The Almohad Caliphate was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement founded in the 12th century. The Almohad movement was founded by Ibn Tumart among the Berber Masmuda tribes of southern Morocco, around 1120, the Almohads first established a Berber state in Tinmel in the Atlas Mountains. They succeeded in overthrowing the ruling Almoravid dynasty governing Morocco by 1147 and they extended their power over all of the Maghreb by 1159. Al-Andalus followed the fate of North Africa and all Islamic Iberia was under Almohad rule by 1172, nearly all of the Moorish dominions in Iberia were lost soon after, with the great Moorish cities of Cordova and Seville falling to the Christians in 1236 and 1248 respectively. The Almohads continued to rule in Africa until the loss of territory through the revolt of tribes and districts enabled the rise of their most effective enemies. The Almohad movement originated with Ibn Tumart, a member of the Masmuda, at the time and much of the rest of North Africa and Spain, was under the rule of the Almoravids, a Sanhaja Berber dynasty.
Early in his life, Ibn Tumart went to Spain to pursue his studies, in Baghdad, Ibn Tumart attached himself to the theological school of al-Ashari, and came under the influence of the teacher al-Ghazali. He soon developed his own system, combining the doctrines of various masters, Ibn Tumarts main principle was a strict unitarianism, which denied the independent existence of the attributes of God as being incompatible with His unity, and therefore a polytheistic idea. Ibn Tumart represented a revolt against what he perceived as anthropomorphism in Muslim orthodoxy and his followers would become known as the al-Muwahhidun, meaning those who affirm the unity of God. After his return to the Maghreb c.1117, Ibn Tumart spent some time in various Ifriqiyan cities and agitating, heading riotous attacks on wine-shops and on other manifestations of laxity. He laid the blame for the latitude on the dynasty of the Almoravids. His antics and fiery preaching led fed-up authorities to him along from town to town.
After being expelled from Bejaia, Ibn Tumart set up camp in Mellala, in the outskirts of the city, where he received his first disciples - notably, al-Bashir and Abd al-Mumin. In 1120, Ibn Tumart and his band of followers proceeded to Morocco, stopping first in Fez. He even went so far as to assault the sister of the Almoravid emir Ali ibn Yusuf, in the streets of Fez, because she was going about unveiled, after the manner of Berber women. After the debate, the scholars concluded that Ibn Tumarts views were blasphemous and the man dangerous, but the emir decided merely to expel him from the city. Ibn Tumart took refuge among his own people, the Hargha, in his village of Igiliz. He retreated to a cave, and lived out an ascetic lifestyle, coming out only to preach his program of puritan reform
Judaism encompasses the religion, philosophy and way of life of the Jewish people. Judaism is an ancient monotheistic Abrahamic religion, with the Torah as its text, and supplemental oral tradition represented by texts such as the Midrash. Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the relationship that God established with the Children of Israel. With between 14.5 and 17.4 million adherents worldwide, Judaism is the tenth-largest religion in the world, Judaism includes a wide corpus of texts, theological positions, and forms of organization. Modern branches of Judaism such as Humanistic Judaism may be nontheistic, the largest Jewish religious movements are Orthodox Judaism, Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism. Major sources of difference between groups are their approaches to Jewish law, the authority of the Rabbinic tradition. Orthodox Judaism maintains that the Torah and Jewish law are divine in origin and unalterable, Conservative and Reform Judaism are more liberal, with Conservative Judaism generally promoting a more traditional interpretation of Judaisms requirements than Reform Judaism.
A typical Reform position is that Jewish law should be viewed as a set of guidelines rather than as a set of restrictions and obligations whose observance is required of all Jews. Historically, special courts enforced Jewish law, these still exist. Authority on theological and legal matters is not vested in any one person or organization, the history of Judaism spans more than 3,000 years. Judaism has its roots as a religion in the Middle East during the Bronze Age. Judaism is considered one of the oldest monotheistic religions, the Hebrews and Israelites were already referred to as Jews in books of the Tanakh such as the Book of Esther, with the term Jews replacing the title Children of Israel. Judaisms texts and values strongly influenced Abrahamic religions, including Christianity, many aspects of Judaism have directly or indirectly influenced secular Western ethics and civil law. Jews are a group and include those born Jewish and converts to Judaism. In 2015, the world Jewish population was estimated at about 14.3 million, Judaism thus begins with ethical monotheism, the belief that God is one and is concerned with the actions of humankind.
According to the Tanakh, God promised Abraham to make of his offspring a great nation, many generations later, he commanded the nation of Israel to love and worship only one God, that is, the Jewish nation is to reciprocate Gods concern for the world. He commanded the Jewish people to one another, that is. These commandments are but two of a corpus of commandments and laws that constitute this covenant, which is the substance of Judaism
Battle of Guadalete
The battle was significant as the culmination of a series of Berber attacks and the beginning of the Islamic conquest of Hispania. In the battle Roderic lost his life, along with members of the Visigothic nobility. The battle is referred to as the Battle of Jerez de la Frontera, Battle of La Janda, Battle of the Río Barbate. The primary source for the battle is the Mozarabic Chronicle, which was shortly after 754 probably in the vicinity of Toledo. The Latin Chronicle was written by a Mozarab Christian, the only other Latin Christian source written within a century of the battle is the Historia Langobardorum of Paul the Deacon. Paul was neither Visigothic nor Hispanic, but was writing probably in Montecassino between 787 and 796, where many Visigothic monks had taken refuge, the Chronicle of 741 is a near-contemporary Hispanic source, but it contains no original material pertaining to the battle. The high medieval accounts, such as that of Lucas de Tuy, are generally untrustworthy, containing much legend, besides the Latin Christian sources there are several Arabic language sources widely used by historians, but increasingly coming under heavy criticism.
None of them predates the mid-ninth century, the date of the earliest, the Futūh Miṣr of Ibn ʻAbd al-Ḥakam, the Akhbar Majmuah in particular was upheld by Claudio Sánchez-Albornoz as a genuine eighth-century work surviving only in copies, but this view has since been refuted. The French Orientalist Évariste Lévi-Provençal on the other hand advocated Ibn Hayyān as the supreme Muslim historian of the era. Among modern Anglo-American historians, Roger Collins, R. A. Fletcher, E. A. Thompson, historians Thomas F. Glick and Bernard S. Bachrach are less sceptical. Collins in particular rejects a syncretistic approach incorporating information from all the available sources, though the reign of Roderic is traditionally dated to 710–11, a literal reading of the Chronicle of 754 indicates 711–12. Roderic did not rule unopposed, the nature of his accession on the death of Wittiza from natural causes or through his assassination, is not clear from the sources. It is possible that Roderic was probably the dux of Baetica before coming to the throne, archaeological evidence and two surviving lists of kings show that one Achila II ruled in the northeast of the kingdom at this time, but his relationship to Roderic is unknown.
Probably they were rivals who never came into open conflict, due to the shortness of Roderics reign. Even with Roderics sphere of influence and his capital Toledo, he was not unopposed after his usurpation, the battle of Guadalete was not an isolated Berber attack but followed a series of raids across the straits from Africa which had resulted in the sack of several south Iberian towns. Berber forces had probably been harassing the peninsula by sea since the conquest of Tangiers in 705/6, and two reasonably large armies may have been in the south for a year before the decisive battle was fought. These were led by Ṭāriq ibn Ziyad, and others, under the command of Mūsā ibn Nuṣayr. Most of the Arabic and Berber accounts agree that Ṭāriq was a Berber military leader from northern Africa, ignacio Olagüe, in La Revolución islámica en occidente, argues Ṭāriq to have been a Goth and the nominal governor of Tingitania
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD. While the lexis and stylistics of Modern Standard Arabic are different from Classical Arabic, in the Arab world, little distinction is made between CA and MSA, and both are normally called al-fuṣḥá in Arabic, meaning the most eloquent. During the first Islamic century the majority of Arabic poets and Arabic-writing persons spoke a form of Arabic as their mother tongue and their texts, although mainly preserved in far manuscripts, contain traces of non-standardized Classical Arabic elements in morphology and syntax. The standardization of Classical Arabic reached completion around the end of the 8th century, by the 8th century, knowledge of Classical Arabic had become an essential prerequisite for rising into the higher classes throughout the Islamic world. Ibn Khaldun described the pronunciation of the ⟨ق⟩ as a voiced velar /g/ and he even described that the Islamic prophet Muhammad may have had the /g/ pronunciation.
^1 Allophone of short /a/ in certain imalah contexts ^2 In pre-Classical Arabic, some Arabs said banē for banā and zēda for zāda. This /eː/ merged with /aː/ in Classical Arabic, besides dialects with no definite article, the Safaitic inscriptions exhibit about four different article forms, ordered by frequency, h-, ʾ-, ʾl-, and hn-. The Old Arabic of the Nabataean inscriptions exhibits almost exclusively the form ʾl-
Muhammad I of Granada
Mohammed I ibn Nasr was a Nasrid ruler of the Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus on the Iberian Peninsula, and founder of the last Muslim dynasty in Spain in 1238. The Nasrid dynasty lasted until Muhammad XII of Granada—Boabdil surrendered to the Catholic Monarchs after the 1492 Reconquista of Granada, the Nasrids constructed the Alhambra palaces in Granada. Mohammed ibn Nasr was born in the Arjona region of the Andalusian province of Jaén in 1191 and he had at least three brothers and Faraj and Ismail, the latter of whom became the governor of Málaga during Mohammeds reign. He enjoyed the support of a powerful Andalusian family who became political rivals. Abul-Hasan Ali ibn Ashqilula al-Tujibi assisted Mohammeds rise to power in Arjona in 1232, Mohammed forged this alliance through marriage, by becoming either the father in law or brother in law of the Ashqilula chieftain. When Ismail died, Mohammed ibn Al-Ahamar raised his nephews Mohammed and Abu Said Faraj, the family tree below shows the genealogical relationship between each sultan of the Nasrid dynasty.
It starts with their ancestor, Yusuf al-Ahmar. Daughters are omitted, as are sons whose descendants never reigned, during times of rival claims to the throne, the family tree generally recognizes the sultan who controlled the city of Granada itself and the Alhambra palace. The Last of Islamic Spain 1 and this article incorporates text from The University of Adelaide Library Electronic Texts Collection
It became an extinct language in Iberia after the expulsion of the Moriscos, which took place over a century after the Conquest of Granada by Christian Spain. Andalusi Arabic is still used in Andalusi music and has influenced the dialects of such towns as Sfax in Tunisia, Rabat, Tlemcen, Blida. It is still used by communities of the descendants of Moriscos in cities like Tangiers and Tetouan in Morocco and Testour, Ghar al Milh and Sfax in Tunisia which welcomed Moriscos refugees. It exerted influence on Mozarabic, Ladino, Portuguese, Classical Arabic. Andalusian Arabic appears to have spread rapidly and been in general use in most parts of Al-Andalus between the 9th and 15th centuries. In 1502, the Muslims of Granada were forced to choose between conversion and exile, those who converted became known as the Moriscos, in 1526, this requirement was extended to the Muslims elsewhere in Spain. In 1567, Philip II of Spain issued a decree in Spain forbidding Moriscos from the use of Arabic on all occasions and informal.
Using Arabic in any sense of the word would be regarded as a crime and they were given three years to learn a Christian language, after which they would have to get rid of all Arabic written material. This triggered one of the largest Morisco Revolts, Andalusian Arabic remained in use in certain areas of Spain until the final expulsion of the Moriscos at the beginning of the 17th century. The phoneme represented by the letter ق in texts is a point of contention, contact with native Romance speakers led to the introduction of the phonemes /p/, /ɡ/ and, the affricate /tʃ/ from borrowed words. There was an amount of compensatory lengthening involved where a loss of consonantal gemination lengthened the preceding vowel. The -an which, in Classical Arabic, marked a noun as indefinite accusative, became an indeclinable conjunctive particle, the unconjugated prepositive negative particle lis developed out of the classical verb lays-a. The derivational morphology of the system was substantially altered.
Whence the initial n- on verbs in the first person singular, likewise the form V pattern of tafaʻʻal-a was altered by epenthesis to atfaal. 317–323, doi,10. 2307/1580571, JSTOR1580571 Corriente, Los fonemas /p/ /č/ y /g/ en árabe hispánico, Vox Romanica,37, pp. 214–18
The Nasrid dynasty was the last Muslim dynasty in Spain, ruling the Emirate of Granada from 1238 until 1492. The Nasrid dynasty rose to power after the defeat of the Almohad Caliphate in 1212 at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, the most visible evidence of the Nasrids is the Alhambra palace complex built under their rule. When Abu l-Hasan Ali the reigning amir was ousted by his son Abu Abd Allah Mumhamed XII, Abu l-Hasan Ali retreated to Málaga and civil war broke out between the competing factions. Christians took full advantage of this and continued capturing Muslims strongholds, muhammed XII was caught by Christian forces in 1483 at Lucena. He was freed after he swore an oath of allegiance to Ferdinand, Abu l-Hasan Ali finally abdicated in favor of his brother Sad al-Zaghal and a power struggle with Abu Abd Allah continued. Sad prevailed in the struggle but was forced to surrender to the Christians. Abu Abd Allah was given a lordship in the Alpujarras mountains, the family tree below shows the genealogical relationship between each sultan of the Nasrid dynasty.
It starts with their ancestor, Yusuf al-Ahmar. Daughters are omitted, as are sons whose descendants never reigned, during times of rival claims to the throne, the family tree generally recognizes the sultan who controlled the city of Granada itself and the Alhambra palace. Al-Andalus Alhambra Romance of Abenamar Fernández Puertas, from the Ninth Century to Yusuf I. L’Espagne musulmane au Temps des Nasrides, entre la historia y la leyenda. Cortés Peña, Antonio Luis, Bernard
An Emir, sometimes transliterated Amir, Amier, or Ameer, is an aristocratic or noble title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries and Afghanistan. It means commander, general, or prince, when translated as prince, the word emirate is analogous to a sovereign principality. Amir, meaning Lord or commander-in-chief, is derived from the Arabic root a-m-r, the word entered English in 1593, from the French émir. It was one of the titles or names of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, the monarchs of UAE, Qatar and Kuwait are currently titled Emirs. All members of the House of Saud have the title of Emir, the caliphs first used the title Amir al-Muminin or Commander of the Faithful, stressing their leadership over the Islamic Empire, especially over the militia. The title has been assumed by various other Muslim rulers, including Sultans, for Shia Muslims, they still give this title to the Caliph Ali as Amir al Muminin. Note that the title was held by Christians as well, the word Emir is used less formally for leaders in certain contexts.
For example, the leader of a group of pilgrims to Mecca is called an Emir hadji, where an adjectival form is necessary, Emiral suffices. Amirzade, the son of a prince, hence the Persian princely title Mirza, the temporal leader of the Yazidi people is known as an Emir or Prince. From the start, Emir has been a military title, in certain decimally-organized Muslim armies, Amir was an officer rank. For example, in Mughal India Amirs commanded 1000 horsemen, ten of them under one Malik, Muhammad Amin Bughra, Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra, and Abdullah Bughra declared themselves Emirs of the First East Turkestan Republic. Amir is a name in the Persian language and a prefix name for many masculine names such as Amir Ali. Amir-i-Iel designates the head of an Il in imperial Persia, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the female name Emira, often interpreted as princess, is a derivative of the male name Emir. Abdul Abulbul Amir, both character and song, wat Tambor in Star Wars, Episode II – Attack of the Clones took the title of Emir.
In the Star Wars universe the title may relate to Tambors military command, Emir Karim, a character in Wild At Heart, a Latin American drama. Specific emirates of note List of emirs of Harar List of emirs of Kuwait List of emirs of Qatar List of Emirs of Mosul Emirate of Afghanistan
Sultan is a noble title with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun meaning strength, rulership, derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate. A feminine form of sultan, used by Westerners, is Sultana or Sultanah, but Turkish and Ottoman Turkish uses sultan for imperial lady, because Turkish grammar uses the same words for women and men. However, this styling misconstrues the roles of wives of sultans, in a similar usage, the wife of a German field marshal might be styled Frau Feldmarschall. The female leaders in Muslim history are known as sultanas. Special case in Brunei, the Queen Consort is known as Raja Isteri with suffix Pengiran Anak if the queen consort is a royal princess. Among those modern hereditary rulers who wish to emphasize their secular authority under the rule of law and these are generally secondary titles, either lofty poetry or with a message, e. g. g. Sultan ul-Mujahidin as champion of jihad, ghaznavid Sultanate Sultans of Great Seljuk Seljuk Sultanate of Rum Sultans of the Ottoman Empire, the Osmanli Elisu Sultanate and a few others.
A Sultan ranked below a Khan and this usage underlines the Ottoman conception of sovereign power as family prerogative. Western tradition knows the Ottoman ruler as sultan, but Ottomans themselves used padişah or hünkar to refer to their ruler, the emperors formal title consisted of sultan together with khan. In formal address, the children were entitled sultan, with imperial princes carrying the title before their given name. Example, Şehzade Sultan Mehmed and Mihrimah Sultan and daughter of Suleiman the Magnificent, the mother of the reigning sultan was the only person of non imperial blood to carry the title sultan. In Kazakh Khanate a Sultan was a lord from the ruling dynasty elected by clans, the best of sultans was elected as khan by people at Kurultai. See ru, Казахские султаны In a number of states under Mongol or Turkic rule. These administrations were often decimal, using originally princely titles such as khan, malik, in the Persian empire, the rank of sultan was roughly equivalent to that of a modern-day captain in the West, socially in the fifth-rank class, styled Ali Jah
Al-Andalus, known as Muslim Spain or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal. At its greatest geographical extent in the century, southern France—Septimania—was briefly under its control. Rule under these kingdoms led to a rise in cultural exchange, a number of achievements that advanced Islamic and Western science came from al-Andalus including major advances in trigonometry, surgery and other fields. Al-Andalus became an educational center for Europe and the lands around the Mediterranean Sea as well as a conduit for culture. For much of its history, al-Andalus existed in conflict with Christian kingdoms to the north, after the fall of the Umayyad caliphate, al-Andalus was fragmented into a number of minor states and principalities. Attacks from the Christians intensified, led by the Castilians under Alfonso VI, the Almoravid empire intervened and repelled the Christian attacks on the region, deposing the weak Andalusi Muslim princes and included al-Andalus under direct Berber rule.
In the next century and a half, al-Andalus became a province of the Berber Muslim empires of the Almoravids and Almohads, the Christian kingdoms in the north of the Iberian Peninsula overpowered the Muslim states to the south. In 1085, Alfonso VI captured Toledo, starting a gradual decline of Muslim power, with the fall of Córdoba in 1236, most of the south quickly fell under Christian rule and the Emirate of Granada became a tributary state of the Kingdom of Castile two years later. In 1249, the Portuguese Reconquista culminated with the conquest of the Algarve by Afonso III, finally, on January 2,1492, Emir Muhammad XII surrendered the Emirate of Granada to Queen Isabella I of Castile, completing the Christian Reconquista of the peninsula. The toponym al-Andalus is first attested to by inscriptions on coins minted by the new Muslim government in Iberia, the etymology of the name has traditionally been derived from the name of the Vandals. A number of proposals since the 1980s have contested this, Vallvé proposed a corruption of the name Atlantis, halm derives the name from a Gothic term *landahlauts.
Bossong suggests derivation from a pre-Roman substrate and they crossed the Pyrenees and occupied Visigothic Septimania in southern France. Most of the Iberian peninsula became part of the expanding Umayyad Empire and it was organized as a province subordinate to Ifriqiya, so, for the first few decades, the governors of al-Andalus were appointed by the emir of Kairouan, rather than the Caliph in Damascus. Visigothic lords who agreed to recognize Muslim suzerainty were allowed to retain their fiefs, resistant Visigoths took refuge in the Cantabrian highlands, where they carved out a rump state, the Kingdom of Asturias. In the 720s, the al-Andalus governors launched several raids into Aquitaine. At the Battle of Poitiers in 732, the al-Andalus raiding army was defeated by Charles Martel, in 734, the Andalusi launched raids to the east, capturing Avignon and Arles and overran much of Provence. In 737, they climbed up the Rhône valley, reached as far as Burgundy, Charles Martel of the Franks, with the assistance of Liutprand of the Lombards, invaded Burgundy and Provence and expelled the raiders by 739.
Relations between Arabs and Berbers in al-Andalus had been tense in the years after the conquest