The Almohad Caliphate was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century. The Almohad movement was founded by Ibn Tumart among the Berber Masmuda tribes of southern Morocco. Around 1120, the Almohads first established a Berber state in Tinmel in the Atlas Mountains, they succeeded in overthrowing the ruling Almoravid dynasty governing Morocco by 1147, when Abd al-Mu'min al-Gumi conquered Marrakesh and declared himself Caliph. They extended their power over all of the Maghreb by 1159. Al-Andalus soon followed, all of Islamic Iberia was under Almohad rule by 1172; the Almohad dominance of Iberia continued until 1212, when Muhammad III, "al-Nasir" was defeated at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in the Sierra Morena by an alliance of the Christian princes of Castile and Navarre. Nearly all of the Moorish dominions in Iberia were lost soon afterwards, with the great Moorish cities of Cordova and Seville falling to the Christians in 1236 and 1248 respectively; the Almohads continued to rule in Africa until the piecemeal loss of territory through the revolt of tribes and districts enabled the rise of their most effective enemies, the Marinids, in 1215.
The last representative of the line, Idris al-Wathiq, was reduced to the possession of Marrakesh, where he was murdered by a slave in 1269. The Almohad movement originated with Ibn Tumart, a member of the Masmuda, a Berber tribal confederation of the Atlas Mountains of southern Morocco. At the time and much of the rest of North Africa and Spain, was under the rule of the Almoravids, a Sanhaja Berber dynasty. Early in his life, Ibn Tumart went to Spain to pursue his studies, thereafter to Baghdad to deepen them. In Baghdad, Ibn Tumart attached himself to the theological school of al-Ash'ari, came under the influence of the teacher al-Ghazali, he soon developed his own system. Ibn Tumart's main principle was a strict unitarianism, which denied the independent existence of the attributes of God as being incompatible with His unity, therefore a polytheistic idea. Ibn Tumart represented a revolt against, his followers would become known as the al-Muwahhidun. After his return to the Maghreb c.1117, Ibn Tumart spent some time in various Ifriqiyan cities and agitating, heading riotous attacks on wine-shops and on other manifestations of laxity.
He laid the blame for the latitude on the ruling dynasty of the Almoravids, whom he accused of obscurantism and impiety. He opposed their sponsorship of the Maliki school of jurisprudence, which drew upon consensus and other sources beyond the Qur'an and Sunnah in their reasoning, an anathema to the stricter Zahirism favored by Ibn Tumart, his antics and fiery preaching led fed-up authorities to move him along from town to town. After being expelled from Bejaia, Ibn Tumart set up camp in Mellala, in the outskirts of the city, where he received his first disciples - notably, al-Bashir and Abd al-Mu'min. In 1120, Ibn Tumart and his small band of followers proceeded to Morocco, stopping first in Fez, where he engaged the Maliki scholars of the city in debate, he went so far as to assault the sister of the Almoravid emir `Ali ibn Yusuf, in the streets of Fez, because she was going about unveiled, after the manner of Berber women. After being expelled from Fez, he went to Marrakesh, where he tracked down the Almoravid emir Ali ibn Yusuf at a local mosque, challenged the emir, the leading scholars of the area, to a doctrinal debate.
After the debate, the scholars concluded that Ibn Tumart's views were blasphemous and the man dangerous, urged him to be put to death or imprisoned. But the emir decided to expel him from the city. Ibn Tumart took refuge among his own people, the Hargha, in his home village of Igiliz, in the Sous valley, he retreated to a nearby cave, lived out an ascetic lifestyle, coming out only to preach his program of puritan reform, attracting greater and greater crowds. At length, towards the end of Ramadan in late 1121, after a moving sermon, reviewing his failure to persuade the Almoravids to reform by argument, Ibn Tumart'revealed' himself as the true Mahdi, a divinely guided judge and lawgiver, was recognized as such by his audience; this was a declaration of war on the Almoravid state. On the advice of one of his followers, Omar Hintati, a prominent chieftain of the Hintata, Ibn Tumart abandoned his cave in 1122 and went up into the High Atlas, to organize the Almohad movement among the highland Masmuda tribes.
Besides his own tribe, the Hargha, Ibn Tumart secured the adherence of the Ganfisa, the Gadmiwa, the Hintata, the Haskura, the Hazraja to the Almohad cause. Around 1124, Ibn Tumart erected the ribat of Tinmel, in the valley of the Nfis in the High Atlas, an impregnable fortified complex, which would serve both as the spiritual center and military headquarters of the Almohad movement. For the first eight years, the Almohad rebellion was limited to a guerilla war along the peaks and ravines of the High Atlas, their principal damage was in rendering insecure the roads and mountain passes south of Marrakesh – threatening the route to all-important Sijilmassa, the gateway of the trans-Saharan trade. Unabl
Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. It is an ancient, Abrahamic religion with the Torah as its foundational text, it encompasses the religion and culture of the Jewish people. Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenant that God established with the Children of Israel. Judaism encompasses a wide body of texts, theological positions, forms of organization; the Torah is part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible, supplemental oral tradition represented by texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud. With between 14.5 and 17.4 million adherents worldwide, Judaism is the tenth largest religion in the world. Within Judaism there are a variety of movements, most of which emerged from Rabbinic Judaism, which holds that God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah; this assertion was challenged by various groups such as the Sadducees and Hellenistic Judaism during the Second Temple period.
Modern branches of Judaism such as Humanistic Judaism may be nontheistic. Today, the largest Jewish religious movements are Orthodox Judaism, Conservative Judaism, Reform Judaism. Major sources of difference between these groups are their approaches to Jewish law, the authority of the Rabbinic tradition, the significance of the State of Israel. Orthodox Judaism maintains that the Torah and Jewish law are divine in origin and unalterable, that they should be followed. Conservative and Reform Judaism are more liberal, with Conservative Judaism promoting a more traditionalist interpretation of Judaism's requirements than Reform Judaism. A typical Reform position is that Jewish law should be viewed as a set of general guidelines rather than as a set of restrictions and obligations whose observance is required of all Jews. Special courts enforced Jewish law. Authority on theological and legal matters is not vested in any one person or organization, but in the sacred texts and the rabbis and scholars who interpret them.
The history of Judaism spans more than 3,000 years. Judaism has its roots as an organized religion in the Middle East during the Bronze Age. Judaism is considered one of the oldest monotheistic religions; the Hebrews and Israelites were referred to as "Jews" in books of the Tanakh such as the Book of Esther, with the term Jews replacing the title "Children of Israel". Judaism's texts and values influenced Abrahamic religions, including Christianity and the Baha'i Faith. Many aspects of Judaism have directly or indirectly influenced secular Western ethics and civil law. Hebraism was just as important a factor in the ancient era development of Western civilization as Hellenism, Judaism, as the background of Christianity, has shaped Western ideals and morality since Early Christianity. Jews are an ethnoreligious group including those born Jewish, in addition to converts to Judaism. In 2015, the world Jewish population was estimated at about 14.3 million, or 0.2% of the total world population. About 43% of all Jews reside in Israel and another 43% reside in the United States and Canada, with most of the remainder living in Europe, other minority groups spread throughout Latin America, Asia and Australia.
Unlike other ancient Near Eastern gods, the Hebrew God is portrayed as solitary. Judaism thus begins with ethical monotheism: the belief that God is one and is concerned with the actions of mankind. According to the Tanakh, God promised Abraham to make of his offspring a great nation. Many generations he commanded the nation of Israel to love and worship only one God, he commanded the Jewish people to love one another. These commandments are but two of a large corpus of commandments and laws that constitute this covenant, the substance of Judaism. Thus, although there is an esoteric tradition in Judaism, Rabbinic scholar Max Kadushin has characterized normative Judaism as "normal mysticism", because it involves everyday personal experiences of God through ways or modes that are common to all Jews; this is played out through the observance of the Halakha and given verbal expression in the Birkat Ha-Mizvot, the short blessings that are spoken every time a positive commandment is to be fulfilled.
The ordinary, everyday things and occurrences we have, constitute occasions for the experience of God. Such things as one's daily sustenance, the day itself, are felt as manifestations of God's loving-kindness, calling for the Berakhot. Kedushah, nothing else than the imitation of God, is concerned with daily conduct, with being gracious and merciful, with keeping oneself from defilement by idolatry and the shedding of blood; the Birkat Ha-Mitzwot evokes the consciousness of holiness at a rabbinic rite, but the objects employed in the majority of these rites are non-holy and of general character, while the several holy objects are non-theurgic. And not only do ordinary things and occurrences bring with them the experience of God. Everything that happens to a man evokes that exp
Battle of Guadalete
The Battle of Guadalete was fought in 711 at an unidentified location between the Christian Visigoths of Hispania under their king and the invading forces of the Muslim Umayyad Caliphate, composed of Arabs and Berbers under the commander Tariq ibn Ziyad. The battle was significant as the culmination of a series of Berber attacks and the beginning of the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. In the battle Roderic lost his life, along with many members of the Visigothic nobility, opening the way for the capture of the Visigothic capital of Toledo; the primary source for the battle is the Mozarabic Chronicle, written shortly after 754 in the vicinity of Toledo. The Latin Chronicle was written by a Mozarab Christian; the only other Latin Christian source written within a century of the battle is the Historia Langobardorum of Paul the Deacon. Paul was neither Visigothic nor Hispanic, but was writing in Montecassino between 787 and 796, where many Visigothic monks had taken refuge; the Chronicle of 741 is a near-contemporary Hispanic source, but it contains no original material pertaining to the battle.
Several Latin Christian sources contain descriptive accounts of the battle that have sometimes been trusted by historians, most notably the Chronicle of Alfonso III, written by Alfonso III of Asturias in the late ninth century. The high medieval accounts, such as that of Lucas de Tuy, are untrustworthy, containing much legend and invention. Besides the Latin Christian sources there are several Arabic language sources used by historians, but coming under heavy criticism. None of them predates the mid-ninth century, the date of the earliest, the Futūh Miṣr of Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakam, composed in Egypt; this account, more rich in detail than the Mozarabic Chronicle, is at odds with not only the Latin histories, but the Arabic ones: the anonymous compilation called the Akhbar Majmu'ah, the late tenth-century work of Ibn al-Qūṭiyya, the eleventh-century historian Ibn Hayyān, the thirteenth-century Complete History of Ibn al-Athir, the fourteenth-century history of Ibn Khaldūn, or the early modern work of al-Maqqarī.
The Akhbar Majmu'ah in particular was upheld by Claudio Sánchez-Albornoz as a genuine eighth-century work surviving only in copies, but this view has since been refuted. The French Orientalist Évariste Lévi-Provençal on the other hand advocated Ibn Hayyān as the supreme Muslim historian of the era. Among modern Anglo-American historians, Roger Collins, R. A. Fletcher, E. A. Thompson, Kenneth Baxter Wolf are sceptical of the Arabic sources and rely more on the Mozarabic Chronicle. Historians Thomas F. Glick and Bernard S. Bachrach are less sceptical. Collins in particular rejects a syncretistic approach incorporating information from all the available sources. Though the reign of Roderic is traditionally dated to 710–11, a literal reading of the Mozarabic Chronicle of 754 indicates 711–12. Roderic did not rule unopposed, however; the nature of his accession on the death of Wittiza from natural causes or through his assassination, is not clear from the sources. It is possible that Roderic was the dux of Baetica before coming to the throne.
Archaeological evidence and two surviving lists of kings show that one Achila II ruled in the northeast of the kingdom at this time, but his relationship to Roderic is unknown. They were rivals who never came into open conflict, due to the shortness of Roderic's reign and his preoccupation with Muslim raids. With Roderic's sphere of influence and his capital Toledo, he was not unopposed after his "usurpation"; the battle of Guadalete was not an isolated Berber attack but followed a series of raids across the straits of Gibraltar from North Africa which had resulted in the sack of several south Iberian towns. Berber forces had been harassing the peninsula by sea since the conquest of Tangiers in 705/6; some Arabic and Christian sources present an earlier raid by a certain Ṭārif in 710 and one, the Ad Sebastianum recension of the Chronicle of Alfonso III, refers to an Arab attack incited by Erwig during the reign of Wamba. and two reasonably large armies may have been in the south for a year before the decisive battle was fought.
These were led by Ṭāriq ibn Ziyad, others, under the overall command of Mūsā ibn Nuṣayr. Most of the Arabic and Berber accounts agree that Ṭāriq was a Berber military leader from northern Africa. Ignacio Olagüe, in La Revolución islámica en occidente, argues Ṭāriq to have been a Goth and the nominal governor of Tingitania. Others have argued that Ṭāriq was Persian. According to all sources, the earliest being Paul the Deacon, Ṭāriq left from Ceuta and landed at the Rock of Calpe, the Gibraltar, which Arabic sources derive from Jebel Tariq, "Rock of Ṭāriq". A legend first recorded by al-Idrīsī has it. From Gibraltar he moved to conquer the region of Algeciras and followed the Roman road that led to Seville. According to Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakam writing around 860, Ṭāriq, commander of the Berber garrison of Tangiers, crossed the straits with ships from a certain Count Julian, lord of Ceuta and "Alchadra", landed near Cartagena, which he took and made his headquarters. According to the Mozarabic Chronicle, Mūsā crossed the Gaditanum fretum with a large force in 711 and remained in Hispania for fifteen months, but it is unclear from the sources if he came before or after the battle of Guadalete, fought by the forces of his subordinates.
During his time in the peninsula it was racked by civil war (intestino
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD. The orthography of the Qurʾān was not developed for the standardized form of Classical Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic is its direct descendant used today throughout the Arab world in writing and in formal speaking, for example, prepared speeches, some radio broadcasts, non-entertainment content. While the lexis and stylistics of Modern Standard Arabic are different from Classical Arabic, the morphology and syntax have remained unchanged. In the Arab world, little distinction is made between CA and MSA, both are called al-fuṣḥá in Arabic, meaning'the most eloquent'. In the late 6th century AD, a uniform intertribal ‘poetic koiné’ distinct from the spoken vernaculars developed based on the Bedouin dialects of Najd in connection with the Lakhmid court of al-Ḥīra. During the first Islamic century the majority of Arabic poets and Arabic-writing persons spoke a form of Arabic as their mother tongue.
Their texts, although preserved in far manuscripts, contain traces of non-standardized Classical Arabic elements in morphology and syntax. The standardization of Classical Arabic reached completion around the end of the 8th century; the first comprehensive description of the ʿarabiyya "Arabic", Sībawayhi's al-Kitāb, is based first of all upon a corpus of poetic texts, in addition to the Qurʾān and Bedouin informants whom he considered to be reliable speakers of the ʿarabiyya. "Colloquial" Arabic refers to the many regional dialects derived from Arabic spoken daily across the region and learned as a first language, as second language if people speak other languages native to their particular country. By the 8th century, knowledge of Classical Arabic had become an essential prerequisite for rising into the higher classes throughout the Islamic world, as it was the lingua franca across the Middle East, North Africa, Horn of Africa during those times. Various Arabic dialects borrowed words from Classical Arabic, this situation is similar to Romance languages, wherein scores of words were borrowed directly from Classical Latin.
People speak Classical Arabic as a second language if they speak colloquial Arabic dialects as their first language, but as a third language if others speak other languages native to a country as their first language and colloquial Arabic dialects as their second language. But Classical Arabic was spoken with different pronunciations influenced by informal dialects; the differentiation of the pronunciation of informal dialects is the influence from native languages spoken and some presently spoken in the regions, such as Coptic in Egypt, Punic or Phoenician in North Africa, Modern South Arabian and Old South Arabian in Yemen, Aramaic in the Levant. Like Modern Standard Arabic, Classical Arabic had 28 consonant phonemes: Notes: ^1 Sibawayh described the consonant ⟨ط⟩ as voiced, but some modern linguists cast doubt upon this testimony. ^2 Ibn Khaldun described the pronunciation of ⟨ق⟩ as a voiced velar /g/ and that it might have been the old Arabic pronunciation of the letter, he describes that prophet Muhammad may have had the /g/ pronunciation.
^3 Non-emphatic /s/ may have been, shifting forward in the mouth before or with the fronting of the palatals. ^4 As it derives from Proto-Semitic *g, /ɟ/ may have been a palatalized velar: /ɡʲ/. ^5 /l/ is emphatic only in /ʔaɫɫɑːh/, the name of God, except after /i/ or /iː/ when it is unemphatic: bismi l-lāhi /bismillaːhi/. ^6 /ɾˠ/ is pronounced without velarization before /i/:. Notes: might have been an allophone of short /a/ in certain imalah contexts In pre-Classical Arabic, arose out of contraction of certain Old Arabic triphthongs; some Arabs said banē for zēda for zāda. This /eː/ merged with /aː/ in Classical Arabic. A different phenomenon called imāla led to the raising of /a/ and /aː/ adjacent to a sequence iC or Ci, where C was a non-emphatic, non-uvular consonant, e.g. al-kēfirīna < al-kāfirīna might have been an allophone of /a/ and /aː/ after uvular and emphatic consonants The A1 inscription dated to the 3rd or 4th c. AD in the Greek alphabet in a dialect showing affinities to that of the Safaitic inscriptions shows that short final high vowels had been lost in at least some dialects of Old Arabic at that time, obliterating the distinction between nominative and genitive case in the singular, leaving the accusative the only marked case:أوس عوذ بناء كازم الإداميْ أتو من شحاصْ؛ أتو بناءَ الدَّورَ ويرعو بقلَ بكانون ʾAws ʿūḏ Bannāʾ Kāzim ʾal-ʾidāmiyy ʾatawa miś-śiḥāṣ.
Classical Arabic however, shows a far more archaic system identical with that of Proto-Arabic: The definite article spread areally among the Central Semitic languages and it would seem that Proto-Arabic lacked any overt marking of definiteness. Besides dialects with no definite article, the Safaitic inscriptions exhibit about four different article forms, ordered by frequency: h-, ʾ-, ʾl-, hn-; the Old Arabic
Muhammad I of Granada
Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Nasr known as Ibn al-Aḥmar and by his epithet al-Ghalib billah, was the first ruler of the Emirate of Granada, the last independent Muslim state on the Iberian Peninsula, the founder of its ruling Nasrid dynasty. He lived during a time when Iberia's Christian kingdoms—especially Portugal and Aragon—were expanding at the expense of the Islamic territory in Iberia, called Al-Andalus. Muhammad ibn Yusuf took power in his native Arjona in 1232 when he rebelled against the de facto leader of Al-Andalus, Ibn Hud. During this rebellion, he was able to take control of Córdoba and Seville before he lost both cities to Ibn Hud. Forced to acknowledge Ibn Hud's suzerainty, Muhammad was able to retain Jaén. In 1236, he betrayed Ibn Hud by helping Ferdinand III of Castile take Córdoba. In the years that followed, Muhammad was able to gain control over the southern cities, including Granada, Almería and Málaga. In 1244, he lost Arjona to Castile. Two years in 1246, he agreed to surrender Jaén and accept Ferdinand's overlordship in exchange for peace.
In the 18 years that followed Muhammad consolidated his domain by maintaining peaceful relations with the Crown of Castile. But in 1264, he turned against Castile and assisted the unsuccessful rebellion of Castile's newly conquered Muslim subjects. In 1266 his allies in Málaga, the Banu Ashqilula, rebelled against the emirate; when these former allies sought assistance from Alfonso X of Castile, Muhammad was able to convince the leader of the Castilian troops, Nuño González de Lara, to turn against Alfonso. By 1272 Nuño González was fighting Castile; the emirate's conflict with Castile and the Banu Ashqilula was still unresolved in 1273 when Muhammad died after falling off his horse. He was succeeded by his son, Muhammad II; the Emirate of Granada which Muhammad founded, the Nasrid royal house lasted for several more centuries until it was annexed by Castile in 1492. His other legacy was the construction of his residence in Granada, his successors would continue to build the palace and fortress complex and reside there, it has lasted to the present day as the architectural legacy of the emirate.
Muhammad ibn Yusuf was born in 1195 in the town of Arjona a small frontier Muslim town south of the Guadalquivir, now in Spain's province of Jaén. He came from a humble background and, in the words of the Castilian First General Chronicle he had "no other occupation than following the oxen and the plough", his clan was known as the Banu Nasr or the Banu al-Ahmar According to Granadan historian and vizier Ibn al-Khatib, the clan was descended from a prominent companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad known as Sa'd ibn Ubadah of the Banu Khazraj tribe. During his early life he became known for his leadership activity on the frontiers and for his ascetic image, which he maintained after becoming ruler. Muhammad was known as Ibn al-Ahmar, or by his kunya Abu Abdullah; the early thirteenth century was a period of great loss for the Muslims of the Iberian Peninsula. The Almohad caliphate, which had dominated Al-Andalus or the Muslim Iberia, was split by a dynastic struggle after Caliph Yusuf II died in 1224 without an heir.
Al-Andalus taifas. One of the taifa leaders was Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Hud, who revolted against the Almohads and nominally proclaimed the authority of the Abbasid caliphate but in practice ruled independently from Murcia, his growing strength made him the de facto leader of Al-Andalus, Muhammad's overlord. Despite his popularity and his success in Al-Andalus, Ibn Hud had suffered defeats against the Christians, including at Alanje in 1230 and at Jerez in 1231, followed by the loss of Badajoz and Extremadura. In the north of the peninsula there were several Christian kingdoms: Castile, León, Navarre, a union of kingdoms known as the Crown of Aragon, they had been expanding south—taking Muslim-ruled territores—in a process called the Reconquista or "the reconquest". All of the kingdoms had sizable Muslim minorities. By the mid-thirteenth century, Castile was the largest kingdom of the peninsula, its king, Ferdinand III took advantage of the addition of León to his realm and of the Muslims' disunity to launch a southward expansion into Muslim territories conquering Córdoba and Seville.
The defeats suffered by Ibn Hud eroded his credibility. On 16 July 1232, a mosque assembly in Arjona declared the town's independence; this proclamation took place on 26 Ramadan 629 in the Islamic calendar, after the final Friday prayer of the holy month. The assembly elected Muhammad, known for his piety and his martial reputation in previous conflicts against the Christians, as the town's leader. Muhammad had the support of his clan, the Banu Nasr and an allied Arjonan clan known as the Banu Ashqilula. In the same year, Muhammad took Jaén—an important city close to Arjona. With help from Ibn Hud's rivals, the Banu al-Mawl, Muhammad seized control of the former caliphal seat of Córdoba, he took Seville in 1234 with help from the Banu al-Bajji family, but he was only able to hold it for one month. Both Córdoba and Seville, dissatisfied with Muhammad's ruling style, returned to Ibn Hud's rule shortly Muhammad's takeover. After these failures, Muhammad once again declared his allegiance to Ibn Hud and k
Andalusian Arabic known as Andalusi Arabic, was a variety or varieties of the Arabic language spoken in Al-Andalus, the regions of the Iberian Peninsula under Muslim rule from the 9th century to the 17th century. It became an extinct language in Iberia after the expulsion of the Moriscos, which took place over a century after the Conquest of Granada by Christian Spain. Once spoken in Iberia, the expulsions and persecutions of Arabic speakers caused an abrupt end to the language's use on the peninsula, its use continued to some degree in Africa after the expulsion although Andalusi speakers were assimilated by the Moroccan and Tunisian communities to which they fled. Andalusi Arabic is still used in Andalusi music and has influenced the dialects of such towns as Sfax in Tunisia, Rabat, Tlemcen and Cherchell. Nowadays there is one case of Spanish converts to Islam; the language exerted some influence on Mozarabic, Ladino, Catalan-Valencian-Balearic, Classical Arabic and the Moroccan, Tunisian and Algerian Arabic dialects.
Andalusian Arabic appears to have spread and been in general oral use in most parts of Al-Andalus between the 9th and 15th centuries. The number of speakers is estimated to have peaked at around 5–7 million speakers around the 11th and 12th centuries before dwindling as a consequence of the Reconquista, the gradual but relentless takeover by the Christians. In 1502, the Muslims of Granada were forced to choose between exile. In 1526, this requirement was extended to the Muslims elsewhere in Spain. In 1567, Philip II of Spain issued a royal decree in Spain forbidding Moriscos from the use of Arabic on all occasions and informal, speaking and writing. Using Arabic in any sense of the word would be regarded as a crime, they were given three years to learn a "Christian" language, after which they would have to get rid of all Arabic written material. This triggered one of the largest Morisco Revolts. Still, Andalusian Arabic remained in use in certain areas of Spain until the final expulsion of the Moriscos at the beginning of the 17th century.
As in every other Arabic-speaking land, native speakers of Andalusian Arabic were diglossic, that is, they spoke their local dialect in all low-register situations, but only Classical Arabic was resorted to when a high register was required and for written purposes as well. Andalusian Arabic belongs to Early Western Neo-Arabic, which does not allow for any separation between Bedouin, urban, or rural dialects, nor does it show any detectable difference between communal dialects, such as Muslim and Jewish; the oldest evidence of Andalusian Arabic utterances can be dated from the 10th and 11th century, in isolated quotes, both in prose and stanzaic Classical Andalusi poems, from the 11th century on, in stanzaic dialectal poems and dialectal proverb collections, while its last documents are a few business records and one letter written at the beginning of the 17th century in Valencia. Many features of Andalusian Arabic have been reconstructed by Arabists using Hispano-Arabic texts composed in Arabic with varying degrees of deviation from classical norms, augmented by further information from the manner in which the Arabic script was used to transliterate Romance words.
Such features include the following. The phoneme represented by the letter ق in texts is a point of contention; the letter, which in Classical Arabic represented either a voiceless pharyngealized velar stop or a voiceless uvular stop, most represented some kind of post-alveolar affricate or velar plosive in Andalusian Arabic. The vowel system was subject to a heavy amount of fronting and raising, a phenomenon known as imāla, causing /a/ to be raised to or and with short vowels, in certain circumstances when i-mutation was possible. Contact with native Romance speakers led to the introduction of the phonemes /p/, /ɡ/ and the affricate /tʃ/ from borrowed words. Monophthongization led to the disappearance of certain diphthongs such as /aw/ and /aj/ which were leveled to /oː/ and /eː/ though Colin hypothesizes that these diphthongs remained in the more mesolectal registers influenced by the Classical language. There was a fair amount of compensatory lengthening involved where a loss of consonantal gemination lengthened the preceding vowel, whence the transformation of عشّ /ʕuʃ/ into عوش /ʕuːʃ/.
The -an which, in Classical Arabic, marked a noun as indefinite accusative, became an indeclinable conjunctive particle, as in Ibn Quzmân's expression rajul-an'ashîq. The unconjugated prepositive negative particle lis developed out of the classical verb lays-a; the derivational morphology of the verbal system was altered. Whence the initial n- on verbs in the first person singular, a feature shared by many Maghrebi dialects; the form V pattern of tafaʻʻal-a was altered by epenthesis to atfa``al. Andalusian Arabic developed a contingent/subjunctive tense consisting of the imperfect form of a verb, preceded by either kân or kîn, of which the final -n was assimilated by preformatives y- and t-. An example drawn from Ibn Quzmân will illustrate this: Varieties of Arabic Maghrebi Arabic Imala Aljamiado Corriente, Frederico, A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic, New Yor
The Nasrid dynasty was the last Muslim dynasty in the Iberian Peninsula, ruling the Emirate of Granada from 1230 until 1492. The Nasrid dynasty rose to power after the defeat of the Almohad Caliphate in 1212 at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. Twenty-three emirs ruled Granada from the founding of the dynasty in 1230 by Muhammad I until 2 January 1492, when Muhammad XII surrendered all lands to King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castille. Today, the most visible evidence of the Nasrid dynasty is the Alhambra palace complex built under their rule; the Nasrid dynasty was descended from the Arab Banu Khazraj tribe, claimed direct male-line descent from Sa'd ibn Ubadah, the chief of the tribe and one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The nasab of Yusuf. During the time the Christians were launching a campaign against the Emirate of Granada that would end the Nasrid dynasty, the Nasrids were engaged in a civil war over the throne of Granada; when Abu l-Hasan Ali, Sultan of Granada, was ousted by his son Muhammad XII, Abu l-Hasan Ali retreated to Málaga and civil war broke out between the competing factions.
Christians took full advantage of continued capturing Muslim strongholds. Muhammed XII was caught by Christian forces in 1483 at Córdoba, he was freed after he swore an oath of allegiance to Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. Abu l-Hasan Ali abdicated in favor of his brother Muhammad XIII, Sultan of Granada, known as Al-Zaghal, a power struggle with Muhammad XII continued. Al-Zaghal was forced to surrender to the Christians. Muhammad XII was given a lordship in the Alpujarras mountains but instead took financial compensation from the Spanish crown to leave the Iberian Peninsula; the Nasrid dynasty was the longest ruling Muslim dynasty in the Iberian Peninsula, reigning for more than 250 years from the establishment of the Emirate of Granada in 1230 to its annexation in 1492. The Nasrids constructed the Alhambra palace-fortress complex in Granada; the family tree below shows the genealogical relationship between each sultan of the Nasrid dynasty. It starts with Yusuf al-Ahmar. Daughters are omitted.
During times of rival claims to the throne, the family tree recognizes the sultan who controlled the city of Granada itself and the Alhambra palace. First dynasty: Muhammad I ibn Nasr Muhammed II al-Faqih Muhammed III Nasr Second dynasty: Ismail I Muhammed IV Yusuf I Muhammed V Ismail II Muhammed VI Yusuf II Muhammed VII Yusuf III Muhammed VIII Muhammed IX Yusuf IV Yusuf V Muhammed X Muhammed XI Sa'ad Abu l-Hasan Ali, known as Muley Hacén Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammed XII, known as Boabdil Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muhammed XIII, known as El Zagal Al-Andalus Alhambra Romance of Abenamar Taifa of Granada Fernández Puertas, Antonio; the Alhambra. Vol 1. From the Ninth Century to Yusuf I. Saqi Books. ISBN 0-86356-466-6. Fernández Puertas, Antonio; the Alhambra. Vol. 2.. Saqi Books. ISBN 0-86356-467-4. Harvey, Leonard Patrick. Islamic Spain 1250 to 1500. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-31962-8. Watt, W. Montgomery. A History of Islamic Spain. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-0847-8. Arié, Rachel. L’Espagne musulmane au Temps des Nasrides.
De Boccard. ISBN 2-7018-0052-8. Bueno, Francisco. Los Reyes de la Alhambra. Entre la historia y la leyenda. Miguel Sánchez. ISBN 84-7169-082-9. Cortés Peña, Antonio Luis. Historia de Granada. 4 vols. Editorial Don Quijote. Miranda, Ambroxio Huici. "The Iberian Peninsula and Sicily". In Holt, P. M. S.. The Cambridge History of Islam. Vol. 2A. Cambridge University Press. Fernández-Puertas, Antonio. "The Three Great Sultans of al-Dawla al-Ismā'īliyya al-Naṣriyya Who Built the Fourteenth-Century Alhambra: Ismā'īl I, Yūsuf I, Muḥammad V". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Third Series. Vol. 7