Ferdinand Jean Marie Valentin Duviard, was a French high school teacher in Cahors, a writer and novelist. He became an Esperantist in 1905, wrote for many publications and was active in Esperanto youth groups. With Charles Pichon he co-founded Francan Federacion de Junaj Esperantistoj. Ferdinand Duviard was born in Seine-Saint-Denis, his parents were Auguste Emile Duviard and Valentine Clotilde Fabre, the daughter of novelist Ferdinand Fabre. He learned Esperanto at age 16 in 1905, the year of the first Universal Congress of Esperanto at Boulogne-sur-Mer. Duviard edited the magazine Juneco during 1909 and 1910, he was a member of Lingva Komitato, the guiding committee for the Esperanto language, until shortly after the end of World War I. In 1910 he married his first wife, Elisabeth Antoinette Adam, by whom he had two sons and Jacques, a daughter, Hélène. Ferdinand and their three children lived until November 1915 on rue Molière in La Roche-sur-Yon, before settling in the Paris region of Coulommiers.
The writer Dominique Duviard, was a grandson of Ferdinand Duviard. The couple divorced in 1924, he remarried Anna Marie Marsan the following year. Duvard's fourth child, François Eugène Duviard-Marsan was to become Governor of Rotary International and received a knighthood, the Ordre National du Mérite. Duviard was a brother-in-law of Carlo Bourlet, who died at age 47, whose "immense merit" was acknowledged by L. L. Zamenhof, the father of Esperanto. Bourlet's wife, Thérèse Marie Adam, was the sister of Duviard's first wife Elisabeth Antoinette Adam. Ferdinand Duviard was a registered participant at the 1914 tenth Universal Congress of Esperanto in Paris; the success of this congress – masterfully organized by Carlo Bourlet, which had 3,759 Esperanto registrants from 50 countries – was to have a significant impact. The congress was cancelled because war was declared on 2 August 1914, the day the Esperanto Congress was to have begun at the Gaumont Palace. During the First World War, Esperantists devoted great efforts to the search for soldiers missing in action and prisoners of war.
In the January–March 1916 issue of Juneco, an article entitled "The French Press" states: "We find in the newspapers, of which we give names below, press releases on Esperanto and on various services rendered by Esperantists since the war began. We sincerely thank the said newspapers, as well as the Esperantist friends who have submitted these items."Under the headline "A success of Esperanto," the 9 August 1915, issue of the newspaper La Petite Gironde highlighted the efforts of Esperantists concerning the search for the missing and the results obtained. La France de Bordeaux wrote: "The La Roche-sur-Yon group produced such results that the Nantes group will organize a similar service." Le Temps of 18 August published separate press releases from the La Roche Esperanto group and from the Le Mans Esperanto club on the issue of soldiers missing in action. In 1927 Duviard earned his Doctorat ès Lettres from Aix-Marseille University, he launched a productive career of novel-writing and literary criticism with a book on his maternal grandfather, the novelist Ferdinand Fabre, whose description of religious life Pierre Ouvrard compares favourably with that of Émile Zola.
Duviard was much concerned with helping young people. With journalist Charles Pichon, of Saumur, he co-founded the French Federation of Young Esperantists, his name appears in the Enciklopedio de Esperanto published at Budapest in 1933. Ferdinand Duviard died in Vendée, Pays de la Loire, he was buried at Saint-Gilles-Croix-de-Vie's cemetery in Vendée. The street Chemin Ferdinand Duviard in La Roche-sur-Yon is named in his honour. 1926. Un prédécesseur de Ferdinand Fabre: Balzac romancier clerical dans le Curé de Tours.. Cahors: Impr. Bergon, 55 p. 1927. Ferdinand Fabre, 1827–1898. Cahors: Bergon, 349 p. 1928. Les Cotillons barrés. Paris: Fasquelle, 188 p. ISBN 978-2-7188-0150-6 1930. Le Bonheur. Paris: Fasquelle, 247 p. 1932. Les sauvagesses. Paris: Éditions Montaigne, 218 p. 1933. Le Lycée Sentimental. Éditions Montaigne, 222 p. 1944. La Fille au cotillon barré: Pièce en 4 actes. 1947. Anthologie des poètes Ferdinand Duviard. Larousse. 1947. Anthologie des poètes XVIIè siècle, Ferdinand Duviard. Larousse. 1952.
Introduction and notes to Pierre Loti's Pages choisies. 1953. Blaise Pascal. Pensées et opuscules: Textes choisis, Ferdinand Duviard. 1954. Anthologie des poètes XVIIIè siecle, Ferdinand Duviard. Larousse. 1954. Anthologie des poètes XIXè siecle, Ferdinand Duviard. Larousse. Ferdinand Fabre, Luigi Pirandello, Ferdinand Duviard. "Lettres inédites" in Revue de France, 1 Nov. 1937, p. 38-54. Ferdinand Duviard, "Pascal a-t-il plagié Montaigne?" in Revue Universitaire 66: 146–158. Ferdinand Duviard, "À la trace du vrai Montaigne: Montaigne en ménage" in Revue des Sciences Humaines, Fasc. 81 5–18
The Stability conditions of watercraft are the various standard loading configurations to which a ship, boat, or offshore platform may be subjected. They are recognized by classification societies such as Det Norske Veritas, Lloyd's Register and American Bureau of Shipping. Classification societies follow rules and guidelines laid down by International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea conventions, the International Maritime Organization and laws of the country under which the vessel is flagged, such as the Code of Federal Regulations. Stability is broken into two distinct types: Intact and Damaged The vessel is in normal operational configuration; the hull is not breached in any compartment. The vessel will be expected to meet various stability criteria such as GMt, area under the GZ curve, range of stability, etc; the vessel is complete and ready for service in every respect, including permanent ballast, spare parts, lubricating oil, working stores but is without fuel, drinking or washing water, crew, their effects, temporary ballast or any other variable load.
Along with all the Lightship loads, the vessel has all systems charged meaning that all fresh water, lubricating and fuel service header tanks and equipment systems are filled with their normal operating fluids. Crew and effects are at their normal values. Consumables are at 100% capacity. Ammunition and/or cargo is at maximum capacity; the vessel is at legal load line. This is only for military vessels. Along with all the Lightship loads, the vessel has all systems charged meaning that all fresh water, lubricating and fuel service header tanks and equipment systems are filled with their normal operating fluids. Crew and effects are at their normal values. Consumables are at 50% capacity. Ammunition and/or cargo is at 100% capacity; this condition is used for range and speed calculations. Along with all the Lightship loads, the vessel has all systems charged meaning that all fresh water, lubricating and fuel service header tanks and equipment systems are filled with their normal operating fluids.
Crew and effects are at their normal values. Consumables are at 10% full load. Ammunition and/or cargo is at 100% capacity; the vessel in the assessed "Worst Intact Condition" is analytically damaged by opening various combinations of watertight compartments to the sea. The number of compartments and their location are dictated by IMO regulations, SOLAS conventions, or other applicable rules; these conditions are identified by the compartment damaged ex: "Hold #3 and Water Ballast Tank 4 Port" Naval architecture Hull Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers Ship stability nvr.navy.mil, definitions