Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins was an English biochemist, awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929, with Christiaan Eijkman, for the discovery of vitamins though Casimir Funk, a Polish biochemist, is credited with discovering vitamins. He discovered the amino acid tryptophan, in 1901, he was President of the Royal Society from 1930 to 1935. Hopkins was born in Eastbourne and educated at the City of London School completing his further study with the University of London External Programme and the medical school at Guy's Hospital, now part of King's College London School of Medicine, he taught physiology and toxicology at Guy's Hospital from 1894 to 1898. In 1898 he married Jessie Anne Stephens. In 1898, while attending a meeting of the Physiological Society, he was invited by Sir Michael Foster to join the Physiological Laboratory in Cambridge to investigate the chemical aspects of physiology. Biochemistry was not, at that time, recognised as a separate branch of science, he was a lecturer in chemical physiology at Emmanuel College in March 1900, when he received the academic rank Master of Arts honoris causa.
He earned a doctorate in physiology from the University of London in July 1902, at the same time was given a readership in biochemistry at Trinity College.. While at Cambridge he was initiated into Freemasonry. In 1910 he became a Fellow of Trinity College, an Honorary Fellow of Emmanuel College. In 1914 he was elected to the Chair of Biochemistry at Cambridge University, thus becoming the first Professor in that discipline at Cambridge, his Cambridge students included neurochemistry pioneer Judah Hirsch Quastel and pioneer embryologist Joseph Needham. Hopkins had for a long time studied how cells obtain energy via a complex metabolic process of oxidation and reduction reactions, his study in 1907 with Sir Walter Morley Fletcher of the connection between lactic acid and muscle contraction was one of the central achievements of his work on the biochemistry of the cell. He and Fletcher showed, their work paved the way for the discovery by Archibald Hill and Otto Fritz Meyerhof that a carbohydrate metabolic cycle supplies the energy used for muscle contraction.
In 1912 Hopkins published the work for which he is best known, demonstrating in a series of animal feeding experiments that diets consisting of pure proteins, fats and water fail to support animal growth. This led him to suggest the existence in normal diets of tiny quantities of as yet unidentified substances that are essential for animal growth and survival; these hypothetical substances he called "accessory food factors" renamed vitamins. It was this work. During World War I, Hopkins continued his work on the nutritional value of vitamins, his efforts were valuable in a time of food shortages and rationing. He agreed to study the nutritional value of margarine and found that it was, as suspected, inferior to butter because it lacked the vitamins A and D; as a result of his work, vitamin-enriched margarine was introduced in 1926. Hopkins is credited with the discovery and characterisation in 1921 of glutathione extracted from various animal tissues. At the time he proposed that the compound was a dipeptide of glutamic cysteine.
The structure was controversial for many years but in 1929 he concluded that it was a tripeptide of glutamic acid and glycine. This conclusion agreed with that from the independent work of Edward Calvin Kendall. During his life, in addition to the Nobel Prize, Hopkins was awarded the Royal Medal of the Royal Society in 1918 and the Copley Medal of the Royal Society in 1926. Other significant honours were his election in 1905 to fellowship in the Royal Society, Great Britain's most prestigious scientific organisation. From 1930 -1935 he served as president of the Royal Society and in 1933 served as President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, he died on 16 May 1947 in Cambridge and is buried at the Parish of the Ascension Burial Ground in Cambridge, with wife Lady Jessie Ann Hopkins. Works by or about Frederick Gowland Hopkins at Internet Archive Frederick Gowland Hopkins at Find a Grave Nobel Prize biography Online catalogue of Hopkins' personal and working papers Biography by N.
J. T. Thomas Chemical genealogy Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Exeter College, Oxford
Exeter College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England and the fourth oldest college of the University. The college is located on Turl Street, where it was founded in 1314 by Devon-born Walter de Stapledon, Bishop of Exeter, as a school to educate clergymen. At its foundation Exeter was popular with the sons of the Devonshire gentry, though has since become associated with a much broader range of notable alumni, including William Morris, J. R. R. Tolkien, Richard Burton, Roger Bannister, Alan Bennett, Philip Pullman; as of 2018, the college had an estimated financial endowment of £74.5 million. Still situated in its original location in Turl Street, Exeter College was founded in 1314 by Walter de Stapledon of Devon, Bishop of Exeter and treasurer to Edward II, as a school to educate clergy. During its first century, it was known as Stapeldon Hall and was smaller, with just twelve to fourteen students; the college grew from the 15th century onward, began offering rooms to its students.
The College motto is "Floreat Exon.", meaning "Let Exeter Flourish". In the 16th century, donations from Sir William Petre, assumed to be an Exeter graduate, whose daughter Dorothy Wadham was a co-founder with her husband Nicholas Wadham of Wadham College, created the eight Petrean Fellowships, further contributions from his son John Petre, 1st Baron Petre helped to expand and transform the college. Sir John Acland, a Devonshire gentleman, donated £800, which financed the building of a new dining hall, established two scholarships for poor students, the first to be created at the college. In a clever move by the bursar to fill the new buildings as they were completed, a significant number of noble Roman Catholic students were invited to enrol and take classes at the enlarged college; as a result, over time, Exeter College became one of the leading colleges in the University. In the 18th century the college experienced declining popularity, as did all of Oxford's other colleges. University reforms in the 1850s helped to end this period of stagnation.
For over six centuries after its founding, women were not permitted to study at Exeter, but in 1979 it joined many other men's colleges in admitting its first female students. In 1993 Exeter College became the first of the former all-male colleges to elect a woman, Marilyn Butler, as its rector; when Butler's tenure expired in October 2004, the college elected another woman—Frances Cairncross, former senior editor of The Economist—as rector. In 2014, the author J. K. Rowling was elected an honorary fellow of the college. Formed in the 1850s, the Adelphi Wine Club is reputed to be one of the oldest three wine clubs in Oxford; the club draws its membership from undergraduates studying at Exeter College. It has been forcibly closed down by college authorities several times throughout its tumultuous existence and is believed to be dormant; the club was renowned for its extravagant dinners, for excessive gambling after each meeting. One black ball was sufficient to exclude an undergraduate from membership.
Beginning in 1923, the college forbade any student holding an exhibition or scholarship to join the club. Notable members include Sir Martin Le Quesne, J. P. V. D. Balsdon. Exeter College is the basis for the fictional Jordan College in Philip Pullman's novel trilogy His Dark Materials; the 2007 film version of the first novel, The Golden Compass, used the college for location filming. The final episode of Inspector Morse, The Remorseful Day, was filmed in the college chapel and Front Quadrangle, where Morse has a heart attack; the Front Quadrangle sits on the site of the medieval college, although of the earliest buildings, only Palmer's Tower in the north-eastern corner remains. Constructed in 1432, the tower, once the primary entrance to the college, now houses various offices and lodgings for fellows, at its base is a memorial to members who were killed in the Second World War; the quadrangle is dominated by the chapel, designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott and constructed in 1854–60, inspired by the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris.
On the opposite side stands the hall, constructed in 1618, notable for its vaulted ceilings and numerous fine portraits, underneath, the college bar. Building work over the following century resulted in the quadrangle taking on its current appearance in 1710; the Front Quadrangle houses the Junior and Senior Common Rooms, as well as lodgings for fellows and undergraduates. The Margary quadrangle was completed in 1964 with the construction of the Thomas Wood building to commemorate the 650th anniversary of the college and named for Ivan Margary, who paid for its restoration; the quadrangle incorporates the rector's lodgings, designed by Gilbert Scott and constructed in 1864, staircases nine and eleven erected during the 19th century. A passageway from the Front Quadrangle leads through to the college's Fellows' Garden, in which stands the library, designed by Gilbert Scott in the 13th-century style; the area is bounded on the left hand side by Convocation House, the Divinity School and the Bodleian Library, on the right by Brasenose Lane.
The Mound, situated at the end of the Garden, offers views over Radcliffe Square, including All Souls College and the Radcliffe Camera. In 2007–08, the college purchased the main site of Ruskin College on nearby Walton Street for £7 million; the site was redeveloped to provide a range of student bedrooms, teaching rooms, study space. In 2017 it was formally opened, named Cohen Quad for the parents of Sir
Jeremiah Horrocks, sometimes given as Jeremiah Horrox, was an English astronomer. He was the first person to demonstrate, his early death and the chaos of the English Civil War nearly resulted in the loss to science of his treatise on the transit, Venus in sole visa. Jeremiah Horrocks was born at Lower Lodge Farm in Toxteth Park, a former royal deer park near Liverpool, Lancashire, his father James had moved to Toxteth Park to be apprenticed to Thomas Aspinwall, a watchmaker, subsequently married his master's daughter Mary. Both families were well educated Puritans. For their unorthodox beliefs the Puritans were excluded from public office, which tended to push them towards other callings. Jeremiah was introduced early to astronomy. In 1632 Horrocks matriculated at Emmanuel College at the University of Cambridge as a sizar. At Cambridge he associated with the platonist John Worthington. At that time he was one of only a few at Cambridge to accept Copernicus's revolutionary heliocentric theory, he studied the works of Johannes Kepler, Tycho Brahe and others.
In 1635, for reasons not clear, Horrocks left Cambridge without graduating. Marston suggests that he may have needed to defer the extra cost this entailed until he was employed, whilst Aughton speculates that he may have failed his exams due to concentrating too much on his own interests, or that he did not want to take Anglican orders, so a degree was of limited use to him. Now committed to the study of astronomy, Horrocks began to collect astronomical books and equipment. Liverpool was a seafaring town so navigational instruments such as the astrolabe and cross staff were easy to find, but there was no market for the specialised astronomical instruments he needed, so his only option was to make his own. He was well placed to do this, he helped with the family business by day and, in return, the watchmakers in his family supported his vocation by assisting in the design and construction of instruments to study the stars at night. Horrocks owned a three-foot radius astronomicus – a cross staff with movable sights used to measure the angle between two stars – but by January 1637 he had reached the limitations of this instrument and so built a larger and higher precision version.
While a youth he read most of the astronomical treatises of his day and marked their weaknesses. Tradition has it that after he left home he supported himself by holding a curacy in Much Hoole, near Preston in Lancashire, but there is little evidence for this. According to local tradition in Much Hoole, he lived at Carr House, within the Bank Hall Estate, Bretherton. Carr House was a substantial property owned by the Stones family who were prosperous farmers and merchants, Horrocks was a tutor for the Stones' children. Horrocks was the first to demonstrate that the Moon moved in an elliptical path around the Earth, he posited that comets followed elliptical orbits, he supported his theories by analogy to the motions of a conical pendulum, noting that after a plumb bob was drawn back and released it followed an elliptical path, that its major axis rotated in the direction of revolution as did the apsides of the moon's orbit. He anticipated Isaac Newton in suggesting the influence of the Sun as well as the Earth on the moon's orbit.
In the Principia Newton acknowledged Horrocks's work in relation to his theory of lunar motion. In the final months of his life Horrocks made detailed studies of tides in attempting to explain the nature of lunar causation of tidal movements. In 1627, Johannes Kepler had published his Rudolphine Tables and two years he published extracts from the tables in his pamphlet De raris mirisque Anni 1631 which included an admonitio ad astronomos concerning a transit of Mercury in 1631 and transits of Venus in 1631 and 1761. Horrocks' own observations, combined with those of his friend and correspondent William Crabtree, had convinced him that Kepler's Rudolphine tables, although more accurate than the used tables produced by Philip Van Lansberg, were still in need of some correction. Kepler's tables had predicted a near-miss of a transit of Venus in 1639 but, having made his own observations of Venus for years, Horrocks predicted a transit would indeed occur. Horrocks made a simple helioscope by focusing the image of the Sun through a telescope onto a plane surface, whereby an image of the Sun could be safely observed.
From his location in Much Hoole he calculated the transit would begin at 3:00 pm on 24 November 1639, Julian calendar. The weather was cloudy but he first observed the tiny black shadow of Venus crossing the Sun at about 3:15 pm; the 1639 transit was observed by William Crabtree from his home in Broughto
The mallard is a dabbling duck that breeds throughout the temperate and subtropical Americas and North Africa and has been introduced to New Zealand, Peru, Uruguay, Chile, the Falkland Islands, South Africa. This duck belongs to the subfamily Anatinae of the waterfowl family Anatidae; the male birds have a glossy green head and are grey on their wings and belly, while the females have brown-speckled plumage. Both sexes have an area of white-bordered black or iridescent blue feathers called a speculum on their wings; the mallard is 50 -- 65 cm long. The wingspan is 81–98 cm and the bill is 4.4 to 6.1 cm long. It is slightly heavier than most other dabbling ducks, weighing 0.72–1.58 kg. Mallards live in wetlands, eat water plants and small animals, are social animals preferring to congregate in groups or flocks of varying sizes; this species is the main ancestor of most breeds of domesticated ducks. The female lays eight to thirteen creamy white to greenish-buff spotless eggs, on alternate days. Incubation takes 27 to 28 days and fledging takes 50 to 60 days.
The ducklings are precocial and capable of swimming as soon as they hatch. The mallard is considered to be a species of least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Unlike many waterfowl, mallards are considered an invasive species in some regions, it is a adaptable species, being able to live and thrive in urban areas which may have supported more localised, sensitive species of waterfowl before development. The non-migratory mallard interbreeds with indigenous wild ducks of related species through genetic pollution by producing fertile offspring. Complete hybridisation of various species of wild duck gene pools could result in the extinction of many indigenous waterfowl; the wild mallard is the ancestor of most domestic ducks, its evolved wild gene pool gets genetically polluted by the domesticated and feral mallard populations. The mallard was one of the many bird species described in the 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae by Carl Linnaeus, he gave it two binomial names: Anas platyrhynchos and Anas boschas.
The latter was preferred until 1906 when Einar Lönnberg established that A. platyrhynchos had priority as it appeared on an earlier page in the text. The scientific name comes from Latin Anas, "duck" and Ancient Greek πλατυρυγχος, platyrhynchus, "broad-billed"; the genome of Anas platyrhynchos was sequenced in 2013. The name Mallard referred to any wild drake, it is sometimes still used this way, it was derived from the Old French malart or mallart for "wild drake" although its true derivation is unclear. It may be related to, or at least influenced by, an Old High German masculine proper name Madelhart, clues lying in the alternate English forms "maudelard" or "mawdelard". Masle has been proposed as an influence. Mallards interbreed with their closest relatives in the genus Anas, such as the American black duck, with species more distantly related, such as the northern pintail, leading to various hybrids that may be fertile; this is quite unusual among such different species, is because the mallard evolved rapidly and during the Late Pleistocene.
The distinct lineages of this radiation are kept separate due to non-overlapping ranges and behavioural cues, but have not yet reached the point where they are genetically incompatible. Mallards and their domesticated conspecifics are fully interfertile. Genetic analysis has shown that certain mallards appear to be closer to their Indo-Pacific relatives while others are related to their American relatives. Mitochondrial DNA data for the D-loop sequence suggests that mallards may have evolved in the general area of Siberia. Mallard bones rather abruptly appear in food remains of ancient humans and other deposits of fossil bones in Europe, without a good candidate for a local predecessor species; the large ice age palaeosubspecies that made up at least the European and west Asian populations during the Pleistocene has been named Anas platyrhynchos palaeoboschas. Mallards are differentiated in their mitochondrial DNA between North American and Eurasian populations, but the nuclear genome displays a notable lack of genetic structure.
Haplotypes typical of American mallard relatives and spotbills can be found in mallards around the Bering Sea. The Aleutian Islands hold a population of mallards that appear to be evolving towards a subspecies, as gene flow with other populations is limited; the paucity of morphological differences between the Old World mallards and the New World mallard demonstrates the extent to which the genome is shared among them such that birds like the Chinese spot-billed duck are similar to the Old World mallard, birds such as the Hawaiian duck are similar to the New World mallard. The size of the mallard varies clinally; the mallard is a medium-sized waterfowl species, slightly heavier than most other dabbling ducks. It is 50–65 cm long – of which the body makes up around two-thirds – has a wingspan of 81–98 cm,:505 and weighs 0.72–1.58 kg. Among standard measurements, the wing chord is 25.7 to 30.6 cm, the bill is 4.4 to 6.1 cm (
Lawrence Ogilvie was a Scottish plant pathologist. Ogilvie was a UK expert on the diseases of commercially grown vegetables and wheat from the 1930s to the 1960s. In the 1920s — when agriculture, rather than tourism, was Bermuda's major industry — he identified the virus that had devastated for 30 years the island's lily-bulb crop, he re-established the vital export trade to the USA and increased it to seven-fold the volume of ten years earlier. In total he wrote over 130 articles about plant diseases in journals of learned societies. Ogilvie was born in Rosehearty, a fishing village on the north coast of Aberdeenshire, Scotland, on 5 July 1898, his father, the Reverend William Paton Ogilvie, was the minister of the Presbyterian church there. He attended Aberdeen Grammar School and took his BSc and MA at the University of Aberdeen in 1921 as the Fullerton Research Scholar with special distinction in Botany and Zoology, he was awarded the Collie Prize for the most distinguished student in Botany.
In Aberdeen, he lectured on the Alpine flora of China. At Emmanuel College, Cambridge University he studied plant pathology and was awarded an MSc in 1923 for his work on tree slime fluxes willow, horse chestnut, apple trees, he was to be continuously employed from September 1923, in Bermuda, until he retired, at the age of 65, in Bristol. At age 71, working from home, he researched necessary changes and published his sixth edition of the British government’s official national Diseases of Vegetables Bulletin 123 110-page guide for commercial growers — his first edition of 84 pages was published in July 1941 when food was rationed and in short supply due to WWII; the bulletin was translated into Spanish and published in 1964 as Enfermedades de las Hortalizas. On graduating at Cambridge University he was offered to be the first scientifically trained plant pathologist and entomologist to work in either of the British colonies of Bermuda or Mauritius, he chose Bermuda. From September 1923 to April 1928 he was the Bermuda government's first plant pathologist and entomologist.
He developed agricultural laws for Bermuda. As the Bermuda delegate at the Kingston, Jamaica 8th West Indian Agricultural Conference in March 1924, he initiated West Indian plant inspections, nursery-stock export certificates, the inspection and grading of fruit and vegetables for export, he was acclaimed in Bermuda for identifying the virus that had damaged the commercially vital lily-bulb export trade of Lilium longiflorum Lilium Harrisii to the USA since the late 19th century. Aphid damage had been thought to be the cause of the crop failures, he identified the virus. Following establishing strong government inspection in the fields and packing stations, he reported the marked improvements found during his 1927 inspections of 204 bulb fields of these lilies. Exports of Bermuda Easter lilies increased from 823 cases in 1918 to 6043 cases in 1927. Due to this success being published in the renowned Nature magazine, while still in his 20s, Ogilvie was made a vice-president of the British Lily Society.
Ogilvie wrote The Insects of Bermuda, published in 1928 by the Department of Bermuda. He described 395 insects. Bermuda had three crops of vegetables each year for export to New York: this gave him the experience to pioneer the European study of vegetable diseases. In the winter of 1928 he was appointed Advisory Mycologist at Long Ashton Research Station near Bristol, England; the Vale of Evesham and other West Country areas grew and grow much of Britain's vegetables. He pioneered the European study of commercial fruit and vegetable diseases with 44 scientific papers between 1929 and 1946 at Long Ashton Research Station, he wrote the government’s official national Diseases of Vegetables practical guide for trade growers: the six editions from 1941 to 1969 were full of photos of wilting crops. Ogilvie was influential in the World War II and post-war challenge of feeding Britain: he was the leading British expert on the diseases of cereal crops and vegetables. By the 1940s, wheat varieties had not been sufficiently bred to resist the rust and other diseases in the damp climate prevalent in Britain and in the south west where he was responsible for advising farmers.
Before the war, Britain imported half its food, but by 1941 relied on home-grown crops because German submarines were sinking about 60 merchant ships per month, the priority for shipping was to carry matériel to resist the impending invasion. The 1940s varieties of wheat were still unable to resist disease, with long stalks prone to lodging in the heavy rains of the west of England, he was the international authority on the diseases of wheat that flourished in these British damp, warm conditions – Black Stem Rust and Take All. Ogilvie and his team of scientists advised growers and farmers in the south-west of England through the war years and until his retirement in 1963; this was important to Britain during the war and the continued food rationing period to 1954 — bread for instance was rationed from 1946 to 1948 though it was not rationed during the war. Ogilvie was elected a vice president of the British Mycological Society in December 1956. On 10 January 1931 in the Bessels Green, Sevenoaks Unitarian Meeting House
Cambridge Blackfriars is a priory in Cambridgeshire, England. It was established in 1238, dissolved in 1538 and re-established in 1938, it continues to operate as a Dominican priory and, in 2000, became the novitiate house of the English Province of the Order of Preachers. The new site is at Cambridge close to Murray Edwards College. Two existing houses were linked by a new wing in 1961-2 designed by David Roberts; the original house was offered to the Order in 1938 by the widow of Professor Edward Bullough. The second house, the family home of Arthur Stanley Ramsey, was bought in 1955; the medieval Dominican Friary was founded before 1238. At the time of its dissolution in 1538, there was fifteen others; the last prior Gregory Dodds was Dean of Exeter. Emmanuel College was founded on the site in 1584 and the college's Front Court incorporates 14th-century work from the Friary, in the North Range and Hall. Official site of the priory English Province of the Order of Preachers site
The Puritans were English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to purify the Church of England of Roman Catholic practices, maintaining that the Church of England had not been reformed and needed to become more Protestant. Puritanism played a significant role in English history during the Protectorate. Puritans were dissatisfied with the limited extent of the English Reformation and with the Church of England's toleration of certain practices associated with the Roman Catholic Church, they formed and identified with various religious groups advocating greater purity of worship and doctrine, as well as personal and corporate piety. Puritans adopted a Reformed theology and, in that sense, were Calvinists. In church polity, some advocated separation from all other established Christian denominations in favour of autonomous gathered churches; these separatist and independent strands of Puritanism became prominent in the 1640s, when the supporters of a Presbyterian polity in the Westminster Assembly were unable to forge a new English national church.
By the late 1630s, Puritans were in alliance with the growing commercial world, with the parliamentary opposition to the royal prerogative, with the Scottish Presbyterians with whom they had much in common. They became a major political force in England and came to power as a result of the First English Civil War. All Puritan clergy left the Church of England after the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 and the 1662 Uniformity Act. Many continued to practice their faith in nonconformist denominations in Congregationalist and Presbyterian churches; the nature of the movement in England changed radically, although it retained its character for a much longer period in New England. Puritanism was never a formally defined religious division within Protestantism, the term Puritan itself was used after the turn of the 18th century; some Puritan ideals, including the formal rejection of Roman Catholicism, were incorporated into the doctrines of the Church of England. The Congregational churches considered to be a part of the Reformed tradition, are descended from the Puritans.
Moreover, Puritan beliefs are enshrined in the Savoy Declaration, the confession of faith held by the Congregationalist churches. In the 17th century, the word Puritan was a term applied not to many. Historians still debate a precise definition of Puritanism. Puritan was a pejorative term characterizing certain Protestant groups as extremist. Thomas Fuller, in his Church History, dates the first use of the word to 1564. Archbishop Matthew Parker of that time used it and precisian with a sense similar to the modern stickler. Puritans were distinguished for being "more intensely protestant than their protestant neighbors or the Church of England"."Non-separating Puritans" were dissatisfied with the Reformation of the Church of England but remained within it, advocating for further reform. "Separatists", or "separating Puritans", thought the Church of England was so corrupt that true Christians should separate from it altogether. In its widest historical sense, the term Puritan includes both groups.
Puritans should not be confused with more radical Protestant groups of the 16th and 17th centuries, such as Quakers and Familists who believed that individuals could be directly guided by the Holy Spirit and prioritized direct revelation over the Bible. In current English, puritan means "against pleasure". In such usage and puritanism are antonyms. In fact, Puritans placed it in the context of marriage. Peter Gay writes of the Puritans' standard reputation for "dour prudery" as a "misreading that went unquestioned in the nineteenth century", commenting how unpuritanical they were in favour of married sexuality, in opposition to the Catholic veneration of virginity, citing Edward Taylor and John Cotton. One Puritan settlement in western Massachusetts banished a husband because he refused to fulfill his sexual duties to his wife. Puritanism has a historical importance over a period of a century, followed by fifty years of development in New England, it changed character and emphasis decade-by-decade over that time.
Elizabethan Puritanism contended with the Elizabethan religious settlement, with little to show for it. The Lambeth Articles of 1595, a high-water mark for Calvinism within the Church of England, failed to receive royal approval; the accession of James I to the English throne brought the Millenary Petition, a Puritan manifesto of 1603 for reform of the English church, but James wanted a religious settlement along different lines. He called the Hampton Court Conference in 1604, heard the teachings of four prominent Puritan leaders, including Laurence Chaderton, but sided with his bishops, he was well informed on theological matters by his education and Scottish upbringing, he dealt shortly with the peevish legacy of Elizabethan Puritanism, pursuing an eirenic religious policy, in which he was arbiter. Many of James's episcopal appointments were Calvinists, notably James Montague, an influential courtier. Puritans still opposed much of the Roman Catholic summation in the Church of England, notably the Book of Common Prayer but the use of non-secular vestments during services, the sign of the Cross in baptism, kneeling to receive Holy Communion.
Some of the bishops under both Elizabeth and James tried to suppress Puritanism, though other bishops were more to