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Empúries

Empúries was an ancient city on the Mediterranean coast of Catalonia, Spain. Empúries is known by its Spanish name, Ampurias; the city Ἐμπόριον was founded in 575 BC by Greek colonists from Phocaea. After the invasion of Gaul from Iberia by Hannibal the Carthaginian general in 218 BC, the city was occupied by the Romans. In the Early Middle Ages, the city's exposed coastal position left it open to marauders and it was abandoned. Empúries is located within the Catalan comarca of Alt Empordà on Costa Brava; the ruins are midway between the tiny village of Sant Martí d'Empúries. Empúries was founded on a small island at the mouth of the river Fluvià, in a region inhabited by the Indigetes; this city came to be known as the Palaiapolis, the "old city" when, towards 550 BC, the inhabitants moved to the mainland, creating the Neapolis, the "new city". After the conquest of Phocaea by the Persian king Cyrus II in 530 BC, the new city's population increased through the influx of refugees. In the face of strong pressure from Carthage, the city managed to retain its independent Hellenic character.

Political and commercial agreements were concluded with the indigenous population long settled in the nearby city of Indika. Situated as it was on the coastal commercial route between Massalia and Tartessos in the far south of Hispania, the city developed into a large economic and commercial centre as well as being the largest Greek colony in the Iberian Peninsula. During the Punic Wars, Empúries allied itself with Rome, Publius Cornelius Scipio initiated the conquest of Hispania from this city in 218 BC. After the conquest of Hispania by the Romans, Empúries remained an independent city-state. However, in the civil war between Pompey and Julius Caesar, it opted for Pompey, after his defeat it was stripped of its autonomy. A colonia of Roman veterans, named Emporiae, was established near Indika to control the region. From that time onwards, Empúries obscured by the power of Tarraco and Barcino. At the end of the 3rd century it became one of the first cities in Spain to admit Christian evangelists.

In that century, the Greek town was abandoned while the Roman town survived as a mint and the ceremonial seat of a coastal county, Castelló d'Empúries, until the Viking raids of the mid-9th century. Coinage began again under count Hugh II of Empúries. Although the precise location of the town was known since the 15th century, it was only in the 20th century that systematic excavations were carried out; the first official excavations started in 1908 and were held by the Junta de Museus de Barcelona and directed by Emili Gandia i Ortega under the instructions of Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Pere Bosch-Gimpera. These excavations are still going on; the island on which the Palaiopolis was situated is now part of the mainland and is the site of the mediaeval village of Sant Martí d'Empúries. The former harbour has silted up as well. Hardly any excavation has been done here. After the founding of the Neapolis, the old city seems to have functioned as an acropolis. Strabo mentions a temple dedicated to Artemis at this site.

The Neapolis consisted of a walled precinct with an irregular ground plan of 200 by 130 m. The walls were built, modified in the period from the 5th to the 2nd century BC. To the west the wall separated the Neapolis from the Iberian town of Indika. In the south-west part of the city were various temples, replacing an older one to Artemis, such as a temple to Asclepius, of whom a marble statue was found. In the south-east part was a temple to Zeus-Serapis; the majority of the excavated buildings belong to the Hellenistic period. In addition to houses, some of which are decorated with mosaics and wallpaintings, a number of public buildings have come to light, such as those in the agora and the harbour mole. In the Roman period, thermae and a palaeochristian basilica were built. To the south and east of the new city was an area that served as a necropolis. Only about 20% of the Roman city has been excavated; the city has the typical orthogonal layout of Roman military camps, with two principal roads meeting at the forum.

The Roman city is larger than the Greek one. During the Republican period a temple was built dedicated to the Capitoline Triad: Jupiter and Minerva. During the reign of the emperor Augustus a basilica and curia were added. In the eastern part of the town a number of large houses have been excavated, with an inner courtyard, numerous annexes, floor mosaics, paintings. In the 2nd century the town was surrounded by a wall without towers. An amphitheatre and palaestra were built outside the wall; the necropolis of Empúries remained in use for a long period, from the 7th century BC up to the Middle Ages, but many tombs were looted. Martín Almagro Basch wrote two books collecting all data on the majority of cemeteries in the area. There are four types: early Greek and Iberian, late Republican, early Roman Empire and late Roman Empire. Burials were located in the western sides of Neapolis; the western sector was occupied by the so-called necropolis of the wall northeast. Inhumation predominated; the ancient necropolis remained in use with inhumations and cremations Greek and indigenous from the Neapolis.

Cremations predominated in another group of Roman origin, whose cemetery is located on the north side of the neighboring hill of Les Corts, located southwest of the city. This necropoli

Convento de San Felipe el Real

The now defunct Convento de San Felipe el Real was a former Madrilenian convent of Calced Augustinian monks, located at the beginning of Calle Mayor in Madrid, next to the Puerta del Sol. Built between 16th and 17th centuries, was rise on a large pedestal, was part of it a famous talking shop of the city. One of its famous guests was Friar Luis de León, it was opposite the Palacio de Oñate. The beginning of the convent can be traced to 1539 when Francisco Osorio proposed to the City Council of Madrid the creation of a Convent of Calced Augustinian. Archbishop of Toledo, Don Juan Martínez Silíceo, refused alleging that in Madrid in that moment had two monasteries of mendicant friars: that of San Francisco and that of Nuestra Señora de Atocha; however the Archbishop of Toledo had to cede to the pleas of people coming to royalty such as Prince Philip II, Maria of Aragon, aunt of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and Prioress of the Augustinian Convent of Nuestra Señora de Gracia de Madrigal de las Altas Torres, or Leonor de Mascareñas.

The Augustinian convent of San Felipe el Real was founded in 1547 by bull of Pope Paul III of June 20. The temple was dedicated to Saint Philip the Apostle. For its construction was used part of a site owned by Count of Orgaz located near the wide street of Puerta del Sol, which ceded to the Order in exchange for a chapel. On the axis of the current calle de Esparteros was the entrance to the convent. At first it built a wooden chapel, inaugurated on March 14 of 1545; the church was carried out according to Plans of Gaspar de Vega. To save the uneven ground the building was mounted on a platform or "lonja", underneath which a number of locals or "covachuelas" were stablished serving as markets; this space around the convent had been ceded by the City Council of Madrid under the condition of being clear and not be used for any purpose other than the public. On August 22, 1622 was murdered Juan de Tassis y Peralta Count of Villamediana in the door of the neighboring Palacio de Oñate; the church suffered a fire in 1718 and, during the French Napoleonic Invasion the whole was mistreated.

After the Confiscation of Mendizábal was demolished in 1838 to widen Calle Mayor and, the first apartment building in the city was built, the Casa Cordero. During 16th century the convent had a strong walls to isolate the convent life outside the bustle of the Puerta del Sol; the construction of the facade by architect Juan Gutiérrez Toribio led a step surface, called Lonja de San Felipe. Gathered the Madrid's inhabitants in this area to exchange news, calumnies, inventions and opinions. For this reason it was called "mentidero" of Madrid; the steps of San Felipe was a gathering place to recruit soldiers destined to the Spanish Netherlands during the War of Flanders. One day, due to the weight caused by the crush of people gathered on it to witness the prison of a reprobate, the balcony of the lonja sank; the accident caused many injuries. Its Renaissance cloister was considered one of the best in the Court. Apart of the known lonja with the steps, called el mentidero, San Felipe el Real had under its floor a galleries called covachuelas that were marketplaces of different goods of various kinds, including toys and books

Shacklefords, Virginia

Shacklefords is an unincorporated community in King and Queen County, United States. It derives its name from the Shackleford family, of whom the immigrant ancestor to the Virginia colony was Roger Shackelford, born in Old Alresford in the English county of Hampshire in 1629; the immigrant Roger Shackelford was first mentioned in Gloucester County, in a grant of land in 1658. The family took its name from the village of Shackleford, in the English county of Surrey, which adjoins Hampshire and is not far from London. A North Carolina barrier island, Shackleford Banks, is named for descendants of the family, as is Shackelford County, Texas. An Orange, Virginia branch of the Shackelford family counts President Thomas Jefferson and his wife Martha Wayles as ancestors; the post office in Shacklefords was established in 1800. Dixon and King and Queen Courthouse Green Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places