Kofun are megalithic tombs or tumuli in Japan, constructed between the early 3rd century and the early 7th century AD. The term Kofun is the origin of the name of the Kofun period, which indicates the middle 3rd century to early-middle 6th century. Many Kofun have distinctive keyhole-shaped mounds; the Mozu-Furuichi kofungun or tumulus clusters have been proposed for inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage List, while Ishibutai Kofun is one of a number in Asuka-Fujiwara residing on the Tentative List. The kofun tumuli have assumed various shapes throughout history; the most common type of kofun is known as a zenpō-kōen-fun, shaped like a keyhole, having one square end and one circular end, when viewed from above. There are circular-type, "two conjoined rectangles" typed, square-type kofun. Orientation of kofun is not specified. For example, in the Saki Kofun group, all of the circular parts are facing north, but there is no such formation in the Yanagimoto kofun group. Haniwa, terracotta figures, were arrayed above and in the surroundings to delimit and protect the sacred areas.
Kofun range from several metres to over 400m long. The largest, attributed to Emperor Nintoku, is Daisen Kofun in Sakai City, Osaka Prefecture; the funeral chamber was comprised a group of megaliths. In 1972, the unlooted Takamatsuzuka Tomb was found in Asuka, some details of the discovery were revealed. Inside the assembled rocks, white lime plasters were pasted, colored pictures depict the'Asuka Beauties' of the court as well as constellations. A stone coffin was placed in the chamber, accessories and bronze mirrors were laid both inside and outside the coffin; the wall paintings have been designated national treasures and the grave goods as important cultural property, while the tumulus is a special historic site. Kofun burial mounds and their remains have been found all over Japan, including remote islands such as Nishinoshima. A total of 161,560 kofun tomb sites have been found as of 2001. Hyōgo Prefecture has the most of all prefectures, Chiba Prefecture has the second most. Most of the tombs of chiefs in the Yayoi period were square-shaped mounds surrounded by ditches.
The most notable example in the late Yayoi period is Tatetsuki Mound Tomb in Okayama. The mound has a shaft chamber. Broken pieces of Tokushu-kidai, cylindrical earthenware, were excavated around the mound. Another prevalent type of Yayoi period tomb is the Yosumi tosshutsugata funkyūbo, a square mound with protruding corners; these tombs were built in the San ` in a coastal area off the Sea of Japan. Unearthed articles indicate the existence of alliances between native tribes in the region. One of the first keyhole-shaped kofun was built in the Makimuku area, the southeastern part of the Nara Basin. Hashihaka Kofun, built in the middle of the 3rd century AD, is 280 metres long and 30 metres high, its scale is different from previous Yayoi tombs. During the next three decades, about 10 kofun were built in the area, which are now called as the Makimuku Kofun Group. A wooden coffin was placed on the bottom of a shaft, the surrounding walls were built up by flat stones. Megalithic stones formed the roof.
Bronze mirrors, iron swords, clay vessels and other artifacts were found in good condition in undisturbed tombs. Some scholars assume the buried person of Hashihaka kofun was the shadowy ancient Queen Himiko of Yamataikoku, mentioned in the Chinese historical texts. According to the books, Japan was called Wa, the confederation of numerous small tribes or countries; the construction of gigantic kofun is the result of the centralized governmental structure in the Nara Basin the origin of the Yamato polity and the Imperial lineage of Japan. During the 5th century AD, the construction of keyhole kofun began in Yamato Province; the proliferation of keyhole kofun is assumed to be evidence of the Yamato court's expansion in this age. However, some argue that it shows the spreading of culture based on progress in distribution, has little to do with a political breakthrough. In recent years, South Korea has begun to allocate more resources toward archaeology, keyhole tombs have been found around the Yeongsan River basin, during the mid-Baekje Era.
The keyhole tombs that have thus far been discovered on the Korean peninsula, were built between the 5th and the 6th centuries AD. There remains question over whether the tombs were made for Japanese aristocrats loyal to Baekje, Japanese merchants who controlled the region, or a class independent from both Baekje and Yamato Japan. Keyhole-shaped kofun disappeared in the late 6th century AD due to the drastic reformation in the Yamato court, where Nihon Shoki records the introduction of Buddhism during this era. William Gowland, a British engineer who made the first survey for Saki kofun group Ernest Satow, a British diplomat who wrote about kofun in Kozuke for the Asiatic Society of Japan Fukiishi, stones used to cover kofun 飛鳥高松塚, 橿原考古学研究所編, 明日香村, 1972. 前方後円墳, 上田宏範, 学生社, 東京, 1969. 前方後円墳と古代日朝関係, 朝鮮学会編, 東京, 同成社, 2002. Kofun - Ancient History Encyclopedia Japanese Archaeology: Kofun Culture Decorated Kofun Database Comprehensive Database of Archaeological Site Reports in Japa
Emperor of Japan
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan. Under the 1947 constitution, he is defined as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." He was the highest authority of the Shinto religion. In Japanese, the Emperor is called Tennō "heavenly sovereign". In English, the use of the term Mikado for the Emperor was once common, but is now considered obsolete; the Emperor of Japan is the only head of state in the world with the English title of "Emperor". The Imperial House of Japan is the oldest continuing monarchical house in the world; the historical origins of the Emperors lie in the late Kofun period of the 3rd–7th centuries AD, but according to the traditional account of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded in 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu, said to be a direct descendant of the sun-goddess Amaterasu. The current Emperor is Akihito, he acceded to the Chrysanthemum Throne upon the death of his father, Emperor Shōwa, in 1989. The Japanese government announced in December 2017 that Akihito will abdicate on 30 April 2019.
The role of the Emperor of Japan has alternated between a ceremonial symbolic role and that of an actual imperial ruler. Since the establishment of the first shogunate in 1199, the Emperors of Japan have taken on a role as supreme battlefield commander, unlike many Western monarchs. Japanese Emperors have nearly always been controlled by external political forces, to varying degrees. In fact, between 1192 and 1867, the shōguns, or their shikken regents in Kamakura, were the de facto rulers of Japan, although they were nominally appointed by the Emperor. After the Meiji Restoration in 1867, the Emperor was the embodiment of all sovereign power in the realm, as enshrined in the Meiji Constitution of 1889. Since the enactment of the 1947 Constitution, he has been a ceremonial head of state without nominal political powers. Since the mid-nineteenth century, the Imperial Palace has been called Kyūjō Kōkyo, is on the former site of Edo Castle in the heart of Tokyo. Earlier, Emperors resided in Kyoto for nearly eleven centuries.
The Emperor's Birthday is a national holiday. Unlike most constitutional monarchs, the Emperor is not the nominal chief executive. Article 65 explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader; the Emperor is not the commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. The Japan Self-Defense Forces Act of 1954 explicitly vests this role with the Prime Minister; the Emperor's powers are limited only to important ceremonial functions. Article 4 of the Constitution stipulates that the Emperor "shall perform only such acts in matters of state as are provided for in the Constitution and he shall not have powers related to government." It stipulates that "the advice and approval of the Cabinet shall be required for all acts of the Emperor in matters of state". Article 4 states that these duties can be delegated by the Emperor as provided for by law. While the Emperor formally appoints the Prime Minister to office, Article 6 of the Constitution requires him to appoint the candidate "as designated by the Diet", without giving the Emperor the right to decline appointment.
Article 6 of the Constitution delegates the Emperor the following ceremonial roles: Appointment of the Prime Minister as designated by the Diet. Appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as designated by the Cabinet; the Emperor's other duties are laid down in article 7 of the Constitution, where it is stated that "the Emperor, with the advice and approval of the Cabinet, shall perform the following acts in matters of state on behalf of the people." In practice, all of these duties are exercised only in accordance with the binding instructions of the Cabinet: Promulgation of amendments of the constitution, cabinet orders, treaties. Convocation of the Diet. Dissolution of the House of Representatives. Proclamation of general election of members of the Diet. Attestation of the appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State and other officials as provided for by law, of full powers and credentials of Ambassadors and Ministers. Attestation of general and special amnesty, commutation of punishment and restoration of rights.
Awarding of honors. Attestation of instruments of ratification and other diplomatic documents as provided for by law. Receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers. Performance of ceremonial functions. Regular ceremonies of the Emperor with a constitutional basis are the Imperial Investitures in the Tokyo Imperial Palace and the Speech from the Throne ceremony in the House of Councillors in the National Diet Building; the latter ceremony opens extra sessions of the Diet. Ordinary sessions are opened each January and after new elections to the House of Representatives. Extra sessions convene in the autumn and are opened then. Although the Emperor has been a symbol of continuity with the past, the degree of power exercised by the Emperor has varied throughout Japanese history. In the early 7th century, the Emperor had begun to be called the "Son of Heaven"; the title of Emperor was borrowed from China, being derived from Chinese characters and was retroactively applied to the legendary Japanese rulers who reigned before the 7th–8th centuries AD.
According to the traditional account of the Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded by Emperor Jimmu in 660 BC. Modern historians agree that the Emperors before the possible late 3rd century AD ruler known traditionally as Emperor Ōjin are legendary. Emperor Ank
Emperor Richū known as Ōenoizahowake no Mikoto was the 17th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. No firm dates can be assigned to this Emperor's life or reign, but he is conventionally considered to have reigned from 400 to 405. Richū is regarded by historians as a "legendary Emperor" of the 5th century; the reign of Emperor Kinmei, the 29th Emperor, is the first for which contemporary historiography is able to assign verifiable dates. According to Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Richū was the eldest son of Emperor Nintoku and Iwanohime, his name was Ōenoizahowake no Mikoto. Richū's contemporary title would not have been tennō, as most historians believe this title was not introduced until the reigns of Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō. Rather, it was Sumeramikoto or Amenoshita Shiroshimesu Ōkimi, meaning "the great king who rules all under heaven". Alternatively, Hanzei might have been referred to as ヤマト大王/大君 or the "Great King of Yamato"; some scholars identify him with King San in the Book of Song.
King San sent messengers to the Liu Song dynasty at least twice in 421 and 425. Richū escaped from Naniwa Place to Isonokami Shrine because of arson. Richū succumbed to disease in his sixth year of reign, his tomb is in the middle of present-day Osaka Prefecture. He was succeeded by his younger brother Emperor Hanzei. None of his sons succeeded to the throne, although two grandsons would ascend as Emperor Kenzō and as Emperor Ninken; the site of Richū's grave is not known. The Emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine in Osaka; the Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Richū's mausoleum. It is formally named Mozu no mimihara no minami no misasagi, it is identified as the Kami Ishizu Misanzai kofun. Imperial Consort: Kuro-hime, Katsuragi no Ashita no Sukune's daughter First Son: Prince IwasakanoIchinoenooshiwa, father of Emperor Kenzō and Emperor Ninken Prince Mima Princess Aomi no Himemiko Empress: Princess Kusakanohatabino-hime, Emperor Ōjin's daughter Princess Nakashi no Hime, wife of Prince Ōkusaka married Emperor AnkoConcubine: Futohime no Iratsume, Prince Funashiwake's daughter Concubine: Takatsuru no Iratsume, Prince Funashiwake's daughter Emperor of Japan List of Emperors of Japan Imperial cult Five kings of Wa Aston, William George..
Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trubner. OCLC 448337491 Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; the Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5.
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William George Aston
William George Aston was a British diplomat and scholar-expert in the language and history of Japan and Korea. Aston was born near Ireland, he distinguished himself at Queen's College, which he attended 1859-1863. There he received a thorough philological training in Latin, French and modern history. One of his professors was James McCosh. Aston was appointed in 1864 student interpreter to the British Legation in Japan, he mastered the theory of the Japanese verb, in Edo began, with Ernest Mason Satow, those profound researches into the Japanese language which laid the foundations of the critical study of the Japanese language by western scholars. Aston passed the examination for entry to the Consular Service in 1884, served in the British consular service in Tokyo and Nagasaki. From 1884-1885, Aston served as the United Kingdom's consul-general in Korea, he returned to consular duties in Tokyo as Secretary of British Legation in 1885. Aston retired from the foreign service on a pension in 1889 because of ill-health and settled in England.
He was appointed CMG in the 1889 Birthday Honours. Aston made a major contribution to the fledgling study of Japan's language and history in the 19th century. Along with Ernest Mason Satow and Basil Hall Chamberlain, he was one of three major British Japanologists active in Japan during the 19th century. Aston was the first translator of the Nihongi into the English language. Other publications were A History of Japanese Literature, he lectured to the Asiatic Society of Japan several times, many of his papers are published in their Transactions. In 1912 Cambridge University Library acquired 10,000 rare Japanese volumes from the collections of Aston and Satow which formed the starting point of the Library's Japanese collection. Okamoto Kidō recalls in chapter eleven on the development and adaption of drama of his book, 明治劇談ランプの下にて, Meiji Gekidan Ranpu no Shitanite meeting Aston at the British Legation... I made up my mind to read the scripts of a foreign country. Around that time I went to the British Embassy, still known as the Legation, imposed myself on the Secretary Mr. Aston in his room.
I was at the time babysitting Mr. Aston’s children, he had considerable understanding of Japanese literature. However Mr. Aston had brought into the Legation with him the scripts of various foreign plays, he had brought the complete works of Shakespeare though I doubted though they were there that I would read them. So Mr. Aston, knowing the scripts of the various plays gave me readings, after all it was just the summary that I wanted to hear and as a consequence, based on that, I didn’t end up appreciating the technique of playwriting, but that I didn’t appreciate the techniques of playwriting from just listening it was kind of him and I often went to his room to listen to and discuss drama. The following summer, July if I remember I went as usual to visit him when Mr. Aston, said ‘similarly you don’t know about this person’s publications’ and showed me five books containing six volumes in temporary bindings, published. They, the Kawatake Mokuami script series, had been published as articles by the Ginza’s Kabuki Shinpō Company.
They covered ‘Nakamitsu’, ‘Four Thousand Ryō‘ and ‘Kagatobi’. When I went I had no idea that they had been successively published and had been delivered from a Ginza bookstore. I leapt for joy and straight away started going to him and borrowing them so that I could indulge myself by reading them. In 1884, Aston was the first European diplomatic representative. Political instability caused him to leave in 1885. In 1885—1887, Aston continued Korean language studies in Tokyo with Kim Chae-guk; this Korean teacher composed a number of stories for Aston to use as practice. Aston donated these manuscript versions of Korean folk tales to the Asiatic Museum in St. Petersberg and they were published in 2004; this part of Aston's personal collection is now preserved in the Academy of Sciences in St Petersburg. After retiring from the consular service, Aston published books on Japanese literature and Japanese religion as well as a number of articles on Korean subjects, he died 22 November 1911 at Devon. Along with the Japanese books mentioned Aston's substantial collection of Chinese and Korean books was acquired by Cambridge University Library after his death.
The only known likeness of Aston is in the National Portrait Gallery in London. A 1911 crayon drawing of Aston by Minnie Agnes Cohen only suggests what he might have looked like as a younger man. Little is known about Aston's personal life because he left no letters or diaries. In a statistical overview derived from writings by and about William George Aston, OCLC/WorldCat encompasses 90+ works in 200+ publications in 4 languages and 3,000+ library holdings. 1869 — A Short Grammar of the Japanese Spoken Language 1872 — A Grammar of the Japanese Written Language, with a short chrestomalthy 1877 — A Grammar of the Japanese Written Language 1888 — A Grammar of the Japanese Spoken Language 1889 — Early Japanese history 1896 — Nihongi. D. 697 1899 — A History of Japanese Literature 1899 — Toriwi--its derivation 1902 — Littérature japonaise 1905 — Shinto, the Way of the Gods. 1907 — Shinto, the Ancient Religion of Japan 1879 — "H. M. S. Phaeton at Nagasaki," Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, Vol. 7, pp. 323–336.
Imperial House of Japan
The Imperial House of Japan referred to as the Imperial Family or the Yamato Dynasty, comprises those members of the extended family of the reigning Emperor of Japan who undertake official and public duties. Under the present Constitution of Japan, the Emperor is "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people". Other members of the Imperial Family perform ceremonial and social duties, but have no role in the affairs of government; the duties as an Emperor are passed so on. The Japanese monarchy is claimed to be the oldest continuous hereditary monarchy in the world; the Imperial House recognizes 125 monarchs beginning with the legendary Emperor Jimmu and continuing up to the current emperor, Akihito. Historical evidence for the first 29 Emperors is marginal by modern standards, but there is firm evidence for the hereditary line since Emperor Kinmei ascended the throne 1,500 years ago. Article 5 of the Imperial Household Law defines the Imperial Family as the Empress. In English, shinnō and ō are both translated as "prince" as well as shinnōhi, naishinnō, ōhi and joō as "princess".
After the removal of 11 collateral branches from the Imperial House in October 1947, the official membership of the Imperial Family has been limited to the male line descendants of the Emperor Taishō, excluding females who married outside the Imperial Family and their descendants. There are 18 members of the Imperial Family: The Emperor was born at Tokyo Imperial Palace on 23 December 1933, the elder son and fifth child of the Emperor Shōwa and Empress Kōjun, he was married on 10 April 1959 to Michiko Shōda. Emperor Akihito succeeded his father as emperor on 7 January 1989; the Empress Michiko Shōda, was born in Tokyo on 20 October 1934, the eldest daughter of Hidesaburo Shōda, president and honorary chairman of Nisshin Flour Milling Inc.. The Crown Prince, the eldest son of the Emperor and the Empress, was born in the Hospital of the Imperial Household in Tokyo on 23 February 1960, he became heir apparent upon his father's accession to the throne. Crown Prince Naruhito was married on 9 June 1993 to Masako Owada.
The Crown Princess was born on 9 December 1963, the daughter of Hisashi Owada, a former vice minister of foreign affairs and former permanent representative of Japan to the United Nations. The Crown Prince and Crown Princess have one daughter: The Princess Toshi The Prince Akishino, the Emperor's second son, second on the succession line, was born on 30 November 1965 in the Hospital of the Imperial Household in Tokyo, his childhood title was Prince Aya. He received the title Prince Akishino and permission to start a new branch of the Imperial Family upon his marriage to Kiko Kawashima on 29 June 1990; the Princess Akishino was born on 11 September 1966, the daughter of Tatsuhiko Kawashima, professor of economics at Gakushuin University. Prince and Princess Akishino have two daughters and a son: Princess Mako of Akishino Princess Kako of Akishino Prince Hisahito of Akishino The Prince Hitachi was born on 28 November 1935, the second son and sixth child of the Emperor Shōwa and Empress Kojun.
His childhood title was Prince Yoshi. He received the title Prince Hitachi and permission to set up a new branch of the Imperial Family on 1 October 1964, the day after his wedding; the Princess Hitachi was born on the daughter of former Count Yoshitaka Tsugaru. Prince and Princess Hitachi have no children; the Princess Mikasa is the widow of the Prince Mikasa, the fourth son of Emperor Taishō and Empress Teimei and an uncle of Emperor Akihito. The Princess was born on 4 June 1923, the second daughter of Viscount Masanori Takagi. Princess Mikasa has three sons with the late Prince Mikasa. Princess Tomohito of Mikasa is the widow of Prince Tomohito of Mikasa, the eldest son of the Prince and Princess Mikasa and a first cousin of Emperor Akihito; the Princess was born on 9 April 1955, the daughter of Takakichi Asō, chairman of Asō Cement Co. and his wife, Kazuko, a daughter of former Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida. She has two daughters with the late Prince Tomohito of Mikasa: Princess Akiko of Mikasa Princess Yōko of Mikasa The Princess Takamado is the widow of the Prince Takamado, the third son of the Prince and Princess Mikasa and a first cousin of Emperor Akihito.
The Princess was born the eldest daughter of Shigejiro Tottori. She married the prince on 6 December 1984. Known as Prince Norihito of Mikasa, he received the title Prince Takamado and permission to start a new branch of the Imperial Family on 1 December 1984. Princess Takamado has three daughters, one of whom remains a member of the Imperial Family: Princess Tsuguko of Takamado The following family tree shows the lineage of the contemporary members of the Imperial Family. Princesses who le
Matsubara is a city located in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. As of 2017, the city has an estimated population of 121,125 and a population density of 7,300 persons per km²; the total area is 16.66 km². Hannan University is located in Matsubara. Hannan University is a mid-sized liberal arts university with a focus on technology. In the 5th century AD, Emperor Hanzei is believed to have had his palace, Tajihi Shibagaki-no-Miya, in the area; the area that now comprises Matsubara was located in the historical Kawachi Province, still considered the subregion to which it belongs. During the Edo period, Matsubara was the administrative center of the Tannan Domain, whose Tannan Encampment was located in present-day Tannan, Matsubara City. 1889, April 1: The villages of Matsubara, Nunose and Ega are designated as part of Tanboku District. 1896, April 1: Naka-Kawachi District is created, consolidated from the former districts of Tanboku, Takayasu, Ōgata, Kawachi and Shibukawa. The above villages thus become part of Naka-Kawachi District.
1942, July 1: The village of Matsubara is promoted to Town status, becoming Matsubara-chō, Naka-Kawachi District. 1947, January 1: The village of Amami is promoted to Town status, becoming Amami-chō, Naka-Kawachi District. 1955, February 1: The towns of Matsubara and Amami, along with the villages of Nunose and Ega, are consolidated into Matsubara City, Osaka Prefecture's 21st city. 1957 April 1: Matsubara incorporated the Tannan area of Mihara-chō, Minami-Kawachi District. October 15: Matsubara incorporated the Kawai area of Kita-Yashimo Village, Minami-Kawachi District 1964: The Kita-Wakabayashi area was made part of Yao City. Osaka Sumiyoshi-ku Higashi Sumiyoshi-ku Hirano-ku Sakai Kita-ku Mihara-ku Yao Fujiidera Habikino Tsukigase-mura, Yamabe District, Nara Friendship agreement since September 7, 1985 Official website