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Emperor Seimu

Emperor Seimu known as Wakatarashihiko no Sumeramikoto, was the 13th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Both the Kojiki, the Nihon Shoki record events that took place during Seimu's alleged lifetime; this legendary Emperor is best known for organizing his local governments by making the first appointments of their kind to provinces under his rule. Seimu had only one recorded wife who bore him a single child, he had a concubine but she had no children; this is in stark contrast to his father, said to have had at least 80 children with multiple wives. Seimu's reign is conventionally considered to have been from 131 to 190 AD though, an issue occurred when his only son died at a young age. Seimu appointed one of his nephews to be crown prince before his death in 190 AD, marking the first of generations which would cede the throne to a non direct successor. While the location of Seimu's grave is unknown, he is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto tomb. Modern historians have come to the conclusion that the title of "Emperor" and the name "Seimu" was used by generations to describe this legendary Emperor.

It has been proposed that Seimu reigned much than he is attested. The Japanese have traditionally accepted this sovereign's historical existence, a mausoleum for Seimu is maintained; the following information available is taken from the pseudo-historical Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, which are collectively known as Kiki or Japanese chronicles. These chronicles include legends and myths, as well as potential historical facts that have since been exaggerated and/or distorted over time; the records state that Seimu was born to Yasakairi-hime sometime in 84 AD, was given the name Wakatarashihiko. It is unknown how he was chosen as crown prince, but Wakatarashihiko ascended to the throne in 131 AD. Seimu is best known for organizing his local governments by appointing the first provincial governors and district officials. While the details of his system of governing remain elusive, at the time Imperial princes were sent to important places in the provinces; these members are designated as wake, which represented their status as a branch of the Imperial family.

It has been theorized by Brinkley and Kikuchi that these appointments of local governors were designed to extend the "prestige of the Court". Those that were eligible included chiefs of aboriginal tribes; the records state that Seimu had a wife named Oho-takara, the daughter of Take-oshiyama-tari-ne. Oho-takara bore the Emperor one child, named Prince Wakanuke. Seimu's only son appears to have died at a young age as the Emperor appointed Yamato Takeru's son as Crown Prince, before his own death in 190 AD at the age 107 years old, his nephew Tarashinakatsuhiko was enthroned as the next emperor in 192 AD. Seimu's death marked an end of direct lineage from legendary Emperor Jimmu, was the first split branch of others that followed. Emperor Seimu is regarded by historians as a "legendary Emperor" as there is insufficient material available for further verification and study, his existence is open to debate given this lack of information. If Seimu did exist, there is no evidence to suggest that the title tennō was used during the time period to which his reign has been assigned.

It is much more that he was a chieftain, or local clan leader, the polity he ruled would have only encompassed a small portion of modern-day Japan. The name Seimu-tennō was more than assigned to him posthumously by generations, his name might have been regularized centuries after the lifetime ascribed to Seimu during the time in which legends about the origins of the Yamato dynasty were compiled as the chronicles known today as the Kojiki. There is a possibility that Seimu ruled during the first half of the 4th century when Japan became a unified state ruled from Yamato, making these accounts "not improbable". While the actual site of Seimu's grave is not known, the Emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at Nara; the Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Seimu's mausoleum, is formally named Saki no Tatanami no misasagi. Outside of the Kiki, the reign of Emperor Kinmei is the first for which contemporary historiography has been able to assign verifiable dates.

The conventionally accepted names and dates of the early Emperors were not confirmed as "traditional" though, until the reign of Emperor Kanmu between 737 and 806 AD. Emperor of Japan List of Emperors of Japan Imperial cult Aston, William George.. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trubner. OCLC 448337491 Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; the Kojiki. Read before the Asiatic Society of Japan on 12 April, 10 May, 21 June 1882. OCLC 1882339 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon.. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5.

Microsoft Sans Serif

Microsoft Sans Serif is a TrueType font introduced with Windows 2000. It is a successor of MS Sans Serif, a proportional raster font introduced in Windows 1.0. Both fonts are similar in design to Arial and Helvetica; this font was made to match the MS Sans bitmap included in the early releases of Microsoft Windows. Microsoft Sans Serif's ancestor is a raster font included with Windows 1.0 and later. In Windows 3.1, the raster font was renamed MS Sans Serif. "Helv" is still a valid alias for MS Sans Serif. OS/2 and its successor eComStation still name the font "Helv". MS Sans Serif is the default system font on Windows 3.1, Windows 95, Windows NT 4.0, Windows 98, Windows ME. A Euro symbol was added to this font for the release of Windows 98. MS Sans Serif is available in the font sizes 8, 10, 12, 14, 18, 24; when changing the DPI settings in Windows 95 or Windows loads a different MS Sans Serif font called the "8514" variant, which adds sizes 23 and 30 points. Microsoft Sans Serif is a TrueType font, designed as a vectorized, metric-compatible variant of MS Sans Serif, distributed with Windows 2000 and later.

This font contains most glyphs shipped with any version of Windows until Windows Vista, excluding fonts supporting East Asian ideographs. The PostScript font name is MicrosoftSansSerif. Despite being a vectorized replacement, there are subtle design changes. For example, the tail in the lowercase "a" is shortened to a vertical stem in Microsoft Sans Serif, the top of the stem on the lowercase "f" curves down instead of horizontally, the hook at the descenders of "y" and "j" are hooked up in Microsoft Sans Serif, the strokes in the middle of digit "8" intersect at a different angle. Capital R, designed in the style of original Helvetica in the original MS Sans Serif, is instead a compromise between Helvetica and the straight-diagonal descender in Arial. Version 1.10 of the font includes 1119 glyphs, supporting Unicode ranges Alphabetic Presentation forms, Arabic Presentation forms A-B, General Punctuation and Coptic, Latin Extended-A, Latin Extended-B, Latin Extended Additional, Mathematical Operators, Thai.

Supported code pages include 1250-1258, Macintosh US Roman, 874, 864, 862, 708. Font is smoothed at 0-6 points, hinted at 7-14 points and smoothed at 15 and above points. OpenType features includes init, medi, liga for default Arabic script. Version 1.41 includes 2257 glyphs, which extended Unicode ranges to include Combining Diacritical Marks, Currency Symbols, Cyrillic Supplement, Geometric Shapes, Greek Extended, IPA Extensions, Number Forms, Spacing Modifier Letters. New OpenType scripts include Arabic MAR script. Additional OpenType features includes rlig for Arabic scripts. Version 5.00 includes 3053 glyphs, which extended Unicode ranges to include Arabic Supplement, Combining Diacritical Marks Supplement, Combining Half Marks, Latin Extended-C, Latin Extended-D, Phonetic Extensions, Phonetic Extensions Supplement, Specials and Subscripts. New OpenType scripts include Arabic URD, Hebrew, Thai. Additional OpenType features includes ccmp, mkmk for Arabic scripts. MS Sans Serif was given a PANOSE number that indicates it has "cove" serifs, While the PANOSE number for Microsoft Sans Serif indicates, a sans serif.

Glyphs from Microsoft Sans Serif are used in the typeface Kartika. On October 16, 2007, Apple announced on their website that the next version of Mac OS X v10.5, would include Microsoft Sans Serif. Leopard ships with several other Microsoft-only fonts, including Tahoma, Arial Unicode, Wingdings. Microsoft Sans Serif has been included with all macOS versions since. Retail versions of the font are sold through Ascender Corporation. Microsoft's entry on Microsoft Sans Serif

Roger Gresley

Sir Roger Gresley, 8th Baronet was an English author and Tory politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1835 to 1837. Gresley was the son of Sir Nigel Bowyer Gresley, 7th Baronet and his second wife Maria-Eliza Garway, daughter of Caleb Garway, of Worcester, he succeeded to the baronetcy on the death of his father on 26 March 1808. He entered Christ Church, Oxford on 17 October 1817, where he remained until 1819, leaving the university without a degree. Gresley was a well known London dandy and is said to have gambled away much of his fortune, having to sell most of his assets to remain solvent. In 1827 he sold Sir Nigel Gresley's Canal which his grandfather had built in connection with his mining interests. In 1826 Gresley stood for parliament unsuccessfully at Lichfield and instead served as High Sheriff of Derbyshire, he was elected but unseated. He was unsuccessful at New Romney in 1831, although he made a couple of speeches in parliament, he won a seat at South Derbyshire in 1835 which he lost at the election of July 1837.

Gresley was groom of the bedchamber to the Duke of Sussex, captain of the Staffordshire Yeomanry cavalry, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. He was an author who wrote his name Greisley. Gresley died at the age of 37, was buried on 28 October at Church Gresley, Derbyshire. Gresley married Lady Sophia Catherine Coventry, daughter of George William Coventry, 7th Earl of Coventry and Peggy Pitches, on 2 June 1821; the marriage was commemorated in a poem by a friend John Taylor. They had the baronetcy passed to a kinsman Sir William Gresley, his widow remarried to Sir Henry des Voeux and vicar of Stapenhill-cum-Caldwell. She died at 39 Berkeley Square, London, in 1875 and was buried with her second husband in the churchyard at Caldwell. A Letter to the Right Hon. Robert Peel on Catholic Emancipation. To, added an account of the apparition of a cross at Migné on the 17th. December, 1826, translated from the Italian, 1827, 8vo. A Letter to … John, Earl of Shrewsbury, in reply to his reasons for not taking the Test, London, 1828, 8vo.

Sir Philip Gasteneys. The Life and Pontificate of Gregory the Seventh, London, 1832, 8vo "Gresley, Roger". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Debrett's Baronetage of England 7th Edition pp 34/5 Leigh Rayment's list of baronets Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Sir Roger Gresley