Emperor Yūryaku was the 21st Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. He is remembered as a patron of sericulture. No firm dates can be assigned to this Emperor's life or reign, but he is conventionally considered to have reigned from 456 to 479. Yūryaku was a 5th-century monarch; the reign of Emperor Kinmei, the 29th Emperor, is the first for which contemporary historiography is able to assign verifiable dates. According to the Kojiki, this Emperor is said to have ruled from the Thirteenth Day of the Eleventh Month of 456 until his death on the Seventh Day of the Eight Month of 479. According to Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Yūryaku was named Prince Ōhatsuse Wakatake at birth. Yūryaku is a name posthumously assigned to him by a much era, he was the fifth and youngest son of Emperor Ingyō. After his elder brother Emperor Ankō was murdered, he won the struggle against his other brothers and became the new Emperor. Yūryaku's contemporary title would not have been tennō, as most historians believe this title was not introduced until the reigns of Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō.
Rather, it was Sumeramikoto or Amenoshita Shiroshimesu Ōkimi, meaning "the great king who rules all under heaven". Alternatively, Hanzei might have been referred to as ヤマト大王/大君 or the "Great King of Yamato", he had three wives. His successor, Prince Shiraka, was his son by his wife Kazuraki no Karahime. In 463, Yūryaku Tennō invited the thunder god of the Mimuro hill to come to the Imperial Palace, ordered Chiisakobe no muraji Sugaru to fetch the deity, he obliged, thinking the supernatural being would have no reason to refuse the invitation, rode carrying a halberd with a red banner, symbolising his office of royal messenger. Soon enough, the thunder stroke, Sugaru enlisted the help of priests to enshrine the kami into a portable carriage, to be brought in the Emperor's presence, as a great serpent. But, said Emperor neglected to practice proper ritual purification and religious abstinence; the thunder kami showed his displeasure through thundering and threatening fiery eyeballs, Emperor Yūryaku fled into the interior of the Palace while covering his eyes.
The great serpent was returned to Mimuro, the Emperor made many offerings to appease the angry deity. This story is recorded in Nihongi and mentioned by William George Aston, in "Shinto, the Ancient Religion of Japan" as well as several other books. According to the Nihongi, Yūryaku was of ungovernable and suspicious temperament, committed many acts of arbitrary cruelty; the actual site of Yūryaku's grave is not known. The Emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine in Habikino, designated by the Imperial Household Agency as Yūryaku's mausoleum, it is formally named Tajihi no Takawashi-no-hara no misasagi. Empress: Princess Kusaka-no-hatabihime, Emperor Nintoku's daughter Consort: Katsuragi no Karahime, Katsuragi no Tsubura no Ōomi's daughter Third Son: Prince Shiraka Emperor Seinei Princess Takuhatahime, SaiōConsort: Kibi no Wakahime, Kibi no Kamitsumichi no omi's daughter Prince Iwaki Prince Hoshikawa no Wakamiya Consort: Wani no ominagimi, Kasuga no Wani no omi Fukame's daughter Princess Kasuga no Ōiratsume, married to Emperor Ninken According to the Book of Song, a King Bu from Japan dispatched envoys to the Emperor of Liu Song, a minor Chinese dynasty, in both 477 and 478.
Communications included a notice that the previous ruler, an older brother, had died, that Bu had ascended to the throne. The King'Bu' in this document is believed to refer to Emperor Yūryaku, due to the fact that the character used to write the name is found in the name by which Emperor Yūryaku was called during his lifetime: Ōhatsuse Wakatakeru no Mikoto; the inscriptions on the Inariyama and Eta Funayama Sword supports the idea that Bu is an equivalent of Emperor Yūryaku. The Chinese historical records state that Bu began his rule before 477, was recognized as the ruler of Japan by the Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang dynasties, continued his rule through to 502; the Emperor's interest in poetry is amongst the more well-documented aspects of his character and reign. Poems attributed to him are included in the Man'yōshū, a number of his verses are preserved in the Kojiki and the Nihonshoki. Emperor of Japan List of Emperors of Japan Eta Funayama Sword Five kings of Wa Imperial cult Inariyama Sword Aston, William George..
Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trubner. OCLC 448337491 Batten, Bruce Loyd.. Gateway to Japan: Hakata in war and peace, 500–1300. Honolulu:University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2971-1. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; the Manyōshū: The Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkokai Translation of One Thousand Poems. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-08620-2 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon.. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods an
Emperor Tenmu was the 40th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Tenmu's reign lasted from 673 until his death in 686. Tenmu was the youngest son of Emperor Jomei and Empress Kōgyoku, the younger brother of the Emperor Tenji, his name at birth was Prince Ōama. He was succeeded by Empress Jitō, both his niece and his wife. During the reign of his elder brother, Emperor Tenji, Tenmu was forced to marry several of Tenji's daughters because Tenji thought those marriages would help to strengthen political ties between the two brothers; the nieces he married included Princess Unonosarara, today known as Empress Jitō, Princess Ōta. Tenmu had other consorts whose fathers were influential courtiers. Tenmu had many children, including his crown prince Kusakabe by Princess Unonosarara. Through Prince Kusakabe, Tenmu had two empresses among his descendents. Empress Kōken was the last of these imperial rulers from his lineage. Emperor Tenmu is the first monarch of Japan, to whom the title Tennō was assigned contemporaneously—not only by generations.
The only document on his life was Nihon Shoki. However, it was edited by his son, Prince Toneri, the work was written during the reigns of his wife and children, causing one to suspect its accuracy and impartiality, he is mentioned in the preface to the Kojiki, being hailed as the emperor to have commissioned them. Tenmu's father died while he was young, he grew up under the guidance of Empress Saimei, he was not expected to gain the throne, because his brother Tenji was the crown prince, being the older son of their mother, the reigning empress. During the Tenji period, Tenmu was appointed his crown prince; this was because Tenji had no appropriate heir among his sons at that time, as none of their mothers was of a rank high enough to give the necessary political support. Tenji was suspicious that Tenmu might be so ambitious as to attempt to take the throne, felt the necessity to strengthen his position through politically advantageous marriages. Tenji was active in improving the military institutions, established during the Taika reforms.
In his old age, Tenji had Prince Ōtomo, by a low-ranking consort. Since Ōtomo had weak political support from his maternal relatives, the general wisdom of the time held that it was not a good idea for him to ascend to the throne, yet Tenji was obsessed with the idea. In 671 Tenmu felt himself to be in danger and volunteered to resign the office of crown prince to become a monk, he moved to the mountains in Yoshino, Yamato Province for reasons of seclusion. He took with him one of his wives, Princess Unonosarara, a daughter of Tenji. However, he left all his other consorts at the capital. A year Tenji died and Prince Ōtomo ascended to the throne as Emperor Kōbun. Tenmu assembled an army and marched from Yoshino to the east, to attack the capital of Omikyō in a counterclockwise movement, they marched through Yamato and Mino Provinces to threaten Omikyō in the adjacent province. The army of Tenmu and the army of the young Emperor Kōbun fought in the northwestern part of Mino. Tenmu's army won and Kōbun committed suicide, an incident known as the Jinshin War.
Post-Meiji chronology In the 10th year of Tenji, in the 11th month: Emperor Tenji, in the 10th year of his reign, designated his son as his heir. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Kōbun is said to have acceded to the throne. If this understanding were valid it would it would follow:In the 1st year of Kōbun: Emperor Kōbun, in the 1st year of his reign, died. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Tenmu could be said to have acceded to the throne. Pre-Meiji chronology Prior to the 19th century, Otomo was understood to have been a mere interloper, a pretender, an anomaly; as might be expected, Emperor Tenmu was no less active than former-Emperor Tenji in improving the Taika military institutions. Tenmu's reign brought many changes, such as: a centralized war department was organized. In 673 Tenmu moved the capital back to Yamato on the Kiymihara plain; the Man'yōshū includes a poem written after the Jinshin War ended: Our Sovereign, a god, Has made his Imperial City Out of the stretch of swamps, Where chestnut horses sank To their bellies.
– Ōtomo Miyuki At Asuka, Emperor Tenmu was enthroned. He elevated Unonosarara to be his empress. Events of his reign include: 674: Ambassadors of Tane no kuni were received in th
Richard Arthur Brabazon Ponsonby-Fane was a British academic, specialist of Shinto and Japanologist. Richard Arthur Brabazon Ponsonby was born at Gravesend on the south bank of the Thames in Kent, England to John Henry and Florence Ponsonby, his boyhood was spent in the family home in London and at the Somerset country home, Brympton d'Evercy, of his grandfather, Spencer Ponsonby-Fane. Ponsonby was educated at Harrow School, he added "Fane" to his own name when he inherited Brympton d'Evercy in 1916 after the deaths of both his grandfather and father. In 1896, Ponsonby traveled to Cape Town to serve as Private Secretary to the Governor of the British Cape Colony. For the next two decades, his career in the British Empire's colonial governments spanned the globe, he worked with a number of colonial leaders as private secretary to the Governor of Natal, to the Governor of Trinidad and Tobago, to the Governor of Ceylon, to the Governor of Hong Kong. He was re-posted to Natal in 1907. In 1910 he played a single first-class cricket match for the Marylebone Cricket Club.
In 1915-1919, he was re-posted as private secretary to the Governor of Hong Kong. In addition to his government duties in Hong Kong, he began lecturing at the University of Hong Kong in 1916. After 1919, Ponsonby-Fane became a permanent resident of Japan, traveling four months of the year to Hong Kong for lectures at the Crown colony's university. In 1921, when the Japanese Crown Prince visited Hong Kong en route to Europe, Ponsonby-Fane was introduced as his interpreter; when Emperor Shōwa was enthroned in 1928, he was the only non-Japanese guest, invited to witness the ceremonies from in front of the palace's Kenreimon gate. In 1930, when HIH Prince Takamatsu and his wife traveled to Europe, Ponsonby-Fane sailed on the same ship. In 1932, Ponsonby-Fane built a Japanese-style home in one of the northern suburbs of Kyoto. In the last decades of his life, he was always photographed with a long woolen scarf draped around his shoulders; this unique scarf was said to be hand-knit by Dowager Empress Teimei, the widow of Emperor Taishō.
Ponsonby-Fane died at home in Kyoto in December 1937. In an overview of writings by and about Richard Ponsonby-Fane, OCLC/WorldCat lists 74 works in 136 publications in 2 languages and 1,443 library holdings; this list is not finished. The Imperial Family of Japan, 1915 The Capital and Palace of Heian, 1924 The Vicissitudes of Shinto, 1931 The Nomenclature of the N. Y. K. Fleet, 1931 Kamo Mioya Shrine, 1934 Kyoto: the Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869, 1956 The Imperial House of Japan, 1959 Sovereign and Subject, 1962 Studies in Shinto and Shrines, 1962 The Vicissitudes of Shinto, 1963 Visiting Famous Shrines in Japan, 1964 Order of the Rising Sun. Order of the Sacred Treasure, 1921. University of Hong Kong, Honorary Doctor of Laws, 1926. Private Secretary to the Sovereign Britton, Dorothy.. "Richard Ponsonby-Fane, A Modern William Adams," pp. 190-204 in Britain and Japan: Biographical Portraits. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-873410-62-2 Fiévé, Nicolas.. Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place and Memory in Kyoto and Tokyo.
ISBN 9780700714094. "A Biographical sketch of Dr. R. Ponsonby-Fane," Studies in Shrines. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 399449
Emperor of Japan
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan. Under the 1947 constitution, he is defined as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." He was the highest authority of the Shinto religion. In Japanese, the Emperor is called Tennō "heavenly sovereign". In English, the use of the term Mikado for the Emperor was once common, but is now considered obsolete; the Emperor of Japan is the only head of state in the world with the English title of "Emperor". The Imperial House of Japan is the oldest continuing monarchical house in the world; the historical origins of the Emperors lie in the late Kofun period of the 3rd–7th centuries AD, but according to the traditional account of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded in 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu, said to be a direct descendant of the sun-goddess Amaterasu. The current Emperor is Akihito, he acceded to the Chrysanthemum Throne upon the death of his father, Emperor Shōwa, in 1989. The Japanese government announced in December 2017 that Akihito will abdicate on 30 April 2019.
The role of the Emperor of Japan has alternated between a ceremonial symbolic role and that of an actual imperial ruler. Since the establishment of the first shogunate in 1199, the Emperors of Japan have taken on a role as supreme battlefield commander, unlike many Western monarchs. Japanese Emperors have nearly always been controlled by external political forces, to varying degrees. In fact, between 1192 and 1867, the shōguns, or their shikken regents in Kamakura, were the de facto rulers of Japan, although they were nominally appointed by the Emperor. After the Meiji Restoration in 1867, the Emperor was the embodiment of all sovereign power in the realm, as enshrined in the Meiji Constitution of 1889. Since the enactment of the 1947 Constitution, he has been a ceremonial head of state without nominal political powers. Since the mid-nineteenth century, the Imperial Palace has been called Kyūjō Kōkyo, is on the former site of Edo Castle in the heart of Tokyo. Earlier, Emperors resided in Kyoto for nearly eleven centuries.
The Emperor's Birthday is a national holiday. Unlike most constitutional monarchs, the Emperor is not the nominal chief executive. Article 65 explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader; the Emperor is not the commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. The Japan Self-Defense Forces Act of 1954 explicitly vests this role with the Prime Minister; the Emperor's powers are limited only to important ceremonial functions. Article 4 of the Constitution stipulates that the Emperor "shall perform only such acts in matters of state as are provided for in the Constitution and he shall not have powers related to government." It stipulates that "the advice and approval of the Cabinet shall be required for all acts of the Emperor in matters of state". Article 4 states that these duties can be delegated by the Emperor as provided for by law. While the Emperor formally appoints the Prime Minister to office, Article 6 of the Constitution requires him to appoint the candidate "as designated by the Diet", without giving the Emperor the right to decline appointment.
Article 6 of the Constitution delegates the Emperor the following ceremonial roles: Appointment of the Prime Minister as designated by the Diet. Appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as designated by the Cabinet; the Emperor's other duties are laid down in article 7 of the Constitution, where it is stated that "the Emperor, with the advice and approval of the Cabinet, shall perform the following acts in matters of state on behalf of the people." In practice, all of these duties are exercised only in accordance with the binding instructions of the Cabinet: Promulgation of amendments of the constitution, cabinet orders, treaties. Convocation of the Diet. Dissolution of the House of Representatives. Proclamation of general election of members of the Diet. Attestation of the appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State and other officials as provided for by law, of full powers and credentials of Ambassadors and Ministers. Attestation of general and special amnesty, commutation of punishment and restoration of rights.
Awarding of honors. Attestation of instruments of ratification and other diplomatic documents as provided for by law. Receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers. Performance of ceremonial functions. Regular ceremonies of the Emperor with a constitutional basis are the Imperial Investitures in the Tokyo Imperial Palace and the Speech from the Throne ceremony in the House of Councillors in the National Diet Building; the latter ceremony opens extra sessions of the Diet. Ordinary sessions are opened each January and after new elections to the House of Representatives. Extra sessions convene in the autumn and are opened then. Although the Emperor has been a symbol of continuity with the past, the degree of power exercised by the Emperor has varied throughout Japanese history. In the early 7th century, the Emperor had begun to be called the "Son of Heaven"; the title of Emperor was borrowed from China, being derived from Chinese characters and was retroactively applied to the legendary Japanese rulers who reigned before the 7th–8th centuries AD.
According to the traditional account of the Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded by Emperor Jimmu in 660 BC. Modern historians agree that the Emperors before the possible late 3rd century AD ruler known traditionally as Emperor Ōjin are legendary. Emperor Ank
William George Aston
William George Aston was a British diplomat and scholar-expert in the language and history of Japan and Korea. Aston was born near Ireland, he distinguished himself at Queen's College, which he attended 1859-1863. There he received a thorough philological training in Latin, French and modern history. One of his professors was James McCosh. Aston was appointed in 1864 student interpreter to the British Legation in Japan, he mastered the theory of the Japanese verb, in Edo began, with Ernest Mason Satow, those profound researches into the Japanese language which laid the foundations of the critical study of the Japanese language by western scholars. Aston passed the examination for entry to the Consular Service in 1884, served in the British consular service in Tokyo and Nagasaki. From 1884-1885, Aston served as the United Kingdom's consul-general in Korea, he returned to consular duties in Tokyo as Secretary of British Legation in 1885. Aston retired from the foreign service on a pension in 1889 because of ill-health and settled in England.
He was appointed CMG in the 1889 Birthday Honours. Aston made a major contribution to the fledgling study of Japan's language and history in the 19th century. Along with Ernest Mason Satow and Basil Hall Chamberlain, he was one of three major British Japanologists active in Japan during the 19th century. Aston was the first translator of the Nihongi into the English language. Other publications were A History of Japanese Literature, he lectured to the Asiatic Society of Japan several times, many of his papers are published in their Transactions. In 1912 Cambridge University Library acquired 10,000 rare Japanese volumes from the collections of Aston and Satow which formed the starting point of the Library's Japanese collection. Okamoto Kidō recalls in chapter eleven on the development and adaption of drama of his book, 明治劇談ランプの下にて, Meiji Gekidan Ranpu no Shitanite meeting Aston at the British Legation... I made up my mind to read the scripts of a foreign country. Around that time I went to the British Embassy, still known as the Legation, imposed myself on the Secretary Mr. Aston in his room.
I was at the time babysitting Mr. Aston’s children, he had considerable understanding of Japanese literature. However Mr. Aston had brought into the Legation with him the scripts of various foreign plays, he had brought the complete works of Shakespeare though I doubted though they were there that I would read them. So Mr. Aston, knowing the scripts of the various plays gave me readings, after all it was just the summary that I wanted to hear and as a consequence, based on that, I didn’t end up appreciating the technique of playwriting, but that I didn’t appreciate the techniques of playwriting from just listening it was kind of him and I often went to his room to listen to and discuss drama. The following summer, July if I remember I went as usual to visit him when Mr. Aston, said ‘similarly you don’t know about this person’s publications’ and showed me five books containing six volumes in temporary bindings, published. They, the Kawatake Mokuami script series, had been published as articles by the Ginza’s Kabuki Shinpō Company.
They covered ‘Nakamitsu’, ‘Four Thousand Ryō‘ and ‘Kagatobi’. When I went I had no idea that they had been successively published and had been delivered from a Ginza bookstore. I leapt for joy and straight away started going to him and borrowing them so that I could indulge myself by reading them. In 1884, Aston was the first European diplomatic representative. Political instability caused him to leave in 1885. In 1885—1887, Aston continued Korean language studies in Tokyo with Kim Chae-guk; this Korean teacher composed a number of stories for Aston to use as practice. Aston donated these manuscript versions of Korean folk tales to the Asiatic Museum in St. Petersberg and they were published in 2004; this part of Aston's personal collection is now preserved in the Academy of Sciences in St Petersburg. After retiring from the consular service, Aston published books on Japanese literature and Japanese religion as well as a number of articles on Korean subjects, he died 22 November 1911 at Devon. Along with the Japanese books mentioned Aston's substantial collection of Chinese and Korean books was acquired by Cambridge University Library after his death.
The only known likeness of Aston is in the National Portrait Gallery in London. A 1911 crayon drawing of Aston by Minnie Agnes Cohen only suggests what he might have looked like as a younger man. Little is known about Aston's personal life because he left no letters or diaries. In a statistical overview derived from writings by and about William George Aston, OCLC/WorldCat encompasses 90+ works in 200+ publications in 4 languages and 3,000+ library holdings. 1869 — A Short Grammar of the Japanese Spoken Language 1872 — A Grammar of the Japanese Written Language, with a short chrestomalthy 1877 — A Grammar of the Japanese Written Language 1888 — A Grammar of the Japanese Spoken Language 1889 — Early Japanese history 1896 — Nihongi. D. 697 1899 — A History of Japanese Literature 1899 — Toriwi--its derivation 1902 — Littérature japonaise 1905 — Shinto, the Way of the Gods. 1907 — Shinto, the Ancient Religion of Japan 1879 — "H. M. S. Phaeton at Nagasaki," Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, Vol. 7, pp. 323–336.
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