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Endometrium

The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus. It has a functional layer. In most other mammals, the endometrium is reabsorbed in the estrous cycle. During pregnancy, the glands and blood vessels in the endometrium further increase in size and number. Vascular spaces fuse and become interconnected, forming the placenta, which supplies oxygen and nutrition to the embryo and fetus; the speculated presence of an endometrial microbiota has been argued against. The endometrium consists of the stroma on which it rests; the stroma is a layer of connective tissue that varies in thickness according to hormonal influences. In the uterus, simple tubular glands reach from the endometrial surface through to the base of the stroma, which carries a rich blood supply provided by the spiral arteries. In a woman of reproductive age, two layers of endometrium can be distinguished; these two layers occur only in the endometrium lining the cavity of the uterus, not in the lining of the Fallopian tubes.

The functional layer is adjacent to the uterine cavity. This layer is built up after the end of menstruation during the first part of the previous menstrual cycle. Proliferation is induced by estrogen, changes in this layer are engendered by progesterone from the corpus luteum, it is adapted to provide an optimum environment for the growth of the embryo. This layer is shed during menstruation; the basal layer, adjacent to the myometrium and below the functional layer, is not shed at any time during the menstrual cycle. The functional layer develops on top of it. In the absence of progesterone, the arteries supplying blood to the functional layer constrict, so that cells in that layer become ischaemic and die, leading to menstruation, it is possible to identify the phase of the menstrual cycle by reference to either the ovarian cycle or the uterine cycle by observing microscopic differences at each phase—for example in the ovarian cycle: About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and some 70% of these genes are expressed in the normal endometrium.

Just over 100 of these genes are more expressed in the endometrium with only a handful genes being endometrium specific. The corresponding specific proteins are expressed in the glandular and stromal cells of the endometrial mucosa; the expression of many of these proteins vary depending on the menstrual cycle, for example the progesterone receptor and thyrotropin-releasing hormone both expressed in the proliferative phase, PAEP expressed in the secretory phase. Other proteins such as the HOX11 protein, required for female fertility, is expressed in endometrial stroma cells throughout the menstrual cycle. Certain specific proteins such as the estrogen receptor are expressed in other types of female tissue types, such as the cervix, fallopian tubes and breast; the uterus and endometrium was for a long time thought to be sterile. The cervical plug of mucosa was seen to prevent the entry of any microorganisms ascending from the vagina. In the 1980s this view was challenged when it was shown that uterine infections could arise from weaknesses in the barrier of the cervical plug.

Organisms from the vaginal microbiota could enter the uterus during uterine contractions in the menstrual cycle. Further studies sought to identify microbiota specific to the uterus which would be of help in identifying cases of unsuccessful IVF and miscarriages, their findings were seen to be unreliable due to the possibility of cross-contamination in the sampling procedures used. The well-documented presence of Lactobacillus species, for example, was explained by an increase in the vaginal population being able to seep into the cervical mucous. Another study highlighted the flaws of the earlier studies including cross-contamination, it was argued that the evidence from studies using germ-free offspring of axenic animals showed the sterility of the uterus. The authors concluded; the normal dominance of Lactobacilli in the vagina is seen as a marker for vaginal health. However, in the uterus this much lower population is seen as invasive in a closed environment, regulated by female sex hormones, that could have unwanted consequences.

In studies of endometriosis Lactobacillus is not the dominant type and there are higher levels of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species. Half of the cases of bacterial vaginitis showed a polymicrobial biofilm attached to the endometrium; the endometrium is the innermost lining layer of the uterus, functions to prevent adhesions between the opposed walls of the myometrium, thereby maintaining the patency of the uterine cavity. During the menstrual cycle or estrous cycle, the endometrium grows to a thick, blood vessel-rich, glandular tissue layer; this represents an optimal environment for the implantation of a blastocyst upon its arrival in the uterus. The endometrium is central and has an average thickness of 6.7 mm. During pregnancy, the glands and blood vessels in the endometrium further increase in size and number. Vascular spaces fuse and become interconnected, forming the placenta, which supplies oxygen and nutrition to the embryo and fetus; the endometrial lining undergoes cyclic regeneration.

Humans and some other species display the menstrual cycle, whereas most other mammals are subject to an estrous cycle. In both cases

Galleria nazionale di Parma

The Galleria nazionale di Parma is an art gallery in Parma, northern Italy. Painters exhibited include Beato Angelico, Correggio, Sebastiano del Piombo, Leonardo da Vinci, Parmigianino and others; the Parmesan collections were established in Renaissance times by the Farnese family, with Pope Paul III and cardinal Alessandro Farnese. In 1734 Charles III of Spain had most of the works moved to Naples: some were kept thanks to the intervention of Philip, Duke of Parma, the collection was increased with the addition of Greco-Roman findings and restitutions from Naples, as well as through acquisitions under Duke Ferdinand. During the French occupation of Parma, the works were moved to Paris, returning in 1816. Duchess Marie Louise reordered the collections in the Palazzo della Pilotta and built the hall which now brings her name, she acquired several noble collections in the duchy to avoid their dispersal. Official website

Lemuel Francis Abbott

Lemuel "Francis" Abbott was an English portrait painter, famous for his likeness of Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson and for those of other naval officers and literary figures of the 18th century. He was born Lemuel Abbott in Leicestershire in 1760 or 1761, the son of clergyman Lemuel Abbott, curate of Anstey and his wife Mary. In 1775, at the age of 14, he became a pupil of Francis Hayman and lived in London, but returned to his parents after his teacher's death in 1776. There he continued to develop his artistic talents independently, but some authorities have suggested that he may have studied with Joseph Wright of Derby. In 1780, Abbott married Anna Maria, again settled in London, residing for many years in Caroline Street in Bloomsbury. Although he exhibited at the Royal Academy, he never became an Academician, it is said that overwork, due to the commissions he took on, domestic unhappiness led to his becoming insane. He was declared insane in 1798 and was treated by Dr Thomas Munro, the chief physician to Bethlem Hospital and a specialist in mental disorders – Munro treated King George III.

Abbott died in London on 5 December 1802. Abbott painted portraits of many figures of the day including leading seamen such as Admiral Nelson, Admiral Sir Robert Calder, Rear-Admiral Sir Thomas Pasley and Captain William Locker, astronomer Sir William Herschel, poet William Cowper, artists Francesco Bartolozzi and Joseph Nollekens, entrepreneur Matthew Boulton and industrialist John Wilkinson amongst others, his portrait of Henry Callender, Captain General of the Royal Blackheath Golf Club, is one of the earliest portrayals of the game of golf. Reproductions hang in golf clubs the world over, it was sold at Bonhams in London on 9 December 2015. Some of his paintings were signed "Francis Lemuel Abbott", but it is not known why he assumed the additional Christian name, as it was not one with which he was baptised. Other famous paintings include, that off one addressed as follows: To the society of goffers at Blackheath this plate is with just respect Dedicated by their most humble servant, Lemuel Francis Abbott It is signed painted by L.

F. Abbott 1790, it is reported to be that of a pensioner. Captain Innes was. 69 paintings by or after Lemuel Francis Abbott at the Art UK site Portraits of Lemuel Francis Abbott at the National Portrait Gallery, London L F Abbott online L F Abbott on Artnet Portrait of John Sims Portrait of Matthew Boulton Portrait of James Heath

Richard Pattison

Richard Pattison is a climber from Northumberland in Great Britain, who resides in Sydney, Australia. He became well known in Northumberland after summitting Everest in 2009, which created front page headlines in the local newspaper "The Journal"; the Everest summit attracted further media attention from BBC Look-North, BBC Radio Newcastle and marketing for the Northumberland County Council. He writes a blog on "The Journal" website, he is working with Melisa Ang as claims that she is his biggest inspiration. Richard Pattison climbed Everest on a commercial expedition organised by Summitclimb via the South Col route from Nepal; the team summitted on 19 May 2009. He said of Everest: Climbing is my passion, I realised my life time dream in the Himalayas when I stood on top of the world. I summitted Everest on 19 May 2009, it had been a long journey building up experience and the mental toughness required to attempt such a great challenge. My summit day on Everest defines my life, no matter what I do in the future, I will never move beyond or past Everest.

The 7 Summits are the highest mountains of each of the seven continents. Richard Pattison completed the quest after climbing Everest in 2009, but the most notable was the adventurous new route on Vinson in Antarctica as part of an Australian exploratory expedition to the Dater glacier. Dates climbed: He is the 27th Briton to complete the 7 Summits, the 6th Australian. Mont Blanc in 2000 - 4,807mShishapangma in 2003 - 8,008mMatterhorn in 2009 - 4,478mBaruntse in 2009 - 7,120mMera Peak in 2009 - 6,560mIsland Peak in 2009 - 6,120mPokalde in 2009 - 5,806mAma Dablam in 2011 - 6,812mLobuche East in 2011 - 6,119m Parchermo in 2011 - 6,273m Yalung Ri in 2011 - 5,630m

Dick Harp

Richard F. Harp became the Kansas Jayhawks' fourth men's basketball coach in 1956, he coached for eight years until 1964. Harp's overall Kansas record was 121-82 and conference record was 53-45. After gaining a wealth of knowledge as a player and assistant under Phog Allen, Harp became the Kansas Jayhawks' head coach himself from 1956-1964. Harp compiled a 121-82 record in those eight seasons and led the Jayhawks to two conference titles and two NCAA tournament berths. In 1957, the Jayhawks captured the Midwest Regional and made it to the finals, only to be stopped by the University of North Carolina in a memorable 54-53 loss in triple overtime in Kansas City, Mo. Under his guidance, Wilt Chamberlain and Bill Bridges achieved All-American status. Chamberlain's relationship with Harp, was notably poor, fueled by resentment and disappointment: Chamberlain's biographer, Robert Cherry, has speculated that Chamberlain would not have chosen to attend Kansas if he had known that Harp's predecessor, Phog Allen, was going to retire in 1956.

Harp had served as Phog Allen's assistant for eight seasons before taking over for Allen in 1956. Prior to that Harp was head coach for two seasons at William Jewell College in Missouri. Harp played basketball at KU, lettering from 1938–1940 and was one of the starting guards on the 1940 team that lost to Indiana University in the NCAA finals. Harp served as the director of the Fellowship of Christian Athletes for 13 years after leaving the Jayhawks. Harp is one of only five people to have coached in an NCAA title game, he served as an assistant coach from 1986-1989 at North Carolina for Dean Smith - whom he coached as a player at Kansas when he was Allen's assistant. Coach Harp lived in Lawrence, Kansas until his death in March 2000. Harp's health had been failing for several years and he had fractured a hip, he died at his residence at Lawrence's Presbyterian Manor. He was survived by his wife of 56 years, Martha Sue, a son, Richard Layne Harp, of Las Vegas. List of NCAA Division I Men's Final Four appearances by coach Rock Chalk Zone UNC athletic department

Force multiplication

In military science, force multiplication or a force multiplier refers to a factor or a combination of factors that gives personnel or weapons the ability to accomplish greater feats than without it. The expected size increase required to have the same effectiveness without that advantage is the multiplication factor. For example, if a certain technology like GPS enables a force to accomplish the same results of a force five times as large but without GPS the multiplier is five; such estimates are used to justify an investment cost for force multipliers. Before the era of modern electronic communications, the Mongols used swarming tactics coordinated by effective military communications using flags and couriers. In the Middle Ages, archer's stakes were driven into the ground for protection from mounted men-at-arms; this is an example of another ancient method of force multiplication. Some common force multipliers are: Morale Mobility Fearsome reputation Technology Geographical features Weather Recruitment through diplomacy Training and experience Military strategy, such as the Fabian strategy Military tactics, such as force concentration Intelligence DeceptionSome factors may influence one another, e.g. enhanced technology improving morale or geographical features allowing deception.

In the First World War, the Germans experimented with what were called "storm tactics", where a small group of trained soldiers would open a salient through which much larger forces could penetrate. This met with only limited success, breaking through the first lines of defence but lacking the staying power to break the opposing forces while the 1939 Blitzkrieg, which broke through with coordinated mechanized ground forces with aircraft in close support, was vastly more effective. Towards the end of World War II, the German army introduced kampfgruppe combat formations that were composed of whatever units happened to be available. Though poor quality ones constituted the major part of them, they performed because of their high degree of flexibility and adaptability. Mission-type tactics, as opposed to specific directives that give no discretion to the junior commander, are used by modern militaries now due to their force multiplication. Originating from German concepts of Auftragstaktik, these tactics may be developing more in the concept of network-centric warfare where subordinate commanders receive information not only from their own commanders, but from adjacent units.

A different paradigm was one of the results of the theories of John Boyd, the "high-low mix" in which a large number of less expensive aircraft, coupled with a small number of capable "silver bullet" aircraft, had the effect of a much larger force. Boyd's concept of quick action is based on the repeated application of the "Boyd loop", consisting of the steps Observe: make use of the best sensors and other intelligence available Orient: put the new observations into a context with the old Decide: select the next action based on the combined observation and local knowledge Act: carry out the selected action, ideally while the opponent is still observing your last action. Boyd's concept is known as the OODA Loop, is a description of the decision-making process that Boyd contended applies to business, law enforcement and military operations. Boyd's doctrine is taught in the American military, one of the aims of network centric warfare is to "get inside his OODA loop"—that is, to go from observation to action before the enemy can get past orientation, preventing him from being able to make an effective decision or put it into action.

Small unit leadership is critical to this, NCW's ability to disseminate information to small unit leaders enables such tactics. Network-centric warfare can provide additional information and can help prevent friendly fire, but allows "swarm tactics" and the seizing of opportunities by subordinate forces; these are a realization of Boyd's theories. Defines " "a swarming case is any historical example in which the scheme of maneuver involves the convergent attack of five semiautonomous units on a targeted force in some particular place. "Convergent" implies an attack from most of the points on the compass." Another version of "swarming" is evident in air-to-ground attack formations in which the attack aircraft do not approach from one direction, at one time, or at the same altitude, but schedule the attacks so each one requires a Boyd-style OODA iteration to deal with a new threat. Replacement training units were "finishing schools" for pilots that needed to know not just the school solution, but the actual tactics being used in Vietnam.

Referring to close air support, "In the RTU, new pilots learned the rules of the road for working with a Forward air controller. The hardest part was finding the small aircraft; the fast-moving fighters used directional finding/steering equipment to get close enough to the slow, low FAC until someone in the flight could get an eyeball on him—a tally-ho. Once the FAC was in sight, he would give the fighters a target briefing—type of target, attack heading, location of friendlies, enemy defensive fire, best egress heading if hit by enemy fire, other pertinent data; the fighters would set up a circle, called a wheel or "wagon wheel", over the FAC, wait for him to mark the target. Once the target was marked, the flight leader would attack first. Napoleon is well known for his comment "The moral is to the physical as three to one." Former United States Secretary of State and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Colin Powell has said: "Perpetual optimism is a for