Orestes was stationed in the Douro. The Duke of Terceira landed at Faro and marched north through the Alentejo to capture Lisbon on July 24, Napiers squadron encountered the absolutists fleet near Cape Saint Vincent and decisively defeated it at the fourth Battle of Cape St. Vincent. The Liberals were able to occupy Lisbon, where Pedro moved from Porto, a stalemate of nine months ensued. Towards the end of 1833, Maria da Glória was proclaimed queen and his first act was to confiscate the property of all who had served under Dom Miguel
The Xinhai Revolution, known as the Revolution of 1911 or the Chinese Revolution, was a revolution that overthrew Chinas last imperial dynasty, and established the Republic of China. The revolution was named Xinhai because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai stem-branch in the cycle of the Chinese calendar. The revolution consisted of many revolts and uprisings, the turning point was the Wuchang Uprising on October 10,1911, which was the result of the mishandling of the Railway Protection Movement. The revolution arose mainly in response to the decline of the Qing state, many underground anti-Qing groups, with the support of Chinese revolutionaries in exile, tried to overthrow the Qing. The brief civil war that ensued was ended through a compromise between Yuan Shikai, the late Qing military strongman, and Sun Yat-sen, the leader of the Tongmenghui. After the Qing court transferred power to the newly founded republic, October 10 is commemorated in Taiwan as Double Ten Day, the National Day of the ROC.
In mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau, the day is usually celebrated as the Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution. After suffering its first defeat to the West in the First Opium War in 1842, in the wars against the Taiping, Muslims of Yunnan and the Northwest, the traditional Manchu armies proved themselves incompetent and the court came to rely on local Han armies. Following defeat in the Second Opium War, the Qing tried to modernize by adopting certain Western technologies through the Self-Strengthening Movement from 1861, in 1895, China suffered a serious defeat during the First Sino-Japanese War. This demonstrated that traditional Chinese feudal society needed to be modernized if the technological and commercial advancements were to succeed. In 1898 the Guangxu Emperor was guided by reformers like Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao for a reform in education, military. The reform was a failure, as it was ended prematurely by a coup led by Empress Dowager Cixi. The Guangxu Emperor, who had always been a dependent on Cixi, was put under house arrest in June 1898.
Reformers Kang and Liang would be exiled, while in Canada, in June 1899, they tried to form the Emperor Protection Society in an attempt to restore the emperor. Empress Dowager Cixi mainly controlled the Qing dynasty from this point on, under internal and external pressure, the Qing court began to adopt some of the reforms. The Qing managed to maintain its monopoly on power by suppressing, often with great brutality. Dissidents could operate only in societies and underground organizations, in foreign concessions or in exile overseas. There were many revolutionaries and groups that wanted to overthrow the Qing government to re-establish a Han Chinese government, the earliest revolutionary organizations were founded outside of China, such as Yeung Ku-wans Furen Literary Society, created in Hong Kong in 1890
Second French Empire
The Second French Empire was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. The structure of the French government during the Second Empire was little changed from the First, but Emperor Napoleon III stressed his own imperial role as the foundation of the government. He had so often, while in prison or in exile and his answer was to organize a system of government based on the principles of the Napoleonic Idea. This meant that the emperor, the elect of the people as the representative of the democracy, ruled supreme. He himself drew power and legitimacy from his role as representative of the great Napoleon I of France, the anti-parliamentary French Constitution of 1852 instituted by Napoleon III on 14 January 1852, was largely a repetition of that of 1848. All executive power was entrusted to the emperor, who, as head of state, was responsible to the people. The people of the Empire, lacking democratic rights, were to rely on the benevolence of the rather than on the benevolence of politicians.
He was to nominate the members of the council of state, whose duty it was to prepare the laws, and of the senate, a body permanently established as a constituent part of the empire. One innovation was made, that the Legislative Body was elected by universal suffrage and this new political change was rapidly followed by the same consequence as had attended that of Brumaire. The press was subjected to a system of cautionnements and avertissements, in order to counteract the opposition of individuals, a surveillance of suspects was instituted. In the same way public instruction was strictly supervised, the teaching of philosophy was suppressed in the lycées, for seven years France had no democratic life. The Empire governed by a series of plebiscites, up to 1857 the Opposition did not exist, from till 1860 it was reduced to five members, Darimon, Émile Ollivier, Hénon, Jules Favre and Ernest Picard. On 2 December 1851 Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, who had been elected President of the Republic and he thus became sole ruler of France, and re-established universal suffrage, previously abolished by the Assembly.
His decisions and the extension of his mandate for 10 years were popularly endorsed by a referendum that month that attracted an implausible 92 percent support. A new constitution was enacted in January 1852 which made Louis-Napoléon president for 10 years, however, he was not content with merely being an authoritarian president. Almost as soon as he signed the new document into law, in response to officially-inspired requests for the return of the empire, the Senate scheduled a second referendum in November, which passed with 97 percent support. As with the December 1851 referendum, most of the yes votes were manufactured out of thin air, the empire was formally re-established on 2 December 1852, and the Prince-President became Napoléon III, Emperor of the French. The constitution concentrated so much power in his hands that the only changes were to replace the word president with the word emperor
A non-sovereign monarchy is one in which the head of the monarchical polity, and the polity itself, are subject to a temporal authority higher than their own. The constituent states of the German Empire provide a historical example, like sovereign monarchies, there exist both hereditary and elective non-sovereigns. Systems of both formal and informal suzerainty were common before the 20th century, when systems were used by most states. During the last century, many monarchies have become republics, sub-national monarchies exist in a few states which are, in and of themselves, not monarchical. The degree to which the monarchs have control over their polities varies greatly—in some they may have a degree of domestic authority. In some, the position might be purely traditional or cultural in nature. Wallis and Futuna is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic in Polynesia consisting of three islands and a number of tiny islets. The current co-claimant to the title King of Uvea are Felice Tominiko Halagahu and Patalione Kanimoa, the current King of Alo is Filipo Katoa and they have been reigning since 2016.
The territory was annexed by the French Republic in 1888, and was placed under the authority of another French colony, the inhabitants of the islands voted in a 1959 referendum to become an overseas collectivity of France, effective in 1961. The collectivity is governed as a republic, the citizens elect a Territorial Assembly. His cabinet, the Council of the Territory, is made up of the three Kings and three appointed ministers, in addition to this limited parliamentary role the Kings play, the individual kingdoms customary legal systems have some jurisdiction in areas of civil law. The first to establish colonies were the Portuguese, but they were displaced by the more powerful Dutch. The 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty defined the borders between British possessions and the Dutch East Indies, the British controlled the Eastern half of modern Malaysia through a system of protectorates, in which native states had some domestic authority, checked by the British government. The eastern half of Malaysia was part of the independent Sultanate of Brunei until 1841, the two halves were united for the first time with the formation of Malaysia in 1963.
Modern Malaysia is a monarchy, consisting of 13 states. Of the Malay states, seven are sultanates, one is a kingdom, one an elective monarchy, while the four states. The head of state of the federation is a constitutional monarch styled Yang di-Pertuan Agong. The Yang di-Pertuan is elected to a term by the Conference of Rulers, made up of the nine state monarchs
Absolute monarchy, or despotic monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority that is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs. These are often, but not always, hereditary monarchies, in contrast, in constitutional monarchies, the head of states authority derives from and is legally bounded or restricted by a constitution or legislature. Some monarchies have weak or symbolic legislatures and other bodies that the monarch can alter or dissolve at will. Countries where a monarch still maintains absolute power are Brunei, Oman, Saudi Arabia, the individual emirates composing the United Arab Emirates, Swaziland, in Ancient Egypt, the Pharaoh wielded absolute power over the country and was considered a living god by his people. In ancient Mesopotamia, many rulers of Assyria and Sumer were absolute monarchs as well, in ancient and medieval India, rulers of the Maurya, Satahavana and Chalukya Empires, as well as other major and minor empires, were considered absolute monarchs.
In the Khmer Empire, the kings were called Devaraja and Chakravartin, in Kingdom of Siam, the kings were esestablished Somburanaya-sittiraj. Throughout Chinese history, many emperors and one empress wielded absolute power through the Mandate of Heaven, in pre-Columbian America, the Inca Empire was ruled by a Sapa Inca, who was considered the son of Inti, the sun god and absolute ruler over the people and nation. Throughout much of European history, the right of kings was the theological justification for absolute monarchy. Many European monarchs, such as those of Russia, claimed supreme autocratic power by right. James VI of Scotland and his son Charles I of Scotland and England tried to import this principle, there is a considerable variety of opinion by historians on the extent of absolutism among European monarchs. Some, such as Perry Anderson, argue that quite a few monarchs achieved levels of absolutist control over their states, a widely held story about Louis XIV of France is that he proclaimed Létat, cest moi.
What Louis did say was, The interests of the state come first, when one gives these priority, one labors for ones own good. These advantages to the state redounds to ones glory, although often criticized for his extravagances, such as the Palace of Versailles, he reigned over France for a long period, and some historians consider him a successful absolute monarch. More recently, revisionist historians have questioned whether Louis reign should be considered absolute, the King of France concentrated in his person legislative and judicial powers. He was the judicial authority. He could condemn men to death without the right of appeal and it was both his duty to punish offenses and stop them from being committed. From his judicial authority followed his power both to make laws and to annul them and this law consequently authorized the king to abolish all other centers of power. Most important was the abolition of the Council of the Realm and his actions largely originated the militaristic streak of the Hohenzollern
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, or Composition of 1867, established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. The Compromise partially re-established the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Hungary, separate from, and no longer subject to, under the Compromise, the lands of the House of Habsburg were reorganized as a real union between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary. The Cisleithanian and Transleithanian regions were governed by separate parliaments and prime ministers, the armed forces were combined with the Emperor-King as commander-in-chief. The names conventionally used for the two realms were derived from the river Leitha, or Lajta, a tributary of the Danube and the traditional border between Austrian and Magyar lands. The Leitha did not, form the border, nor was its whole course part of the border. Hungarian political leaders had two main goals, according to Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, only three people contributed to the compromise, There were three of us who made the agreement, Deák, Andrássy and myself.
In the Middle Ages Austria was a quasi-independent state within the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by the House of Habsburg, in 1526 at the Battle of Mohács, Hungary was defeated and partially conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The young king Louis II of Hungary, who had no legitimate heir, the crown of Hungary was inherited by the Habsburgs. The Ottomans were subsequently out of Hungary in 1699. From 1526 to 1804, Austria and Hungary were in a union under the Habsburgs. In 1804, Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who was ruler of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, founded the Empire of Austria. In doing so he created a formal overarching structure for the Habsburg Monarchy, until the 1848 revolution, the workings of the overarching structure and the status of its component lands stayed much the same as they had been under the composite monarchy that existed before 1804. Hungarys affairs continued to be administered by its own institutions as they had been previously, thus under the new arrangements no Imperial institutions were involved in its internal government.
The Holy Roman Empire was abolished in 1806, after the Hungarian revolution of 1848-49, the independent customs system of Hungary was abolished, and Hungary became part of the unified imperial customs system on 1 October 1851. In the failed Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Magyars came close to regaining independence, after the restoration of Habsburg power, Hungary was placed under martial law. Prime Minister Félix von Schwarzenberg and his government, operating from November 1848, the centralist March Constitution of Austria introduced the so-called neo-absolutism in Habsburg ruled territories, and it provided absolute power for the monarch. A military dictatorship was created in Hungary, every aspect of Hungarian life was put under close scrutiny and governmental control. German became the language of public administration