The Emirate of Transjordan known as the Amirate of Trans-Jordan, was a British protectorate established on 11 April 1921. After the Ottoman defeat in World War I, the Transjordan region was administered within OETA East. Transjordan became a no man's land following the July 1920 Battle of Maysalun, during which period the British in neighbouring Mandatory Palestine chose to avoid "any definite connection between it and Palestine". Abdullah entered the region in November 1920, moving to Amman on 2 March 1921; the Hashemite dynasty ruled the protectorate, as well as the neighbouring Mandatory Iraq and, until 1925, the Kingdom of Hejaz to the South. On 25 May 1946, the emirate became the "Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan", achieving full independence on 17 June 1946 when in accordance with the Treaty of London ratifications were exchanged in Amman. In 1949, it was constitutionally renamed the "Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan" referred to as Jordan. From July 1915 to March 1916, a series of ten letters were exchanged between Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, Lieutenant Colonel Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner to Egypt.
In the letters – that of 24 October 1915 – the British government agreed to recognize Arab independence after the war in exchange for the Sharif of Mecca launching the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire. The area of Arab independence was defined to be "in the limits and boundaries proposed by the Sherif of Mecca", with the exception of "portions of Syria" lying to the west of "the districts of Damascus, Homs and Aleppo". Around the same time, another secret treaty was negotiated between the United Kingdom and France, with assent from the Russian Empire and Italy, to define their mutually agreed spheres of influence and control in an eventual partition of the Ottoman Empire; the primary negotiations leading to the agreement occurred between 23 November 1915 and 3 January 1916, on which date the British and French diplomats, Mark Sykes and François Georges-Picot, initialled an agreed memorandum. The agreement was ratified by their respective governments on 9 and 16 May 1916; the agreement allocated to Britain control of what is today southern Israel and Palestine and southern Iraq, an additional small area that included the ports of Haifa and Acre to allow access to the Mediterranean.
The Palestine region, with smaller boundaries than the Mandatory Palestine, was to fall under an "international administration". The agreement was used directly as the basis for the 1918 Anglo–French Modus Vivendi which agreed on a framework for the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration in the Levant. Shortly after the war, the French ceded Mosul to the British; the geographical area, to become Transjordan was allocated to Britain. Under the Ottoman Empire, most of Transjordan was part of the Syria Vilayet the sanjaks of Hauran and Ma'an; the inhabitants of northern Transjordan had traditionally associated with Syria, those of southern Transjordan with the Arabian Peninsula. There was no Ottoman district known as Transjordan, there were the districts Ajlun, al-Balqa, al-Karak and Ma'an. In the second half of the nineteenth century, The Tanzimat laid the foundation for state formation in the area; the Hejaz railway was completed in 1908 and facilitated the Hajj pilgrimage along the Syrian route from Damascus as well as extending the Ottoman military and administrative reach southwards.
During World War I, Transjordan saw much of the fighting of the Arab Revolt against Ottoman rule. Assisted by the British army officer T. E. Lawrence, the Sharif of Mecca Hussein bin Ali led the successful revolt which contributed to the Ottoman defeat and breaking up of its empire. Ottoman forces were forced to withdraw from Aqaba in 1917 after the Battle of Aqaba. In 1918 the British Foreign Office noted the Arab position East of the Jordan, Biger wrote: "At the beginning of 1918, soon after the southern part of Palestine was conquered, the Foreign Office determined that Faisal’s authority over the area that he controls on the Eastern side of the Jordan river should be recognized. We can confirm this recognition of ours if our forces do not control major parts of Transjordan.’" In March 1920, the Hashemite Kingdom of Syria was declared by Faisal bin Hussein in Damascus which encompassed most of what became Transjordan. At this point, the sparsely inhabited southern part of Transjordan was claimed by both Faisal's Syria and his father's Kingdom of Hejaz.
Following the provision of mandate to France and Britain at the San Remo conference in April, the British appointed Sir Herbert Samuel High Commissioner in Palestine from 1 July 1920 with a remit over the area west of the Jordan. After the French ended the Kingdom of Syria at the battle of Maysalun, Transjordan became, for a short time, a no man's land or, as Samuel put it, "..left politically derelict". In August 1920, Sir Herbert Samuel's request to extend the frontier of British territory beyond the River Jordan and to bring Transjordan under his administrative control was rejected; the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon, proposed instead that British influence in Transjordan should be advanced by sending a few political officers, without military escort, to encourage self-government and give advice to local leaders i
The Union Minière du Haut-Katanga abbreviated to Union Minière or UMHK, was an Anglo-Belgian mining company which operated in the copperbelt in the modern-day Democratic Republic of the Congo between 1906 and 1966. Created in 1906, the UMHK was founded as a joint venture by the Société Générale de Belgique, the Comité Spécial du Katanga and Tanganyika Concessions Ltd. With the support of the colonial state, the company was allocated a 7,700 square miles concession in Katanga. UMHK was part of a powerful group of global copper producers, its primary product was copper, but it produced tin, radium, zinc, germanium, manganese and gold. By the start of World War II, the Société Générale controlled 70% of the Congolese economy. Exercising preponderant influence over the Comité spécial, the Société Générale controlled the Union Minière from its inception to 1960; some of the remains of the UMHK form part of the present day company Umicore. During its years of operation, the UMHK contributed to the wealth of Belgium, and, to a lesser extent, Katanga—which developed more than the surrounding regions without similar mineral resources.
The company could be considered harshly capitalistic, but its motto at the time, best expressing their opinion of development was "good health, good spirits, high productivity." It was because of this approach, in order to keep and placate the workforce, that the Union introduced an accident compensation scheme as early as 1928. Katanga's mineral wealth led to the construction of railways to connect it with the Angolan coast which took place in 1911, other rail lines connected Katanga to Northern Rhodesia. Thereafter, mineral production of copper, took off. For instance, in 1911, the Ruashi Mine, owned by the UMHK, began operation, supplying 997 tonnes of copper on its first year. By 1919, annual production had risen to 22,000 tonnes, produced by seven furnaces. In 1935, the Union was party to the World Copper Agreement. One of its prominent figure were Belgian financier and lawyer Felicien Cattier and businessman Emile Francqui. In the 1950s, Congo was the world’s fourth largest copper-producing country.
In addition to the copper for which it is known, Katanga was rich in other minerals. The company controlled the exports of cobalt, tin and zinc in its mines, among the richest in the world. Henri Buttgenbach, a famous Belgian metallurgist and administrator of UMHK from 1911, described cornetite, cuprosklodowskite and thoreaulite; the finding of radium deposits in Katanga at the same time led to a Belgian radium-extracting industry. Johannes Franciscus Vaes, who has studied minerals coming from the UMHK, is responsible for the discovery of billietite, renierite, schuilingite-, sengierite and vandendriesscheite. Gaston Briart, after whom Briartite is named, was a UMHK consultant. In 1922, the UMHK built its first refinery for uranium ore, by 1926 had a virtual monopoly of the world uranium market, to be broken only by the German invasion of 1940; this uranium was refined at Olen, Belgium. In 1939, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, head of the French newly established Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, arranged for the UMHK to provide his organization with 5 tonnes of uranium oxide, technical assistance with the construction of a reactor and a million francs, in exchange for having all discoveries made by the CNRS patented by a syndicate, with profits shared between the CNRS and the UMHK.
This uranium oxide was transferred to England. The United States of America obtained uranium for the atomic bomb from the Union Minière. At a meeting on 18 September 1942 between Edgar Sengier, head of UMHK, United States General Kenneth Nichols of the Manhattan Project, Nichols purchased the 1500 tonnes of uranium the project required; this was in the United States, additional ore was shipped from the Congo. The mine had a "tremendously rich lode of uranium pitchblende. Nothing like it has again been found"; some 1200 tonnes of uranium stored at the Olen refinery were captured by the Germans in 1940, only recovered by US troops at the end of the war. During its heyday, the UMHK operated schools, dispensaries and sporting establishments, had enjoyed unlimited funds. In 1959, Belgian profits from the Union Miniere were in excess of 3.5 billion Belgian francs, export duties paid to the Congolese government constituted 50% of the government's revenue. There were times, it is reported that in 1960, the UMHK had annual sales of $200 million USD, had produced 60 percent of the uranium in the West, 73 percent of the cobalt, 10 percent of the copper, had in the Congo 24 affiliates including hydroelectric plants, chemical factories and railways.
The Belgian Congo became independent in June 1960. After a brief period of political unrest, Katanga Province seceded unilaterally from the Congo to form the State of Katanga under Moïse Tshombe. Fearing that the Congo's left-leaning political leaders Patrice Lumumba, would nationalise its holdings, the UMHK supported Tshombe and became a major force within the new state. During the province's secession, the Union transferred 1.25 billio
Stardust is an album by bassist Ron Carter recorded in 2000 and released on the Japanese Somethin' Else label with a US release on Blue Note Records. The AllMusic review by David R. Adler said "This beautiful, Latin-themed album by bass superpower Ron Carter can stand in as a Stephen Scott showcase, for the young pianist's verve and finesse are in evidence from start to finish. Carter reserves plenty of solo room for himself, however... When Skies Are Grey contains nothing ambitious or wildly innovative -- just great, accessible music. Fans of Stephen Scott in particular can't miss with this one". On PopMatters, Simon Warner stated "Ultimately When Skies Are Grey, made in the shadow of Carter's wife's death, is a serious accomplishment". On All About Jazz, Michael Fortuna wrote "When Skies Are Grey is an impressive, unique mixture of two electrifying genres from one of jazz's most prolific bassists". All compositions by Ron Carter except where noted "Loose Change" – 7:08 "Bésame Mucho" – 7:05 "Caminando" – 7:08 "Que' Pasa" – 5:30 "Corocuado" – 7:22 "Cubano Chant" – 6:00 "Mi Tiempo" – 8:12 Ron Carter - bass Stephen Scott – piano Harvey Mason – drums Steve Kroon – percussion
Southport Central is an 18,130 m² mixed Use, multi-purpose development at the corner of Scarborough and Lawson Streets in Southport, Australia. It comprises three towers with integrated shopping and commercial precincts with a total value of $700 million; the towers are constructed with concrete in a modern style. The building was developed by Raptis Group; the architectural work was conducted by Archidiom Design. Southport Central's 40 level Tower A was completed in August 2006 and has 268 apartments with one, two or three bedroom configurations; the building was opened in 2007. The 39 level Tower B has 262 apartments consisting of one bed plus study, two bedroom or two bedroom plus study; this tower was opened in April 2008. The third and final tower, completed in early 2009 has 39 levels and a total of 258 apartments including one bed plus study, two bedroom or two bedroom plus study; this building was constructed by Landaning Pty Ltd. On 10 September 2008 the ASX placed a trading halt on the company when receivers took control of the company's Southport Central development.
Sub-contractors walked off the site, afraid. Receivers to the Jim Raptis development, Capital Finance, took control of the development that month. In April 2009 construction on the project was complete. List of tallest buildings in Australia List of tallest buildings on the Gold Coast, Queensland Southport Central Official website
Charles George Lewis was a British printmaker. The second son of Frederick Christian Lewis, brother of John Frederick Lewis, he was born in Enfield, Middlesex, he was instructed in engraving by his father. Lewis retired in about 1877, died from apoplexy at his residence at Felpham, near Bognor, on 16 June 1880, he was buried in Felpham churchyard. Lewis had a facility in etching, in combining line engraving and mezzotint. Many of his best-known plates were after the works of Sir Edwin Landseer; the earliest of these was Hafed, published in 1837. Besides these were smaller plates after works of Landseer, most of, engraved by Thomas Landseer and others, his etchings after Landseer began with To-ho! Published in 1830, included the set of eight plates of The Mothers. Lewis engraved some plates after Rosa Bonheur, his works after other painters included: Interior of a Highland Cottage, after John Frederick Lewis Robinson Crusoe reading the Bible to his Man Friday and Asking a Blessing, after Alexander George Fraser The Village Festival and The Card Players, after Sir David Wilkie The Bay of Spezzia, Sea-shore, Sunset, after Richard Parkes Bonington The Highland Larder, after Frederick Tayler The Waterloo Heroes, after John Prescott Knight The Melton Breakfast, after Sir Francis Grant The Introduction of Christianity into Great Britain, after John Rogers Herbert Eton Montem: the School Yard and The Playing Fields, a pair, after William Evans of Eton Sheep Farming in the Highlands, a set of four plates, Rescued, after Richard Ansdell A Plunge for Life, after Samuel Carter The Crucifixion, after Henry Courtney Selous Morning on the Seine, after J. Troyon The Salon d'Or, after William Powell Frith A Panic, after Henry William Banks Davis Picardy Peasants going to a Fair, after Richard Beavisand several historical plates after Thomas Jones Barker.
John N. Kaiser was an American salesman from Milwaukee, Wisconsin who served two terms as a Democratic member of the Wisconsin State Assembly from the 6th Milwaukee County district, he succeeded, was in turn succeeded by, Socialist Ben Rubin. Kaiser was born May 1899, in Milwaukee, he graduated from St. Ann's Parochial School in 1914, worked first for the Mayer Boot and Shoe Company, he was a member of the Wisconsin National Guard and upon the outbreak of World War I served in the United States Army, spending sixteen months in France as part of the "Iron Brigade" of the Thirty-Second Infantry Division. In 1930 Kaiser was the Democratic candidate for the Assembly's Sixth Milwaukee County district against Republican incumbent Frederick W. Cords. In 1932 Rubin was a candidate for re-election, again facing two independents; this time Kaiser was the victor, with 2240 votes to Rubin's 2130, Cord's 1412, another 129 for the two independents. In 1934, Rubin came within twenty-seven votes of unseating Kaiser.
104 paper ballots were lost before a recount was held, with a janitor admitting he'd burned them as wastepaper. The final official count was 1289 for Kaiser, 1262 for Rubin, 1002 for Fred G. Miller, 638 for Frederick Petersen, 49 for an independent and "scattering". In 1936, Rubin again faced Kaiser in this time nominally as a Progressive. Rubin unseated Kaiser with 3576 votes, to Kaiser's 2607 and Republican Paul Coleman's 1008