SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Emperor of Ethiopia

The Emperor of Ethiopia was the hereditary ruler of the Ethiopian Empire, until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975. The Emperor was the head of state and head of government, with ultimate executive and legislative power in that country. A National Geographic article called; the title of "King of Kings" rendered imprecisely in English as "Emperor", dates back to ancient Mesopotamia, but was used in Axum by King Sembrouthes. However, Yuri Kobishchanov dates this usage to the period following the Persian victory over the Romans in 296–297, its use, from at least the reign of Yekuno Amlak onward, meant that both subordinate officials and tributary rulers, notably the gubernatorial vassals of Gojjam, the seaward provinces and Shewa, received the honorific title of nəgus, a word for "king." The consort of the Emperor was referred to as the ətege. Empress Zauditu used the feminized form nəgəstä nägäst to show that she reigned in her own right, did not use the title of ətege. At the death of a monarch any male or female blood relative of the Emperor could claim succession to the throne: sons, brothers and nephews all inherited at times.

Practice did not always enforce it. The system developed two approaches to controlling the succession: the first, employed on occasion before the 20th century, involved interning all of the Emperor's possible rivals in a secure location, which drastically limited their ability to disrupt the Empire with revolts or to dispute the succession of an heir apparent. Ethiopian traditions do not all agree as to when the custom started of imprisoning rivals to the throne on a Mountain of the Princes. One tradition credits this practice to the Zagwe king Yemrehana Krestos, who received the idea in a dream. Another tradition, recorded by historian Thomas Pakenham, states that this practice predates the Zagwe dynasty, was first practiced on Debre Damo, captured by the 10th-century queen Gudit, who isolated 200 princes there to death. Taddesse Tamrat argues that this practice began in the reign of Wedem Arad, following the struggle for succession that he believes lies behind the series of brief reigns of the sons of Yagbe'u Seyon.

A constructivist approach states that the tradition was used on occasion, weakened or lapsed sometimes, was sometimes revived to full effect after some unfortunate disputes – and that the custom started in time immemorial as Ethiopian common inheritance patterns allowed all agnates to succeed to the lands of the monarchy – which however is contrary to keeping the country undivided. The potential royal rivals were incarcerated at Amba Geshen until Ahmed Gragn captured that site in 1540 and destroyed it. Rumors of these royal mountain residences were part of the inspiration for Samuel Johnson's short story, Rasselas. Although the Emperor of Ethiopia had theoretically unlimited power over his subjects, his councillors came to play an increasing role in governing Ethiopia, because many Emperors were succeeded either by a child, or one of the incarcerated princes, who could only leave their prisons with help from the outside; as a result, by the mid-18th century the power of the Emperor had been transferred to his deputies, like Ras Mikael Sehul of Tigray, who held actual power in the Empire and elevated or deposed Emperors at will.

The Emperors of Ethiopia derived their right to rule based on two dynastic claims: their descent from the kings of Axum, their descent from Menelik I, the son of Solomon and Makeda, Queen of Sheba. The claim to their relationship to the Kings of Axum derives from Yakuno Amlak's claim that he was the descendant of Dil Na'od, through his father, although he defeated and killed the last Zagwe king in battle, his claim to the throne was helped by his marriage to that king's daughter though Ethiopians do not acknowledge claims from the distaff side. The claim of descent from Menelik I is based on the assertion that the kings of Axum were the descendants of Menelik I. While the surviving records of these kings fail to shed light on their origins, this genealogical claim is first documented in the 10th century by an Arab historian. Interpretations of this claim vary widely; some accept it as evident fact. At the other extreme, others understand this as an expression of propaganda, attempting to connect the legitimacy of the state to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.

Some scholars take an approach in the middle, attempting to either find a connection between Axum and the South Arabian kingdom of Saba, or between Axum and the pre-exilic Kingdom of Judah. Due to lack of primary materials, it is not possible as of 2006 to determine which theory is the more plausible; the restored Solomonic dynasty, which claimed descent from the old Aksumite rulers, ruled Ethiopia from the 13th century u

Marty Rhone

Marty Rhone is an Australian pop singer-songwriter and talent manager. In July 1975 his single, "Denim and Lace", peaked at No. 2 on the Australian Kent Music Report Singles Chart. He had another hit in June 1977 with "Mean Pair of Jeans", which reached No. 10. As an actor, he appeared on the Australian stage in Godspell. From late 1987 to August 1990, he was the business manager of a trio of brothers, the Australian boxing champions: Dean and Troy Waters. Marty Rhone was born as Karel Lawrence van Rhoon on 7 May 1948 in Dutch East Indies, his father was Eddy Emile van Rhoon, a clerk and former flying navigator in the Dutch East Indies navy during World War II. His mother was Judith Olive, she was a actress, who met Eddy through the Sydney jazz scene. The couple married in Judith accompanied Eddy to Soerabaja; the family migrated to Australia on 21 April 1950 and lived in Sydney and Brisbane, moved to Darwin. Eddy worked as a Communications Officer for the Department of Civil Aviation; the family remained in Darwin until mid-1960, by which time Rhone had a younger sister, Kymn Dale and brother, Martin Richard.

Rhone was taught piano by his father but he preferred singing. In August 1959, aged 11, he first performed publicly at Darwin's Mitchell Street Town Hall in Around the World in 80 Minutes – a charity variety concert – alongside his father on piano and his mother. After he finished primary school, the family moved to Sydney, where he attended Crows Nest Boys High School. In mid-1961 he appeared on a talent quest segment of ATN7-TV series, Tarax Show, was offered a singing spot on a children's show, Kaper Kabaret. In late 1965 he formed a band, The Blue Feelings, they auditioned for an appearance on Saturday Date, a teen music show. After the audition Spin Records owner, Nat Kipner, signed Rhone to a recording contract and the label issued his debut single, "Nature Boy", in February the following year. For his next two singles, "Thirteen Women" and "I Want You Back Again", Rhone was backed by Spin Records label mates, The Soul Agents, a beat pop group, they had formed in 1964 and by 1966 consisted of Jerry Darmic on bass guitar, Roger Felice-Andrews on drums, John Green on guitar and Barry Kelly on organ.

Rhone's fourth single, "She Is Mine", included the self-penned B-side, "Village Tapestry", which appeared in September. None of these singles charted on the Go-Set National Top 40, however Australian musicologist, Ian McFarlane, described "Village Tapestry" as being "highly regarded among 1960s aficionados". In Iain McIntyre's book, Tomorrow Is Today: Australia in the Psychedelic Era, 1966-1970, the track was listed by Ian D. Marks as one of the'Top 7 Proto-Psychedelic Australian Tracks from 1966'. Marks described it as "completely out of left field. With a gentle medieval lilt, autoharps a-strumming and a charming spoken word verse—there was nothing like this released in Australia at the time. Melodic and delicate". During 1966 Marty Rhone and The Soul Agents supported The Rolling Stones on the United Kingdom rock group's tour of Australia, they performed on the bill of the P. J. Proby Show at the Sydney Stadium with Wayne Fontana, Eden Kane and The Bee Gees appearing. Rhone moved to Melbourne and issued five more singles on Spin Records but had "limited success".

By March 1970 Rhone was conscripted for National Service until 1972. During his service he attended the Royal Military College, Duntroon, as a member of their band, for 18 months. From April 1972 to July 1973 he acted in the Australian stage version of Godspell at The Richbrooke, Sydney with Rod Dunbar, Peita Toppano and John Waters; the Australian cast soundtrack album was issued as Godspell: a Musical Based on the Gospel According to St. Matthew on His Master's Voice, he attended the Sydney Conservatorium of Music and in July 1973 he released a new single, "Goodbye in May". He composed the music for Ruzzante Returns from the Wars, which starred Ivar Kants and ran at the Parade Theatre, Kensington from May to June 1974 as a one-act play, it is based on the text of Angelo Beolco's Il Parlamento de Ruzante written in Italy during the mid-16th century. As a double bill at the same venue, Rhone performed the music he had composed for La Mandragola, a satirical play by another 16th-century Italian, Niccolò Machiavelli.

It had roles by Pamela Stephenson and Ingrid Mason. Rhone followed with appearances on TV soap operas, Number 96 and Class of'75. By mid-1975 Rhone had signed with M7 Records and issued his next single, "Denim and Lace", which peaked at No. 2 on the Australian Kent Music Report Singles Chart. It was promoted on the Class of'75 soundtrack album, it was co-written by F Lyons. Lister and Lyons produced Rhone's debut album and Lace, recording at Alberts Studio 139. At the end of the year "Denim and Lace" was the second highest selling single in Australia, his next single, "Star Song", reached the Top 50, the next two were less successful, while the last one for the year, "On the Loose" reached the Top 40. Of the four singles, "On the Loose" – co-written by Brian Dawe and Steve Groves – was used by Rhone to win the 1976 Australian Popular Song Festival. In June 1

Mike Davis (boat builder)

Mike Davis was a boat builder, a hands-on advocate for making recreational boat usage available on the Hudson River from New York City and New Jersey. Michael Kincaid Davis was born in Baltimore on December 6, 1939, he was one of three children. While his father was a captain in the United States Coast Guard, it was his experience as an anthropologist and archeologist that triggered his nautical interests, he graduated from Beloit College in 1964 and was awarded a master's degree at the University of Oklahoma in anthropology. He worked with archeological teams from the University of Chicago, spent several years working on an archeological dig in Turkey at Diyarbakır, near the Euphrates River; the dig was interrupted by guerrilla activity. After spending time in Istanbul and seeing how individuals could rent a boat and take it out rowing on the Bosporus, he came to the conclusion that the same thing should be available on the Hudson River. Davis noted that "as late as 1933 there were 41 boathouses in Manhattan, while now there is just one."After reading articles in boating journals, Davis created an organization called Floating the Apple in March 1994 to help provide boating opportunities on the Hudson River.

With financial assistance from the Open Space Institute, Davis decided that the group should build boats and make them available for public use. A design was developed for a boat that could accommodate ten passengers, the boats were constructed using donated tools in space made available to Davis by the 42d Street Development Corporation; the boats that Davis constructed were Whitehall gigs, a longer version of the traditional Whitehall Rowboat that dates back to a 250-year-old design, the type of boat George Washington used to get his troops across the East River during the Battle of Long Island. As of 2008, Floating the Apple was located at Pier 84 in Hudson River Park. Other spinoff groups, such as the Village Community Boathouse, are now located at Pier 40, the East River Crew on East 96th Street, Rocking the Boat in the South Bronx, in Weehawken, New Jersey and at five other locations north of New York City. Davis was a resident of Manhattan and died at age 68 on November 3, 2008; the cause of death was not determined