Ashikaga Yoshikatsu was the 7th shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate who reigned from 1442 to 1443 during the Muromachi period of Japan. Yoshikatsu was the son of 6th shōgun Ashikaga Yoshinori with Hino Shigeko, his childhood name was Chiyachamaru. Hino Tomiko, Wife of Ashikaga Yoshimasa at first was bethroted with Yoshikatsu. Significant events which shaped the period during which Yoshikatsu was shōgun: July 12, 1441: Shōgun Yoshinori is murdered at the age of 48 by Akamatsu Mitsusuke. 1442: Yoshikatsu is confirmed as shōgun. August 16, 1443: Shōgun Yoshikatsu died at the age of 10. Fond of horse riding, he was fatally injured in a fall from a horse, he had been shogun for only three years. His 8-year-old brother, was named shōgun. Several years after he became shogun, Yoshinari changed his name to Yoshimasa, he is better known by that name; the years in which Yoshikatsu was shōgun are more identified by only one era name or nengō. Kakitsu East Asian age reckoning Ackroyd, Joyce. Lessons from History: The Tokushi Yoron.
Brisbane: University of Queensland Press. ISBN 9780702214851. Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779–1822. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 978-0-203-09985-8. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 585069
Ashikaga Yoshinori was the sixth shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate who reigned from 1429 to 1441 during the Muromachi period of Japan. Yoshinori was the son of the third shōgun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, his childhood name was Harutora. Father: Ashikaga Yoshimitsu Mother: Fujiwara no Yoshiko Wives: Hino Muneko Sanjo Yoshiko, daughter of Sanjo Masaaki Concubines: Hino Shigeko Kozaisho no Tsubone Shoben-dono Otomi no Kata, daughter of Tamagawa no Miya and granddaughter of Emperor Chōkei Children: Ashikaga Yoshikatsu by Shigeko Ashikaga Yoshimasa by Shigeko Daijin'in by Shigeko Ashikaga Yoshikano Shogoin by Shigeko a daughter by Kozaisho Ashikaga Yoshimi by Kozaisho Ashikaga Masatomo by Shoben Ashikaga Yoshinaga by Shoben Kosho'in Sankyo After the death of the fifth shōgun Ashikaga Yoshikazu in 1425, the fourth shōgun Ashikaga Yoshimochi resumed his role as head of the shogunate. Yoshimochi had no other sons, nor did he name a successor before he himself died in 1428. Yoshinori, a Buddhist monk since the age of ten, became Sei-i Taishōgun on the day of Yoshimochi's death.
From amongst the handful of possible Ashikaga candidates, his name was selected by the shogunal deputy, Hatakeyama Mitsuie, who drew lots in the sanctuary of Iwashimizu Hachiman Shrine in Kyoto. Significant events which shaped the period during which Yoshinori was shōgun: 1429 – Yoshinori appointed shōgun. 1430 – The Southern Court's army surrenders. 1432 – Akamatsu Mitsusuke flees. 1433 – Ōtomo rebels. 1434 – Tosen bugyō established to regulate foreign affairs. 1436 – Yasaka Pagoda at Hokanji in Kyoto destroyed by fire. 1438 – Kantō kubō Ashikaga Mochiuji rebels – Eikyō Rebellion. 1439 – Mochiuji commits suicide. 1440 – Yasaka Pagoda at Hokanji in Kyoto re-constructed by Yoshinori. 1441 – Yoshinori grants Shimazu suzerainty over the Ryūkyū Islands. Yoshinori strengthened the power of the shogunate by defeating Ashikaga Mochiuji in the Eikyo Rebellion of 1438. During the period, Chinese contacts were increased and Zen Buddhism gained influence, which had broad cultural consequences. For example, the Hon-dō or main hall at Ikkyu-ji is today the oldest standing Tang-style temple in the Yamashiro and Yamato Provinces.
It was dedicated by Yoshinori. In 1432, trade and diplomatic relations between Japan and China were restored. Both had been discontinued by Yoshimochi; the Chinese emperor reached out to Japan by sending a letter to the shogunate via the kingdom of the Ryūkyū Islands. According to Mansai Jugo Nikki, the system of the Tosen-bugyō was established in 1434 to mediate overseas trade; the functions of the Tosen-bugyō included: defending trading ships in Japanese waters, procuring export goods, mediating between the Muromachi shogunate and shipping interests, managing record-keeping. It is significant that the Muromachi shogunate was the first to appoint the executive officers of the samurai class to high positions in its diplomatic bureaucracy. After Yoshinori's time, the totosen consisted of the ships belonging principally to three different kinds of owners: the Muromachi shōgun and the shugo daimyō. Yoshinori was notorious for unpredictable dictatorial whims. Yoshinori was assassinated by the Akamatsu family of military governors who invited him to a Noh performance at their residence and assassinated him during the evening play.
Yoshinori was 48 at the age of his assassination, organized by Akamatsu Mitsusuke, who had learned that Yoshinori planned to bestow on a youthful male favorite three provinces belonging to Mitsusuke. Although the Ashikaga line continued through this seventh shogun, the power of the shōguns eroded and the shogunate fell into decline; the mere fact of that assassination and treason had become a reality served to undercut the previous military ethic of loyalty. The years in which Yoshinori was shogun are more identified by more than one era name or nengō. Eikyō Kakitsu Ackroyd, Joyce. Lessons from History: The Tokushi Yoron. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press. ISBN 9780702214851. Rennyo and the Roots of Modern Japanese Buddhism. New York: Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-513275-5 Crompton, Louis and Civilization, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 2003. Keene, Donald.. Yoshimasa and the Silver Pavilion: The Creation of the Soul of Japan. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-13056-1.
"The Establishment of the Tosenbugyo in the Reign of Ashikaga Yoshinori", Tokyo Woman's Christian University: Essays and Studies. Vol. 44, No. 2, pp. 27–53. Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 585069 Media related to Ashikaga Yoshinori at Wikimedia Commons East Asian age reckoning
Ashikaga Yoshimasa was the 8th shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate who reigned from 1449 to 1473 during the Muromachi period of Japan. Yoshimasa was the son of the sixth shōgun Ashikaga Yoshinori, his childhood name was Miharu. His official wife was Hino Tomiko. On August 16, 1443, 10-year-old shōgun Yoshikatsu died of injuries sustained in a fall from a horse, he had been shōgun for only three years. The bakufu elevated Yoshinari, the young shōgun's younger brother, to be the new shōgun. Several years after becoming shōgun, Yoshinari changed his name to Yoshimasa, by which he is better known. Father: Ashikaga Yoshinori Mother: Hino Shigeko Wife: Hino Tomiko Concubine: Oodate Sachiko Children: son by Tomiko Ashikaga Yoshihisa by Tomiko daughter by Tomiko Koyama Masatoshi buddhist priest in Keikyoji by Tomiko Yuyama Suzho Sojiin by Sachiko Adopted sons: Ashikaga Yoshizumi Ashikaga Yoshitane Significant events which shaped the period during which Yoshimasa was shōgun: 1443 – Southern Court supporters steal the Imperial regalia.
1445 – Hosokawa Katsumoto, Kyoto kanrei. 1446 – Southern army suffers crushing defeat. 1448 – Remnants of Southern dynasty suppressed. 1449 – Yoshimasa appointed shōgun. 1450–1455 – Disturbances in Kamakura between Kantō kubō Ashikaga Shigeuji and his Kanrei. A number of decisions lead to armed conflict: 1454 – Dissension of Hatakeyama succession. 1455 – Dissension in Kamakura between Kubō and his Uesugi Kanrei line: "Koga Kubō" established. 1457 – "Horikoshi Kubō" established. 1458 – Imperial regalia restored to Northern Court. 1460 – Hatakeyama rebels against Yoshimasa. 1464 – Yoshimasa adopts Ashikaga Yoshimi. 1466 – Yoshihisa born. 1466 – Dissension over Shiba succession. 1467 – Outbreak of Ōnin War. By 1464, Yoshimasa had no heir, so he adopted his younger brother, Ashikaga Yoshimi, in order to avoid any conflicts which might arise at the end of his shogunate. However, in the next year, Yoshimasa was surprised by the birth of Ashikaga Yoshihisa; the infant's birth created a conflict between the two brothers over who would follow Yoshimasa as shōgun.
Yoshimasa's wife, Hino Tomiko, attempted to get Yamana Sōzen to support the infant's claim to the shogunate. By 1467 the simmering dispute had evolved, encouraging a split amongst the powerful daimyōs and clan factions; the armed conflict which ensued has come to be known as the Ōnin War. This armed contest marks the beginning of the Sengoku period of Japanese history, a troubled period of constant military clashes which lasted over a century. A number of developments affect the unfolding Ōnin War's battles: 1468 --. 1469 – Yoshihisa appointed heir to shogunate. 1471 – Asakura Takakage appointed shugo of Echizen Province. 1473 – Yamana Sōzen and Hosokawa Katsumoto both die. In the midst of on-going hostilities, Yoshimasa retired in 1473, he relinquished the position of Sei-i Taishōgun to his young son who became the ninth shōgun Ashikaga Yoshihisa. With the leaders of the two warring factions dead and with the ostensible succession dispute resolved, the rationale for continuing to fight faded away.
The exhausted armies dissolved and by 1477 open warfare ended. 1477 – The Ōnin War is considered at an end. When Yoshimasa declared that Yoshihisa would be the next shōgun after he stepped down from that responsibility, he anticipated that his son would out-live him; when shōgun Yoshihisa died prematurely, Yoshimasa reassumed the power and responsibility he had wanted to lay aside. Shōgun Yoshimasa adopted the son of Yoshimi. In 1489, shōgun Yoshitane was installed. Before Yoshimasa died in 1490, he again adopted a nephew as heir, this time the son of his brother, Masatomo. Although Yoshitane did outlive Yoshimasa, his shogunate would prove short-lived. Yoshitane died in 1493. Before he married Hino Tomiko, sister of Hino Katsumitsu, he had a concubine, Lady Oima, 8 months pregnant when Tomiko pushed her from the stairs which resulted in a miscarriage. Shōgun Yoshimasa was succeeded by shōgun Yoshihisa by shōgun Yoshitane, by shōgun Yoshizumi. Yoshizumi's progeny would directly succeed him as head of the shogunate.
In the future, power struggles from outside the clan would lead to a brief period in which the great-grandson of Yoshitane would be installed as a puppet leader of the Ashikaga shogunate. During Yoshimasa's reign Japan saw the growth of the Higashiyama culture, famous for tea ceremony, flower arrangement, Noh drama, Indian ink painting. Higashiyama culture was influenced by Zen Buddhism and saw the rise of Japanese aesthetics like Wabi-sabi and the harmonization of imperial court and samurai culture. In the history of this Higashiyama bunka period, a few specific dates are noteworthy: 1459: Shōgun Yoshimasa provided a new mikoshi and a complete set of robes and other accouterments for this festival on the occasion of repairs to the Atsuta Shrine in the 1457–1459. 1460: Yoshimasa initiated planning for construction of a retirement villa and gardens as early as 1460. February 21, 1482: Construction of the "Silver Pavilion" is commenced. January 27, 1490 (Entoku 2, 7th day of the 1st mo
The Ryukyu Islands known as the Nansei Islands or the Ryukyu Arc, are a chain of Japanese islands that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Amami and Sakishima Islands, with Yonaguni the westernmost. The larger are high islands and the smaller coral; the largest is Okinawa Island. The climate of the islands ranges from humid subtropical climate in the north to tropical rainforest climate in the south. Precipitation is high, is affected by the rainy season and typhoons. Except the outlying Daitō Islands, the island chain has two major geologic boundaries, the Tokara Strait between the Tokara and Amami Islands, the Kerama Gap between the Okinawa and Miyako Islands; the islands beyond the Tokara Strait are characterized by their coral reefs. The Ōsumi and Tokara Islands, the northernmost of the islands, fall under the cultural sphere of the Kyushu region of Japan; the Amami, Okinawa and Yaeyama Islands have a native population collectively called the Ryukyuan people, named for the former Ryukyu Kingdom that ruled them.
The varied Ryukyuan languages are traditionally spoken on these islands, the major islands have their own distinct languages. In modern times, the Japanese language is the primary language of the islands, with the Okinawan Japanese dialect prevalently spoken; the outlying Daitō Islands were uninhabited until the Meiji period, when their development was started by people from the Izu Islands south of Tokyo, with the people there speaking the Hachijō language. Administratively, the islands are divided into Kagoshima Prefecture in the north and Okinawa Prefecture in the south, with the divide between the Amami and Okinawa Islands, with the Daitō Islands part of Okinawa Prefecture; the northern islands are collectively called the Satsunan Islands, while the southern part of the chain are called the Ryukyu Islands in Chinese. The Ryukyus are divided into two or three primary groups: either administratively, with the Northern Ryukyus being the islands in Kagoshima Prefecture and the Southern Ryukyus being the islands in Okinawa Prefecture, or geologically, with the islands north of the Tokara Strait being the Northern Ryukyus, those between the Tokara Strait and Kerama Gap being the Central Ryukyus, those south of the Kerama Gap being the Southern Ryukyus.
Following are the grouping and names used by the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of the Japan Coast Guard. The islands are listed from north to south. Nansei Islands Satsunan Islands Ōsumi Islands with: Tanegashima, Kuchinoerabu, Mageshima in the North-Eastern Group, Takeshima, Iōjima, Kuroshima in the North-Western Group. Tokara Islands: Kuchinoshima, Gajajima, Akusekijima, Kodakarajima, Takarajima Amami Islands: Amami Ōshima, Kakeromajima, Ukeshima, Okinoerabujima, Yoronjima Ryukyu Islands Okinawa Islands: Okinawa Island, Iheya, Aguni, Ie, Iwo Tori Shima Kerama Islands: Tokashiki, Aka, Geruma Sakishima Islands Miyako Islands: Miyakojima, Ikema, Ōgami, Shimoji, Minna, Tarama Yaeyama Islands: Iriomote, Taketomi, Kuroshima, Hatoma, Hateruma, Yonaguni Senkaku Islands: Uotsurijima, Kuba Jima, Taisho Jima, Kita Kojima, Minami Kojima Daitō Islands: Kita Daitō, Minami Daitō, Oki DaitōThe Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, another government organization, responsible for standardization of place names, disagrees with the Japan Coast Guard over some names and their extent, but the two are working on standardization.
They agreed on February 2010, to use Amami-guntō for the Amami Islands. The English and Japanese uses of the term "Ryukyu" differ. In English, the term Ryukyu may apply to the entire chain of islands, while in Japanese Ryukyu refers only to the islands that were part of the Ryūkyū Kingdom after 1624. Nansei-shotō is the official name for the whole island chain in Japanese. Japan has used the name on nautical charts since 1907. Based on the Japanese charts, the international chart series uses Nansei Shoto. Nansei means "southwest", the direction of the island chain from mainland Japan; some humanities scholars prefer the uncommon term Ryūkyū-ko for the entire island chain. In geology, the Ryukyu Arc includes subsurface structures such as the Okinawa Trough and extends to Kyushu. During the American occupation of Amami, the Japanese government objected to them being included under the name "Ryukyu" in English, because they worried that this might mean that the return of the Amami Islands to Japanese control would be delayed until the return of Okinawa.
However, the American occupational government on Amami continued to be called the "Provisional Government for th
Emperor Hanazono was the 95th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1308 through 1318. Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name was Tomihito-shinnō, he was the fourth son of Fushimi. He belonged to the Jimyōin-tō branch of the Imperial Family. Consort: Ogimachi Michiko Senkomon’in（宣光門院, 1297-1360), Ogimachi Saneakira’s daughter First Daughter: Imperial Princess Hisako Kianmon-in, married Emperor Kogon Second Son: Imperial Prince Nobunaga（業永親王. Tokuji 3, in the 8th month: In the 8th year of Go-Nijo-tennō's reign, the emperor died at the young age of 24. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Hanazono is said to have acceded to the throne. Tokuji 3, in the 10th month: The nengō was changed to Enkyō to mark the accession of Emperor Hanazono. Hanazono's father, the retired-Emperor Fushimi, Hanazono's brother, the retired-Emperor Go-Fushimi, both exerted influence as cloistered emperors during this reign. In these years, negotiations between the Bakufu and the two imperial lines resulted in an agreement to alternate the throne between the two lines every 10 years.
This agreement was not long-lasting. The negotiated provisions would soon broken by Hanazono's successor. In 1318, he abdicated to his second cousin, the Daikakuji-tō Emperor Go-Daigo, Nijō's brother. After his abdication, he raised the future Northern Pretender Emperor Kōgon. In 1335, he became a Buddhist monk of the Zen sect, under his sponsorship, his palace became the temple of Myōshin-ji, now the largest network in Rinzai Buddhism. Many places and institutions in the area are named for him, including Hanazono University and Hanazono Station, he died in 1348. Hanazono's imperial tomb is known as Jurakuin no ue no misasagi, he excelled at waka composition, was an important member of the Kyōgoku School. He left behind a diary, called Hanazono-in-Minki, he was a religious and literate person, never missing his prayers to the Amitabha Buddha. Kugyō is a collective term for the few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. During those years in which the court's actual influence outside the palace walls was minimal, the hierarchic organization persisted.
In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Hanazono's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included: Sesshō, Kujō Moronori, 1308 Sesshō, Takatsukasa Fuyuhira, 1308–1311 Kampaku, Takatsukasa Fuyuhira, 1311–1313 Kampaku, Konoe Iehira, 1313–1315 Kampaku, Takatsukasa Fuyuhira, 1315–1316 Kampaku, Nijō Michihira, 1316–1318 Sadaijin Udaijin Nadaijin Dainagon The years of Hanazono's reign are more identified by more than one era name or nengō. Tokuji Enkyō Ōchō Shōwa Bumpō Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon.. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5.
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Kyoto Kyoto City, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan. It is best known in Japanese history for being the former Imperial capital of Japan for more than one thousand years, as well as a major part of the Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area. In Japanese, Kyoto was called Kyō, Miyako, or Kyō no Miyako. In the 11th century, the city was renamed Kyoto, from the Chinese calligraphic, jingdu. After the city of Edo was renamed Tokyo in 1868, the seat of the Emperor was moved there, Kyoto was for a short time known as Saikyō. Kyoto is sometimes called the thousand-year capital; the National Diet never passed any law designating a capital. Foreign spellings for the city's name have included Kioto and Meaco, utilised by Dutch cartographers. Another term used to refer to the city in the pre-modern period was Keishi, meaning "urba" or "capital". Ample archaeological evidence suggests human settlement in Kyoto began as early as the Paleolithic period, although not much published material is retained about human activity in the area before the 6th century, around which time the Shimogamo Shrine is believed to have been established.
During the 8th century, when powerful Buddhist clergy became involved in the affairs of the Imperial government, Emperor Kanmu chose to relocate the capital in order to distance it from the clerical establishment in Nara. His last choice for the site was the village of Uda, in the Kadono district of Yamashiro Province; the new city, Heian-kyō, a scaled replica of the Tang capital Chang'an, became the seat of Japan's imperial court in 794, beginning the Heian period of Japanese history. Although military rulers established their governments either in Kyoto or in other cities such as Kamakura and Edo, Kyoto remained Japan's capital until the transfer of the imperial court to Tokyo in 1869 at the time of the Imperial Restoration; the city suffered extensive destruction in the Ōnin War of 1467–1477, did not recover until the mid-16th century. During the Ōnin War, the shugo collapsed, power was divided among the military families. Battles between samurai factions spilled into the streets, came to involve the court nobility and religious factions as well.
Nobles' mansions were transformed into fortresses, deep trenches dug throughout the city for defense and as firebreaks, numerous buildings burned. The city has not seen such widespread destruction since. In the late 16th century, Toyotomi Hideyoshi reconstructed the city by building new streets to double the number of north-south streets in central Kyoto, creating rectangle blocks superseding ancient square blocks. Hideyoshi built earthwork walls called odoi encircling the city. Teramachi Street in central Kyoto is a Buddhist temple quarter where Hideyoshi gathered temples in the city. Throughout the Edo period, the economy of the city flourished as one of three major cities in Japan, the others being Osaka and Edo; the Hamaguri rebellion of 1864 burnt down 28,000 houses in the city which showed the rebels' dissatisfaction towards the Tokugawa Shogunate. The subsequent move of the Emperor to Tokyo in 1869 weakened the economy; the modern city of Kyoto was formed on April 1, 1889. The construction of Lake Biwa Canal in 1890 was one measure taken to revive the city.
The population of the city exceeded one million in 1932. There was some consideration by the United States of targeting Kyoto with an atomic bomb at the end of World War II because, as an intellectual center of Japan, it had a population large enough to persuade the emperor to surrender. In the end, at the insistence of Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of War in the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, the city was removed from the list of targets and replaced by Nagasaki; the city was spared from conventional bombing as well, although small-scale air raids did result in casualties. As a result, the Imperial City of Kyoto is one of the few Japanese cities that still have an abundance of prewar buildings, such as the traditional townhouses known as machiya. However, modernization is continually breaking down the traditional Kyoto in favor of newer architecture, such as the Kyōto Station complex. Kyoto became a city designated by government ordinance on September 1, 1956. In 1997, Kyoto hosted the conference.
Kyoto is located in a valley, part of the Yamashiro Basin, in the eastern part of the mountainous region known as the Tamba highlands. The Yamashiro Basin is surrounded on three sides by mountains known as Higashiyama and Nishiyama, with a height just above 1,000 metres above sea level; this interior positioning results in cold winters. There are three rivers in the basin, the Ujigawa to the south, the Katsuragawa to the west, the Kamogawa to the east. Kyoto City takes up 17.9% of the land in the prefecture with an area of 827.9 square kilometres. The original city was arranged in accordance with traditional Chinese feng shui following the model of the ancient Chinese capital of Chang'an; the Imperial Palace faced south. The streets in the modern-day wards of Nakagyō, Shimogyō, Kamigyō-ku still follow a grid pattern. Today, the main business district is located to the south of the old Imperial Palace, with the less-populated northern area retaining a fa