En plein air, or plein air painting, is the act of painting outdoors. This method contrasts with academic rules that might create a predetermined look. Artists have long painted outdoors, but in the mid-19th century, working in natural light became important to the Barbizon school, Hudson River School, Impressionists. In 1830, the Barbizon School in France, enabled artists like Charles-François Daubigny and Théodore Rousseau to more depict the appearance of outdoor settings in various light and weather conditions. In the late 1800s, the en plein air approach was incorporated with the impressionists’ style, artists such as Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley and Frédéric Bazille began creating their work outdoors. From France, the movement expanded to America, starting in California moving to other American locales notable for their natural light qualities, including the Hudson River Valley in New York; the Macchiaioli were a group of Italian painters active in Tuscany in the second half of the nineteenth century, breaking with the antiquated conventions taught by the Italian academies of art, did much of their painting outdoors in order to capture natural light and colour.
This practice relates the Macchiaioli to the French Impressionists who came to prominence a few years although the Macchiaioli pursued somewhat different purposes. Their movement began in Florence in the late 1850s; the Newlyn School in England is considered another major proponent of the technique in the latter 19th century. The popularity of painting en plein air increased in the 1840s with the introduction of paints in tubes. Painters made their own paints by grinding and mixing dry pigment powders with linseed oil; the act of outdoor painting from observation has been continually popular well into the 21st century. It was during the mid-19th century that the'box easel' known as the'French box easel' or'field easel', was invented, it is uncertain who developed it, but these portable easels with telescopic legs and built-in paint box and palette made it easier to go into the forest and up the hillsides. Still made today, they remain a popular choice since they fold up to the size of a brief case and thus are easy to store.
The Pochade Box is a compact box that allows the artist to keep all their supplies and palette within the box and have the work on the inside of the lid. Some designs allow for a larger canvas. There are designs which can hold a few wet painting canvases or panels within the lid; these boxes have a rising popularity as while they are used for plein air painting, can be used in the studio, home, or classroom. Since pochade boxes are used for painting on location, the canvas or work surface may be small not more than 20 inches. Challenges include the type of paint used to paint outdoors, bugs and environmental conditions such as weather. Acrylic paint may harden and dry in warm, sunny weather and it cannot be reused. On the opposite side of the spectrum is the challenge of painting in moist or damp conditions with precipitation; the advent of plein air painting predated the invention of acrylics. The traditional and well-established method of painting en plein air incorporates the use of oil paint.
French impressionist painters such as Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Alfred Sisley, Pierre-Auguste Renoir advocated plein air painting, much of their work was done outdoors in the diffuse light of a large white umbrella. Claude Monet was an avid en plein air artist who deduced that to seize the closeness and likeness of an outside setting at a specific moment one had to be outside to do so rather than just paint an outside setting in their studio. In the second half of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century in Russia, painters such as Vasily Polenov, Isaac Levitan, Valentin Serov, Konstantin Korovin and I. E. Grabar were known for painting en plein air, but enthusiasts of plein air painting were not limited to the Old World. American impressionists too, such as those of the Old Lyme school, were avid painters en plein air. American impressionist painters noted for this style during this era included Guy Rose, Robert William Wood, Mary DeNeale Morgan, John Gamble, Arthur Hill Gilbert.
The Greek Tjeld type patrol boats were a set of six fast patrol boats built to a Norwegian design and operated by the Hellenic Navy during the 1960s and early 1970s. The six vessels were built by the Norwegian company Westermoen of Mandal, Norway, to the same design as that of the Tjeld class patrol boats built by Westermoen for the Royal Norwegian Navy in 1959; this was in turn based on their prototype fast patrol boat, the Nasty, the Greek vessels are described as the "Improved Nasty type". Other sources give the names "Nasty-type" and "Nasty-class" patrol boats; the vessels were ordered in 1965, identical to the Tjeld boats except they had two 40mm guns instead of the single 40mm and 20mm guns of the Tjeld boats. They were delivered in 1967, commissioned with astronomical names, they were the first warships built for the Greek navy since the 1930s. The six vessels remained in service until the 1980s. In 1982 Iniohos was discarded and the remaining vessels were re-numbered P196-200. In 1989 four boats were re-engined and re-activated.
The Inter-Scholastic Athletic Association or ISAA is an athletic sports organization in the Philippines formed by seven universities and colleges namely FEATI University, La Consolacion College Manila, Lyceum of the Philippines University, Manila Adventist College, Manila Tytana Colleges Manila Doctors College, Philippine Women’s University, Southville International School and Colleges. The grand opening of the league was held on September 09, 2009 at Manila Tytana Colleges in Macapagal Boulevard, Pasay City; the founding member-schools have come together to form this sports organization that aims to promote sports program and develop student-athletes. As the league progressed, schools like Philippine Merchant Marine School, St. Dominic College of Asia, PATTS College of Aeronautics had joined the organization. Through the years this young league has been blessed with the presence of sporting glitterati, it has been nine spectacular years. We are growing in number, it is an exhilarating time for us.
We are the ISAA. We are young. We are sports. We play…to win. Manila Tytana Colleges – MTC Titans FEATI University – FEATI Seahawks Manila Adventist College - MAC Soaring Angels La Consolacion College Manila – LCCM Blue Royals Philippine Women's University – PWU Patriots PATTS College of Aeronautics – PATTS Sea Horses Immaculada Concepcion College - ICC Blue Hawks ICCT Colleges Foundation, Inc. - ICCT Blue Dragons Treston International College - Treston Golden Lions Trinity University of Asia - TUA Stallions Airlink International Aviation College - Blazing Phoenix Taguig City University - TCU Catfish St. Dominic College Of Asia – Dominican Red Pikes FEU - East Asia College -iTamaraws Basketball Volleyball Table Tennis Swimming Badminton Bowling Futsal Chess University Athletic Association of the Philippines National Collegiate Athletic Association Philippine Collegiate Champions League