Emperor Ōjin known as Hondawake no Mikoto or Homuta no Sumeramikoto, was the 15th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. No firm dates can be assigned to this Emperor's life or reign, but he is conventionally considered to have reigned from 270 to 310. According to the Kojiki and the Nihon Shoki, Ōjin was the son of the Emperor Chūai and his consort Empress Jingū; as Chūai died before Ōjin's birth, his mother Empress Jingū became the de facto ruler. The history book written to the 8th century, alleged that the boy Ōjin was conceived but unborn when Chūai died, his widow, Empress Jingū spent three years in conquest of a promised land, conjectured to be Korea, but the story is dismissed by scholars for lack of evidence. After her return to Japanese islands, the boy was born, three years after the death of the father. Either a period of less than nine months contained three "years", e.g. three harvests, or the paternity is just mythical and symbolic, rather than real.
Ōjin was born in Tsukushi Province upon the return of his mother from the invasion of the promised land, was named Prince Hondawake. He became the crown prince at the age of four, he was crowned at the age of 70 and reigned for 40 years until his death in 310, although none of the TC dates around his reign have any historical basis. He lived in two palaces, both of which are in present-day Osaka. Ōjin was traditionally identified as the father of Emperor Nintoku. While the historical existence of Emperor Ōjin is debated among historians, there is a general consensus that he was "probably real". If Ōjin was an actual historical figure historians have proposed that he ruled than attested. Dates of his actual reign have been proposed to be as early as 370 to 390 AD, to as late as the early 5th century AD. At least one Japanese historian has cast doubt on this theory though, by revising a supporting statement given in 1972. In this new narrative Louis Perez states: "only kings and emperors after the reign of Ojin......are seen as historical figures".
In either case there is no evidence to suggest that the title tennō was used during the time to which Ōjin's reign has been assigned. It is possible that he was a chieftain or local clan leader, that the polity he ruled would have only encompassed a small portion of modern-day Japan; the name Ōjin-tennō was more than assigned to him posthumously by generations. While the actual site of Ōjin's grave is not known, this regent is traditionally venerated at a kofun-type Imperial tomb in Osaka; the Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Ōjin's mausoleum, is formally named Eega no Mofushi no oka no misasagi. At some point Ōjin was made a guardian Kami of the Hata clan, is now deified as Hachiman Daimyōjin. Outside of the Kiki, the reign of Emperor Kinmei is the first for which contemporary historiography has been able to assign verifiable dates; the conventionally accepted names and dates of the early Emperors were not confirmed as "traditional" though, until the reign of Emperor Kanmu between 737 and 806 AD.
Emperor Ōjin's family consisted of 28 children, which include 2 unnamed princesses from a previous marriage. He had one spouse, as well as 10 consorts. Emperor of Japan Hachiman List of Emperors of Japan Imperial cult Aston, William George.. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trubner. OCLC 448337491 Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; the Kojiki. Read before the Asiatic Society of Japan on April 12, May 10, June 21, 1882. OCLC 1882339 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon.. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5. Japanese loyalism reconstrued: Yamagata Daini's Ryūshi shinron of 1759.
When Technology Fails, edited by Neil Schlager, is a collection of 103 case studies about significant technological disasters and failures of the 20th century. It was published in 1994 by Inc.. It was one of the top referenced books in the New York Public Library in 1995; the book was updated and re-released in 2005. The book consists of 1,000- to 1,500-word entries, arranged by subject, that discuss the background and impact of each event; each entry is written by journalists and researchers, provides a cursory overview, rather than in-depth technological analysis. Entries are supplemented by bibliographies, black-and-white photographs and other print media. Normal Accidents Megaprojects and Risk Northeast Blackout of 2003 Brittle Power Fukushima nuclear disaster https://openlibrary.org/books/OL1430475M/When_technology_fails
The Puerto Rican government-debt crisis is a financial crisis affecting the government of Puerto Rico. The crisis began in 2014 when three major credit agencies downgraded several bond issues by Puerto Rico to "junk status" after the government was unable to demonstrate that it would be able to pay its debt; the downgrading, in turn, prevented the government from selling more bonds in the open market. Unable to obtain the funding to cover its budget imbalance, the government began using its savings to pay its debt while warning that those savings would be exhausted. To prevent such a scenario, the United States Congress enacted a law known as PROMESA, which appointed an oversight board with ultimate control over the Commonwealth's budget; as the PROMESA board began to exert that control, the government sought to increase revenues and reduce its expenses by increasing taxes while curtailing public services and reducing government pensions. Those measures further compounded the crisis by provoking social unrest.
In August 2018, a debt investigation report of the Financial Oversight and Management Board for Puerto Rico reported the Commonwealth had $74 billion in bond debt and $49 billion in unfunded pension liabilities as of May 2017. Beginning with Christopher Columbus's arrival on the island in 1493, Spain colonized Puerto Rico. At the end of the Spanish–American War in 1898, Puerto Rico was ceded to the United States; the United States refused to pay the colony's creditors, asserting they held odious debt. Before 1898, the people of Puerto Rico had Spanish citizenship. In April 1900, President William McKinley signed the Foraker Act, which allowed the popular election of only the House of Representatives of Puerto Rico; the Insular Cases, a series of Supreme Court decisions issued in the early 1900s, defined Puerto Rico as an unincorporated "territory appurtenant and belonging to the United States, but not a part of the United States within the revenue clauses of the Constitution." Although defined as a commonwealth or protectorate, Puerto Rico's relationship with the United States, in which ultimate economic and political decision making rests with the U.
S. Federal Government and citizens who reside in Puerto Rico do not enjoy full constitutional rights, was deemed by Juan R. Torruella to be a colonial one; the political status of Puerto Rico makes it subject to U. S. laws. The Jones-Shafroth Act is one of these laws, which exempts interest payments from bonds issued by the government of Puerto Rico and its subdivisions from federal and local income taxes regardless of where the bondholder resided; this right made Puerto Rican bonds attractive to municipal bond investors. This factor led Puerto Rico to issue bonds that were always attractive to municipal investors, regardless of Puerto Rico's account balances. Puerto Rico thus began to issue debt to fund its expenses, a practice repeated for four decades since 1973; the island began to issue debt to repay older debt, as well as refinancing older debt possessing low-interest rates with debt possessing higher interest rates. In 1984, Congress explicitly forbade Puerto Rico from declaring bankruptcy under Chapter 9, Title 11, United States Code.
Between 1996 and 2006, Congress eliminated the tax credits, contributing to the loss of 80,000 jobs on the island and causing its population to shrink and its economy to contract in all but one year since the Great Recession. Because the Constitution of Puerto Rico established that "all available resources" must first go towards payment of the Commonwealth's general obligation bonds, in 2006, the Commonwealth began issuing Puerto Rico Sales Tax Revenue Bonds, to avoid its constitution's limits by being paid directly into a separate urgent interest fund. Sales tax was increased to 11%; the last property tax assessment was done in 1958. It was not until Puerto Rico enlarged its outstanding debt to $71 billion—an amount equal to 68% of Puerto Rico's gross domestic product —that Puerto Rican bonds were downgraded to non-investment grade by three bond credit rating agencies between February 4 and 11, 2014; this downgrade triggered bond acceleration clauses that required Puerto Rico to repay certain debt instruments within months rather than years.
Investors were concerned that Puerto Rico would default on its debt. Such a default would reduce Puerto Rico's ability to issue bonds in the future. Puerto Rico states that it is unable to maintain its current operations unless it takes drastic measures that may lead to civil unrest. There have been protests over the austerity measures; these events, along with a series of governmental financial deficits and a recession, have led to Puerto Rico's current debt crisis. In 1917, the United States Congress authorized the government of Puerto Rico to issue triple tax-exempt municipal bonds; these bonds were attractive to U. S. investors and low cost for Puerto Rican local government to issue, laying the groundwork for the ballooning national debt, a public infrastructure built on that debt. The Jones Act requires all goods ferried between U. S. ports to be carried on ships built and operated by U. S. citizens. Such ships cost more than foreign operated ships, the financial impact of the policy is greatest for U.
S. territories and states with waterways as their primary trade routes. A 2010 study conducted at the University of Puerto Rico found that the Jones Act costs Puerto Rico $537 million per year. A constitutional amendment in 1952 relaxed balanced budget requirements for Puerto Rico in comparison to the
Waldemar Quiles Rodríguez is a Puerto Rican politician affiliated with the New Progressive Party. He has been a member of the Puerto Rico House of Representatives for two separate instances representing District 22. Quiles served as Mayor of Utuado from 1981 to 1989. Waldemar Quiles was born December 1940 in Camuy, Puerto Rico. Quiles completed a Bachelor's degree in Arts from the University of Puerto Rico in 1965. In 1971, he completed his Master's degree in Education from the University of Puerto Rico, graduating Magna cum laude. In 1978, Quiles studied law at IAU. Quiles is certified as an elementary and junior high school teacher, as director and superintendent of schools. Quiles began his political career in 1973. In 1977, he became President of the Assembly. From 1977 to 1980, Quiles was the Auxiliary Administrator at the Administration of Permits and Regulations. From 1981 to 1989, Quiles served as Mayor of Utuado. Quiles was first elected to the House of Representatives of Puerto Rico at the 1992 general election, representing District 22.
During his first term, he presided the Commission of Cooperativism, served as Vicepresident of the Commission of Education and Culture. Quiles was reelected at the 1996 general election. From 2001 to 2003, Quiles was President of the Commission of Public Service. Quiles decided not to run for reelection at the 2004 general election. During that term, he served as Advisor to the Mayor of Toa Baja, Aníbal Vega Borges, to the Speaker of the House, José Aponte Hernández. Quiles returned to active politics for the 2008 general election, where he was reelected again to represent District 22, he was again reelected in 2012. Quiles was married to María del Carmen Llanes Medina, they divorced in 2002. Quiles has six children. Waldemar Quiles Official biography Waldemar Quiles Profile on El Nuevo Día
Conneautville is a borough in Crawford County, along Conneaut Creek. The population was 774 at the 2010 census. Conneautville was founded in 1814 by a surveyor and engineer. Conneautville was first called "Powerstown" or made reference to as "Power's Tract". Power wanted it called "Conneautville" after the Seneca name Conneaut or Conneautee, meaning "Snow Place" according to one interpretation. Conneautville is in northwestern Crawford County at 41°45′29″N 80°22′10″W, in the valley of Conneaut Creek, which flows north and west to Lake Erie; the borough is bordered by Spring Township to Summerhill Township to the south. Pennsylvania Route 18 passes through the center of the borough, leading north 10 miles to Albion and south 11 miles to Conneaut Lake. Pennsylvania Route 198 leads west from Conneautville 8 miles to the Ohio border and east 9 miles to Interstate 79 near Saegertown. According to the United States Census Bureau, Conneautville has a total area of 1.0 square mile, of which 0.004 square miles, or 0.55%, is water.
At the census of 2000, there were 352 households and 229 families in the borough. The population density was 778.7 per square mile. There were 377 housing units at an average of 346.2 per square mile. The racial makeup was 98.47% White, 0.24% African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.12% from other races, 0.83% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.59% of the population. There were 352 households of which 30.1% had children under 18 with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.7% were non-families. 30.7 % of all households were made up of 17.3 % had someone living alone 65 or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size 3.03. In the borough 24.6% were under 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 17.7% 65 or older. The median was 40. For every 100 females there were 88.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.8 males. The median household income was $35,083, the median family income was $40,833.
Males had a median income of $30,481 versus $19,583 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $17,087. 4.1% of families and 7.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.0% of those under 18 and 11.9% of those 65 or over. Effie Louise Power, a children's librarian, educator and storyteller was born in Conneautville
Tathamangalam Ananthanarayanan Venkitasubramanian, popularly known as TAV, was an Indian biochemist, known for his researches on tuberculosis and the biochemistry of bacillus. He was a professor and the head of the department of biochemistry at Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, Delhi; the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, the apex agency of the Government of India for scientific research, awarded him the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology, one of the highest Indian science awards, in 1968, for his contributions to biological sciences. Born in Thrissur district of the south Indian state of Kerala on 1 January 1924 to T. P. Ananthanarayana Iyer and Narayani Amma, Venkitasubramanian did his early schooling at a local school before securing his bachelor's and master's degrees from Maharaja's College, Ernakulam, he started his career at the Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru doing his doctoral research at the University of Madras to secure a PhD in biochemistry in 1951.
The next four years were spent in the US as a post-doctoral fellow at University of Madison and Columbia University before returning to India to join Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, Delhi as a senior research officer in 1956 and he stayed at the institute holding various positions till his superannuation as a professor and head of the department of biochemistry in 1988. After his official retirement, he served as an emeritus professor at Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology till 1994, he was known to have done pioneering research on the biochemistry of tubercle bacilli and his researches assisted in the better understanding of the intermediary metabolism in cultured mycobacteria and in experimental tuberculosis models. His work helped in understanding the biochemical pathology of tuberculosis, he worked on Aspergillus parasiticus, a type of mold which produces aflatoxin and in the biosynthesis of those cancer-causing chemicals. He published over 250 articles in peer-reviewed journals.
The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research awarded Venkitasubramanian the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for his contributions to biological sciences in 1968. He was married to L. Sarada, a biochemist, the couple had two daughters and Divya; the family was staying in Pune but moved to Ottapalam in his home state where he died on 8 November 2003, succumbing to progressive supranuclear palsy. T. V. Reddy. "High Aflatoxin Production on a Chemically Defined Medium". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 22: 393–396. Doi:10.1128/AEM.22.3.393-396.1971. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list K. K. Maggon. "Biosynthesis of aflatoxins". Bacteriol Rev. 41: 822–855. Doi:10.1128/MMBR.41.4.822-855.1977. PMC 414029. PMID 23090. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list S. N. Khan. "Inhibition of aflatoxin biosynthesis by tolnaftate". Appl Environ Microbiol. 36: 270–273. Doi:10.1128/AEM.36.2.270-273.1978. PMC 291213. PMID 697362. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Khan S. N.. A.. "Regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis: effect of adenine nucleotides, cyclic AMP and N6-O2' -dibutyryl cyclic AMP on the incorporation of -acetate into aflatoxins by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL-3240".
J Environ Sci Health B. 21: 67–85. Doi:10.1080/03601238609372511. PMID 3011881. Masood R.. A.. "Purification and properties of aspartate transcarbamylase from Mycobacterium smegmatis". Biochim Biophys Acta. 953: 106–113. Doi:10.1016/0167-483890014-3. PMID 3342242. Chaturvedi A.. G.. "Changes in liver polyamines due to aflatoxin B1". Toxicol Lett. 34: 1–4. Doi:10.1016/0378-427490138-4. PMID 3097877. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Mycobacterium Bacillus List of University of Delhi people