Empress Genshō

Empress Genshō was the 44th monarch of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. She was the only empress regnant in Japan's history to have inherited her title from another empress regnant rather than from a male predecessor. Genshō's reign spanned the years 715 through 724. In the history of Japan, Genshō was the fifth of eight women to take on the role of empress regnant; the four female monarchs before Genshō were: Suiko, Kōgyoku, Jitō and Genmei. The three women sovereigns reigning after Genshō were Kōken, Meishō, Go-Sakuramachi. Before her ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, her personal name was Hidaka-hime. Genshō was an elder sister of Emperor Monmu and daughter of Prince Kusakabe and his wife who became Empress Genmei. Therefore, she was a granddaughter of Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō by her father and a granddaughter of Emperor Tenji through her mother. Empress Genshō's succession to the throne was intended as a regency until Prince Obito, the son of her deceased younger brother Monmu, was mature enough to ascend the throne.

Obito would become the Emperor Shōmu. Obito was appointed Crown Prince in 714 by Empress Genmei. In the next year, 715, Empress Genmei in her fifties, abdicated in favor of her daughter Genshō. Obito was 14 years old. 715: In the 7th year of Genmei-tennō's reign, the empress abdicated. Shortly thereafter, Empress Genshō acceded to the throne as Empress Regnant. Obito remained heir to the new empress. Fujiwara no Fuhito, the most powerful courtier in Genmei's court, remained at his post until his death in 720. After his death, Prince Nagaya, a grandson of Tenmu and the Empress Genshō's cousin, seized power; this power shift was a background for conflicts between Nagaya and Fuhito's four sons during the reign of Emperor Shōmu. Under Genshō's reign, the Nihon Shoki was finished in 720; this was the first Japanese history book. Organization of the law system known as the ritsuryō was continued under the initiatives of Fuhito until his death; these laws and codes were edited and enacted by Fujiwara no Nakamaro, a grandson of Fuhito, published as Yōrō ritsuryō under the name of Fuhito.

The taxation system, introduced by Empress Jitō in the late 7th century began to malfunction. To compensate for the decreased tax revenue, the "Act of possession in three generations", an initiative of Prince Nagaya, was enacted in 723. Under this act, people were allowed to possess a newly cultivated field once every three generations. In the fourth generation, the right of possession would revert to the national government; this act was intended to motivate new cultivation, but it only remained in effect for about 20 years. Empress Genshō reigned for nine years. Although there were seven other reigning empresses, their successors were most selected from amongst the males of the paternal Imperial bloodline, why some conservative scholars argue that the women's reigns were temporary and that male-only succession tradition must be maintained in the 21st century. Empress Genmei, succeeded by her daughter, remains the sole exception to this conventional argument. In 724, Genshō abdicated in favor of her nephew.

Genshō lived for 25 years. She never had no children, she died at age 65. Empress Genshō's grave is located in Nara; this empress is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine in Nara. The Imperial Household Agency has designated this location as Monmu's mausoleum, has been formally named Nahoyama no nishi no misasagi; the Imperial tomb can be visited today in Nara City. Kugyō is a collective term for the few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time; these were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Genshō's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included: Daijō-daijin, Toneri-shinnō. 720–735 Sadaijin, Isonokami no Maro. 708–717 Udaijin, Fujiwara no Fuhito. 708–720 Udaijin, Prince Nagaya. 721–724 Dainagon, Abe no Sukunamaro. 718–720 Dainagon, Prince Nagaya. 718–721 Dainagon, Tajihi no Ikemori. 721–730 The years of Genshō's reign are more identified by more than one era name or nengō.

Reiki Yōrō Jinki Japanese empresses Emperor of Japan List of Emperors of Japan Imperial cult Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; the Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5.

San José Acatempa

San José Acatempa is a municipality in the Jutiapa department of Guatemala. One of the first towns founded by the Spanish conquistadors in 1525 under the command of Capitán General Don Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras, on route to conquer the region of the old kingdom of Cuzcatlan, now parts of southeastern Guatemala and the republic of El Salvador; the town was known by the name of Azacualpa, during the colonial period, the region was known as Valle de Zacualpa. San José Acatempa received its current name in 1944 by order of General Jorge Ubico. According to historical records, the region was occupied by indigenous people that were either annihilated or expelled by groups of families of Spanish conquistadors; these pioneers were self-denominated as gypsies from Hungary and Spanish-speaking, some Hungarians were Jews but the majority belonged to the Romani ethnicity that were mixed with Spaniards that originated from Navarra, País Vasco, Andalucia. This explains the small proportion of individuals with light dark skin, a characteristic of people with Mediterranean origin.

Another discussed hypothesis asserts that those Romani may have arrived to Spain from Jewish descendants passing through Egypt and Morocco. Among the original families of which took over the lands of San José Acatempa include the family surnames of: Alvarez, Cano, Cermeño, García, Jiménez, Pineda, among others; the surname of Segura was added which according to records began by the arrival of the colonel of the colonial Spanish army Carlos Segura in the late 19th century. Coronel Segura took the commanding officer position of the army in Azacualpa. San José Acatempa is a municipality with an estimated population of 11,000, it is believed that at least 4,000 people have migrated to the United States from the 1960s alone, such migration has been driven by economic reasons and search for educational opportunities. Jokingly, people states. In general, people from Acatempa have great appreciation for horsemanship; the population is dedicated to the cultivation of coffee. High proportion among male adults find jobs in the army, police forces, private security companies.

In contrast, women tend to work in domestic duties. Culturally, males accustom to dress cowboy style and women dress conservative. Both males and females show preference for ranchera music, this, makes the guitar and accordion the most popular played instruments in the municipality. Spanish is the spoken language, it is characterized by common usage of old Spanish/Castilian forms; the people of Acatempa are known for their genuine hospitality, they receive visitors with open arms. Major problems of the municipality include but not limited to: violent crimes, land tenure, scarcity of water, contaminated river, lack of agricultural extension services, health care services, extreme poverty


WCRU is a radio station licensed to Dallas, North Carolina and serving the Charlotte area. The station is owned by Truth Broadcasting Corporation; the 960 frequency in Charlotte first went on the air with the call letters WAAK on January 1, 1963. As the station was applied for, it was to be licensed in Concord with 1,000 watts daytime and nighttime. In 1960. Fred Whitley, owner of WGTL in neighboring Kannapolis applied for the frequency as a daytime-only station in Dallas in order to keep new competition out of his market, he won the construction permit for the station in Dallas, took the call letters WAAK off the top of the Federal Communications Commission call letter list, refurbished WGTL's studio and put the old WGTL console in Dallas. William E. Rumple was the Chief Engineer of the station for the entire time that Fred Whitley owned it. Whitley ran the station on a break-even basis for about 25 years. In the mid-1980s he sold it to the Marlow Brothers from New Jersey; the new ownership made sweeping changes to the station, changing it from the Easy-Listening format the station carried during the Whitley years to an Adult-Leaning Top-40 sound, adding another tower to allow the station to broadcast at night.

The establishment of several Top-40 stations in the Charlotte market eroded the listenership of WAAK, by 1990 the station was sold again and moved to a Religious format. Several ownership changes took place over the next decade. In December 2002, WAAK was sold to The Zybek Media Group - who changed the format to the Talk Radio format, they changed the legendary calls to WZRH with the moniker "The Z-Monster". The new owners filed for a power increase in its attempt to place a stronger signal over the city of Charlotte; the initials ZRH of WZRH stand for Son of Rick and Beth Howerton, Owners. As Rick's on-going health problems continued to worsen - broadcast duties were given to Brian O'Brian, until the station was sold; because of the success of the station and the increase in power, there was a great deal interest in the purchase of the station. The station was sold in mid-2004 to Truth Broadcasting. Jim Huggins assumed general manager duties and broadcast the morning drivetime show for a year until the format was changed from news/talk to Christian by Truth Broadcasting.

Two years the station was sold yet again to Truth Broadcasting of Winston-Salem. The station continued its talk format until May 21, 2007, when the station began airing religious and talk format programs 24/7. In early 2008, the station's call letters were changed to WCRU to match the call letters and programming format of Truth Broadcasting's other AM stations, WTRU in the Piedmont Triad and WDRU in the Triangle, it is operated out of WTRU's studios in Winston-Salem. The station now operates at 10,000 watts during the day covering most of the Charlotte area. However, it must power down to 500 watts at night to protect several clear-channel stations on adjacent channels. To make up for this, the station operates a low-powered translator at 105.7 FM in Pineville, North Carolina. Official site Site with much historical information on Charlotte-area radio stations Query the FCC's AM station database for WCRU Radio-Locator Information on WCRU Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for WCRU