Emperor Saga

Emperor Saga was the 52nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Saga's reign spanned the years from 809 through 823. Saga was the second son of Fujiwara no Otomuro, his personal name was Kamino. Saga was an "accomplished calligrapher" able to compose in Chinese who held the first imperial poetry competitions. According to legend, he was the first Japanese emperor to drink tea. Saga is traditionally venerated at his tomb. 806 Saga became the crown prince at age 21. June 17, 809: In the 4th year of Emperor Heizei's reign, he fell ill and abdicated. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Saga is said to have acceded to the throne. Soon after his enthronement, Saga himself took ill. At the time the retired Heizei had quarreled with his brother over the ideal location of the court, the latter preferring the Heian capital, while the former was convinced that a shift back to the Nara plain was necessary, Heizei, exploiting Saga's weakened health, seized the opportunity to foment a rebellion, known as the Kusuko Incident.

This same Tamuramaro is remembered in Aomori's annual Nebuta Matsuri which feature a number of gigantic, specially-constructed, illuminated paper floats. These great lantern-structures are colorfully painted with mythical figures; this early ninth century military leader is commemorated in this way because he is said to have ordered huge illuminated lanterns to be placed at the top of hills. August 24, 842: Saga died at the age of 57; the years of Saga's reign are more identified by more than one era name. Daidō Kōnin In ancient Japan, there were the Gempeitōkitsu. One of these clans, the Minamoto clan are known as Genji, of these, the Saga Genji are descended from 52nd emperor Saga. Saga's son, Minamoto no Tōru, is thought to be an inspiration for the protagonist of the novel The Tale of Genji. In the 9th century, Emperor Saga made a decree prohibiting meat consumption except fish and birds and abolished capital punishment in 818; this remained the dietary habit of Japanese until the introduction of European dietary customs in the 19th century.

Emperor Saga played an important role as a stalwart supporter of the Buddhist monk Kūkai. The emperor helped Kūkai to establish the Shingon School of Buddhism by granting him Tō-ji Temple in the capital Heian-kyō. Kugyō is a collective term for the few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time; these were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Saga's reign, this kugyō included: Sadaijin Udaijin, Fujiwara no Uchimaro, 806–812. Udaijin, Fujiwara no Sonohito, 812–818. Udaijin, Fujiwara no Fuyutsugu, 821–825. Udaijin, Tachibana no Ujikimi. Naidaijin Dainagon Saga had 49 children by at least 30 different women. Many of the children received the surname Minamoto. Empress: Tachibana no Kachiko known as Empress Danrin, Tachibana no Kiyotomo's daughter. Second Son: Imperial Prince Masara Emperor Ninmyō Imperial Princess Seishi, married to Emperor Junna Imperial Princess Hideko Imperial Prince Hidera Imperial Princess Toshiko Fifth Daughter: Imperial Princess Yoshiko Imperial Princess Shigeko Hi: Imperial Princess Takatsu, Emperor Kanmu’s daughter Second Prince: Imperial Prince Nariyoshi Imperial Princess Nariko Hi: Tajihi no Takako, Tajihi no Ujimori's daughter Bunin: Fujiwara no Onatsu, Fujiwara no Uchimaro's daughter Court lady: Kudara no Kyomyō, Kudara no Kyōshun's daughter Minamoto no Yoshihime Minamoto no Sadamu Minamoto no Wakahime Minamoto no Shizumu Nyōgo: Kudara no Kimyō, Kudara no Shuntetsu's daughter Imperial Prince Motora Fourth Son: Imperial Prince Tadara Imperial Princess Motoko Nyōgo: Ōhara no Kiyoko, Ōhara no Ietsugu's daughter Tenth Daughter: Imperial Princess Ninshi, 15th Saiō in Ise Shrine 809–823Koui: Iidaka no Yakatoji, Iidaka Gakuashi Minamoto no Tokiwa Minamoto no Akira Koui: Akishino no Koko, Akishino no Yasuhito's daughter Minamoto no Kiyoshi Koui: Yamada no Chikako Minamoto no Hiraku Minamoto no Mituhime Nyōgo: Princess Katano, Prince Yamaguchi's daughter Eighth Daughter: Imperial Princess Uchiko, 1st Saiin in Kamo Shrine 810–831Court lady: Takashina no Kawako, Takashina no Kiyoshina's daughter Imperial Princess Sōshi Court lad


Gampelen is a municipality in the Seeland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. Gampelen should not be confused with the municipality Gampel in the canton of Valais. Gampelen is first mentioned in 1179 again in 1228 as Champlun; the area around Gampelen was home to several mesolithic and Bronze Age settlements. One of the largest was a Late Bronze Age lake front settlement on Witzwil Island. Bricks, money and a dam from Roman era settlements have been found stretching from Zihlbrücke in Gals through Gampelen to Witzwil in Ins. During the Middle Ages it was part of the Herrschaft of Erlach. In 1395 the area became part of the County of Savoy. A century in 1474, it was acquired by Berne and was placed in the bailiwick of Erlach; the village church of St. Martin was first mentioned in 1228, it was destroyed in a fire and rebuilt in 1513 and the nave was expanded and renovated in 1674-75. The church was built over a Roman inn and way station. During the Protestant Reformation it became the parish church of the local parish, which grew to include the neighboring municipality of Gals.

During the Middle Ages and Early Modern era, Gampelen was surrounded by extensive vineyards. Several residents grew wealthy from the vineyards and built large mansions or manor houses in the village; the Jura water correction project of 1874-83 drained the marshy meadows around the village. The former marshes became fields for other vegetables. In 1901 the Bern–Neuchâtel railway line was built through the town; the railway allowed the village's agricultural products to reach distant markets. Today the railway is used for commuters, with about half of all workers in Gampelen commuting to jobs in nearby towns and cities; the Fanel nature preserve and bird sanctuary along the lake is a sanctuary of European importance. Gampelen has an area of 10.6 km2. Of this area, 6.14 km2 or 56.7% is used for agricultural purposes, while 2.71 km2 or 25.0% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 1.16 km2 or 10.7% is settled, 0.23 km2 or 2.1% is either rivers or lakes and 0.56 km2 or 5.2% is unproductive land. Of the built up area and buildings made up 3.2% and transportation infrastructure made up 4.6%.

While parks, green belts and sports fields made up 1.9%. Out of the forested land, all of the forested land area is covered with heavy forests. Of the agricultural land, 47.1% is used for growing crops and 8.1% is pastures, while 1.5% is used for orchards or vine crops. Of the water in the municipality, 0.3 % is in lakes and 1.8 % streams. Gampelen is the only municipality in the canton of Bern bordering Lake Neuchâtel, as such is the only German-speaking municipality along the lake; the town of Gampelen has a long, thin shape, has a railway station on the Bern-Neuenburg line of the BLS. The stop Zihlbrücke lies within the area of the municipality. Gampelen is part of an evangelical-reformed parish with neighboring Gals. On 31 December 2009 the municipality's former district, was dissolved. On the following day, 1 January 2010, it joined the newly created Verwaltungskreis Seeland; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Gules. Gampelen has a population of 963; as of 2010, 14.4% of the population are resident foreign nationals.

Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 8.9%. Migration accounted for 10.9%, while births and deaths accounted for 2.7%. Most of the population speaks German as their first language, French is the second most common and Portuguese is the third. There are 5 people; as of 2008, the population was 47.8 % female. The population was made up of 68 non-Swiss men. There were 4 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality, 270 or about 33.3% were born in Gampelen and lived there in 2000. There were 281 or 34.6% who were born in the same canton, while 158 or 19.5% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 67 or 8.3% were born outside of Switzerland. As of 2010, children and teenagers make up 21.2% of the population, while adults make up 62.7% and seniors make up 16.1%. As of 2000, there were 347 people who never married in the municipality. There were 43 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 71 households that consist of only one person and 18 households with five or more people.

In 2000, a total of 276 apartments were permanently occupied, while 32 apartments were seasonally occupied and 13 apartments were empty. The historical population is given in the following chart: The Rectory is listed as a Swiss heritage site of national significance. In the 2011 federal election the most popular party was the Swiss People's Party which received 38.3% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the Conservative Democratic Party, the Social Democratic Party and the Federal Democratic Union of Switzerland. In the federal election, a total of 238 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 42.2%. As of 2011, Gampelen had an unemployment rate of 1.44%. As of 2008, there were a total of 453 people employed in the municipality. Of these, there were 76 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 18 businesses involved in this sector. 49 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 11 businesses in this sector. 328

Rushworth Box-Ironbark Region

The Rushworth Box-Ironbark Region is a 510 km2 fragmented and irregularly shaped tract of land that encompasses all the box–ironbark forest and woodland remnants used as winter feeding habitat by endangered swift parrots in the Rushworth-Heathcote region of central Victoria, south-eastern Australia. It lies north of, adjacent to, the Puckapunyal Important Bird Area; the site was identified by BirdLife International as an IBA and includes the Heathcote-Graytown National Park, several nature reserves and state forests, with a few small blocks of private land. It excludes other areas of woodland; the region was identified as an IBA because, when the flowering conditions are suitable it supports up to about 70 non-breeding swift parrots. It is home to small populations of diamond firetails and non-breeding flame robins. Other woodland birds recorded from the IBA include brown treecreepers, speckled warblers, hooded robins, grey-crowned babblers, crested bellbirds and Gilbert's whistlers, with bush stone-curlews, migrant black honeyeaters and pink robins seen occasionally