Whole-wheat flour or wholemeal flour is a powdery substance, a basic food ingredient, derived by grinding or mashing the whole grain of wheat known as the wheatberry. Whole-wheat flour is used in baking of breads and other baked goods, typically mixed with lighter "white" unbleached or bleached flours to restore nutrients and body to the white flours that can be lost in milling and other processing to the finished baked goods or other food. White whole-wheat flour is flour milled from hard white spring wheat, rather than traditional red wheat. In the United Kingdom and India, whole-wheat flour is more made from white wheat instead of red as in the United States; the difference is that soft white wheat has a lower gluten content, lacks the tannins and phenolic acids that red wheat contains, causing white whole wheat to appear and taste more like refined red wheat. White whole wheat has the same nutrient content as red whole wheat. However, soft white whole wheat has a lower gluten content and contains a lower protein content when compared with harder wheats like red or golden wheat.
Wheat flour Whole grain Unifine Mill Graham bread an early attempt to reintroduce whole-wheat bread Roman Meal a whole grain baking company founded in 1912 Whole Wheat Bread, Mayo Clinic
The egg cell, or ovum, is the female reproductive cell in oogamous organisms. The egg cell is not capable of active movement, it is much larger than the motile sperm cells; when egg and sperm fuse, a diploid cell is formed, which grows into a new organism. While the non-mammalian animal egg was obvious, the doctrine ex ovo omne vivum, associated with William Harvey, was a rejection of spontaneous generation and preformationism as well as a bold assumption that mammals reproduced via eggs. Karl Ernst von Baer discovered the mammalian ovum in 1827, Edgar Allen discovered the human ovum in 1928; the fusion of spermatozoa with ova was observed by Oskar Hertwig in 1876. In animals, egg cells are known as ova; the term ovule in animals is used for the young ovum of an animal. In vertebrates, ova are produced by female gonads called ovaries. A number of ova mature via oogenesis. White et al. disproved the longstanding dogma. The team from the Vincent Center for Reproductive Biology, Boston showed that oocyte formation takes place in ovaries of reproductive-age women.
This report challenged a fundamental belief, held since the 1950s, that female mammals are born with a finite supply of eggs, depleted throughout life and exhausted at menopause. In all mammals the ovum is fertilized inside the female body; the human ova grow from primitive germ cells. Each of them divides to give secretions of the uterine glands forming a blastocyst; the ovum is one of the largest cells in the human body visible to the naked eye without the aid of a microscope or other magnification device. The human ovum measures 0.1 mm in diameter. Ooplasm is the yolk of the ovum, a cell substance at its center, which contains its nucleus, named the germinal vesicle, the nucleolus, called the germinal spot; the ooplasm consists of the cytoplasm of the ordinary animal cell with its spongioplasm and hyaloplasm called the formative yolk. Mammalian ova contain only a tiny amount of the nutritive yolk, for nourishing the embryo in the early stages of its development only. In contrast, bird eggs contain enough to supply the chick with nutriment throughout the whole period of incubation.
In the oviparous animals the ova develop protective layers and pass through the oviduct to the outside of the body. They are fertilized inside the female body, or outside. After fertilization, an embryo develops, it hatches from the egg, outside the mother's body. See egg for a discussion of eggs of oviparous animals; the egg cell's cytoplasm and mitochondria are the sole means the egg is able to reproduce by mitosis and form a blastocyst after fertilization. There is an intermediate form, the ovoviviparous animals: the embryo develops within and is nourished by an egg as in the oviparous case, but it hatches inside the mother's body shortly before birth, or just after the egg leaves the mother's body; some fish and many invertebrates use this technique. Nearly all land plants have alternating haploid generations. Gametes are produced by the gametophyte, the haploid generation; the female gametophyte produces structures called archegonia, the egg cells form within them via mitosis. The typical bryophyte archegonium consists of a long neck with a wider base containing the egg cell.
Upon maturation, the neck opens to allow sperm cells to swim into the archegonium and fertilize the egg. The resulting zygote gives rise to an embryo, which will grow into a new diploid individual. In seed plants, a structure called ovule; the gametophyte produces an egg cell. After fertilization, the ovule develops into a seed containing the embryo. In flowering plants, the female gametophyte has been reduced to just eight cells inside the ovule; the gametophyte cell closest to the micropyle opening of the ovule develops into the egg cell. Upon pollination, a pollen tube delivers sperm into the gametophyte and one sperm nucleus fuses with the egg nucleus; the resulting zygote develops into an embryo inside the ovule. The ovule in turn develops into a seed and in many cases the plant ovary develops into a fruit to facilitate the dispersal of the seeds. Upon germination, the embryo grows into a seedling. In the moss Physcomitrella patens, the Polycomb protein FIE is expressed in the unfertilised egg cell as the blue colour after GUS staining reveals.
Soon after fertilisation the FIE gene is inactivated in the young embryo. In algae, the egg cell is called oosphere. Drosophila oocytes develop in individual egg chambers that are supported by nurse cells and surrounded by somatic follicle cells; the nurse cells are large polyploid cells that synthesize and transfer RNA, proteins and organelles to the oocytes. This transfer is followed by the programmed cell death of the nurse cells. During the course of oogenesis, 15 nurse cells die for every oocyte, produced. In addition to this developmentally regulated cell death, egg cells may undergo apoptosis in response to starvation and other insults; the Ova
Bran known as miller's bran, is the hard outer layers of cereal grain. It consists of pericarp. Along with germ, it is an integral part of whole grains, is produced as a byproduct of milling in the production of refined grains. Bran is present in cereal grain, including rice, wheat, barley and millet. Bran is not the same as chaff, a coarser scaly material surrounding the grain but not forming part of the grain itself. Bran is rich in dietary fiber and essential fatty acids and contains significant quantities of starch, protein and dietary minerals, it is a source of phytic acid, an antinutrient that prevents nutrient absorption. The high oil content of bran makes it subject to rancidification, one of the reasons that it is separated from the grain before storage or further processing. Bran is heat-treated to increase its longevity. Rice bran is a byproduct of the rice milling process, it contains various antioxidants that impart beneficial effects on human health. A major rice bran fraction contains 12%–13% oil and unsaponifiable components.
This fraction contains tocotrienols, beta-sitosterol. Rice bran contains a high level of dietary fibres, it contains ferulic acid, a component of the structure of nonlignified cell walls. However, some research suggests. One study found the levels to be 20% higher than in drinking water. Bran is used to enrich breads and breakfast cereals for the benefit of those wishing to increase their intake of dietary fiber. Bran may be used for pickling as in the tsukemono of Japan. Rice bran in particular finds many uses in Japan. Besides using it for pickling, Japanese people add it to the water when boiling bamboo shoots, use it for dish washing. In Kitakyushu City, it is used for stewing fish, such as sardine. Rice bran is stuck to the surface of commercial ice blocks to prevent them from melting. Bran oil may be extracted for use by itself for industrial purposes, or as a cooking oil, such as rice bran oil. Wheat bran is useful as feed for poultry and other livestock, as part of a balanced ration with other inputs.
Wheatings, a milling byproduct comprising bran with some pieces of endosperm left over, are included in this category. Bran was found to be the most successful slug deterrent by BBC's TV programme Gardeners' World, it is a common food source used for feeder insects, such as mealworms and waxworms. Wheat bran has been used for tanning leather since at least the 16th century. George Washington had a recipe for small beer involving bran and molasses, it is common practice to heat-treat bran with the intention of slowing undesirable rancidification. However, a detailed 2003 study of heat-treatment of oat bran found a complex pattern whereby intense heat treatment reduced the development of hydrolitic rancidity and bitterness with time, but increased oxidative rancidity; the authors recommended that heat treatment should be sufficient to achieve selective lipase inactivation, but not so much as to render the polar lipids oxidisable upon prolonged storage. Alkylresorcinols Cereal germ Chaff Dietary fiber Phytic acid Rice bran solubles
In botany, a caryopsis is a type of simple dry fruit—one, monocarpellate and indehiscent and resembles an achene, except that in a caryopsis the pericarp is fused with the thin seed coat. The caryopsis is popularly called a grain and is the fruit typical of the family Poaceae, which includes wheat and corn; the term grain is used in a more general sense as synonymous with cereal. Considering that the fruit wall and the seed are intimately fused into a single unit, the caryopsis or grain is a dry fruit, little concern is given to technically separating the terms fruit and seed in these plant structures. In many grains, the "hulls" to be separated before processing are flower bracts
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word sperma. In the types of sexual reproduction known as anisogamy and its subtype oogamy, there is a marked difference in the size of the gametes with the smaller one being termed the "male" or sperm cell. A uniflagellar sperm cell, motile is referred to as a spermatozoon, whereas a non-motile sperm cell is referred to as a spermatium. Sperm cells cannot divide and have a limited life span, but after fusion with egg cells during fertilization, a new organism begins developing, starting as a totipotent zygote; the human sperm cell is haploid, so that its 23 chromosomes can join the 23 chromosomes of the female egg to form a diploid cell. In mammals, sperm develops in the testicles, is stored in the epididymis, released from the penis; the main sperm function is to reach the ovum and fuse with it to deliver two sub-cellular structures: the male pronucleus that contains the genetic material and the centrioles that are structures that help organize the microtubule cytoskeleton.
The mammalian sperm cell can be divided in 2 parts: head: contains the nucleus with densely coiled chromatin fibers, surrounded anteriorly by a thin, flattened sac called the acrosome, which contains enzymes used for penetrating the female egg. It contains vacuoles. Tail: called the flagellum, is the longest part and capable of wave-like motion that propels sperm for swimming and aids in the penetration of the egg. Sperm motility depends on the 4 parts of the tail: connecting piece, principal piece, the end piece; the neck or connecting piece contains one typical centriole and one atypical centriole such as the proximal centriole like. The midpiece has a central filamentous core with many mitochondria spiralled around it, used for ATP production for the journey through the female cervix and uterine tubes; the tail or "flagellum"executes the lashing movements that propel the spermatocyte. During fertilization, the sperm provides three essential parts to the oocyte: a signalling or activating factor, which causes the metabolically dormant oocyte to activate.
The spermatozoa of animals are produced through spermatogenesis inside the male gonads via meiotic division. The initial spermatozoon process takes around 70 days to complete; the spermatid stage is. The next stage where it becomes mature takes around 60 days when it is called a spermatozoan. Sperm cells are carried out of the male body in a fluid known as semen. Human sperm cells can survive within the female reproductive tract for more than 5 days post coitus. Semen is produced in prostate gland and urethral glands. In 2016 scientists at Nanjing Medical University claimed they had produced cells resembling mouse spermatids artificially from stem cells, they produced pups. Sperm quantity and quality are the main parameters in semen quality, a measure of the ability of semen to accomplish fertilization. Thus, in humans, it is a measure of fertility in a man; the genetic quality of sperm, as well as its volume and motility, all decrease with age. DNA damages present in sperm cells in the period after meiosis but before fertilization may be repaired in the fertilized egg, but if not repaired, can have serious deleterious effects on fertility and the developing embryo.
Human sperm cells are vulnerable to free radical attack and the generation of oxidative DNA damage. The postmeiotic phase of mouse spermatogenesis is sensitive to environmental genotoxic agents, because as male germ cells form mature sperm they progressively lose the ability to repair DNA damage. Irradiation of male mice during late spermatogenesis can induce damage that persists for at least 7 days in the fertilizing sperm cells, disruption of maternal DNA double-strand break repair pathways increases sperm cell-derived chromosomal aberrations. Treatment of male mice with melphalan, a bifunctional alkylating agent employed in chemotherapy, induces DNA lesions during meiosis that may persist in an unrepaired state as germ cells progress though DNA repair-competent phases of spermatogenic development; such unrepaired DNA damages in sperm cells, after fertilization, can lead to offspring with various abnormalities. Related to sperm quality is sperm size, at least in some animals. For instance, the sperm of some species of fruit fly are up to 5.8 cm long — about 20 times as long as the fly itself.
Longer sperm cells are better than their shorter counterparts at displacing competitors from the female’s seminal receptacle. The benefit to females is that only healthy males carry ‘good’ genes that can produce long sperm in sufficient quantities to outcompete their competitors; some sperm banks hold up to 170 litres of sperm. In addition to ejaculation, it is possible to extract sperm through TESE. On the global market, Denmark has a well-developed system of human sperm export; this success comes from the reputation of Danish sperm donors for being of high quality and, in contrast with the law in the other Nordic countries, gives donors the choice of being either anonymous or non-anonymous to the receiving couple. Furthermore, Nordic sperm donors tend to be tall and educated and have altruistic motives for their donations due to the low monetary compensation in Nordic countries. More than 50 countries worldwide are importers of Danish sperm, including Paraguay, Canada and Hong Kong. However, the Food and Drug Administration
Beer is one of the oldest and most consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. Beer is brewed from cereal grains—most from malted barley, though wheat and rice are used. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer. Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavouring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be used instead of hops. In commercial brewing, the natural carbonation effect is removed during processing and replaced with forced carbonation; some of humanity's earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours, "The Hymn to Ninkasi", a prayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people.
Beer is distributed in bottles and cans and is commonly available on draught in pubs and bars. The brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries; the strength of modern beer is around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume, although it may vary between 0.5% and 20%, with some breweries creating examples of 40% ABV and above. Beer forms part of the culture of many nations and is associated with social traditions such as beer festivals, as well as a rich pub culture involving activities like pub crawling and pub games. Beer is one of the world's oldest prepared drinks; the earliest archaeological evidence of fermentation consists of 13,000 year old residues of a beer with the consistency of gruel, used by the semi-nomadic Natufians for ritual feasting, at the Raqefet Cave in the Carmel Mountains near Haifa in Israel. There is evidence; the earliest clear chemical evidence of beer produced from barley dates to about 3500–3100 BC, from the site of Godin Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran.
It is possible, but not proven, that it dates back further — to about 10,000 BC, when cereal was first farmed. Beer is recorded in the written history of ancient Iraq and ancient Egypt, archaeologists speculate that beer was instrumental in the formation of civilizations. 5000 years ago, workers in the city of Uruk were paid by their employers in beer. During the building of the Great Pyramids in Giza, each worker got a daily ration of four to five litres of beer, which served as both nutrition and refreshment, crucial to the pyramids' construction; some of the earliest Sumerian writings contain references to beer. The Ebla tablets, discovered in 1974 in Ebla, show that beer was produced in the city in 2500 BC. A fermented drink using rice and fruit was made in China around 7000 BC. Unlike sake, mold was not used to saccharify the rice. Any substance containing sugar can undergo alcoholic fermentation, it is that many cultures, on observing that a sweet liquid could be obtained from a source of starch, independently invented beer.
Bread and beer increased prosperity to a level that allowed time for development of other technologies and contributed to the building of civilizations. Xenophon noted. Beer was spread through Europe by Germanic and Celtic tribes as far back as 3000 BC, it was brewed on a domestic scale; the product that the early Europeans drank might not be recognised as beer by most people today. Alongside the basic starch source, the early European beers might contain fruits, numerous types of plants and other substances such as narcotic herbs. What they did not contain was hops, as, a addition, first mentioned in Europe around 822 by a Carolingian Abbot and again in 1067 by abbess Hildegard of Bingen. In 1516, William IV, Duke of Bavaria, adopted the Reinheitsgebot the oldest food-quality regulation still in use in the 21st century, according to which the only allowed ingredients of beer are water and barley-malt. Beer produced before the Industrial Revolution continued to be made and sold on a domestic scale, although by the 7th century AD, beer was being produced and sold by European monasteries.
During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century. The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process and greater knowledge of the results. In 1912, the use of brown bottles began to be used by Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin in the United States; this innovation has since been accepted worldwide and prevents harmful rays from destroying the quality and stability of beer. As of 2007, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ran
In seed plants, the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells. It consists of three parts: The integument, forming its outer layer, the nucellus, the female gametophyte in its center; the female gametophyte — termed a megagametophyte— is called the embryo sac in angiosperms. The megagametophyte produces an egg cell for the purpose of fertilization. In flowering plants, the ovule is located inside the portion of the flower called the gynoecium; the ovary of the gynoecium produces one or more ovules and becomes the fruit wall. Ovules are attached to the placenta in the ovary through a stalk-like structure known as a funiculus. Different patterns of ovule attachment, or placentation, can be found among plant species, these include: Apical placentation: The placenta is at the apex of the ovary. Simple or compound ovary. Axile placentation: The ovary is divided into radial segments, with placentas in separate locules. Ventral sutures of carpels meet at the centre of the ovary.
Placentae are along fused margins of carpels. Two or more carpels. Basal placentation: The placenta is at the base of the ovary on a protrusion of the thalamus. Simple or compound carpel, unilocular ovary. Free-central placentation: Derived from axile as partitions are absorbed, leaving ovules at the central axis. Compound unilocular ovary. Marginal placentation: Simplest type. There is only one elongated placenta on one side of the ovary, as ovules are attached at the fusion line of the carpel's margins; this is conspicuous in legumes. Simple carpel, unilocular ovary. Parietal placentation: Placentae on inner ovary wall within a non-sectioned ovary, corresponding to fused carpel margins. Two or more carpels, unilocular ovary. Superficial: Similar to axile, but placentae are on inner surfaces of multilocular ovary Ovule orientation may be anatropous, such that when inverted the micropyle faces the placenta, campylotropous, or orthotropous. In gymnosperms such as conifers, ovules are borne on the surface of an ovuliferous scale within an ovulate cone.
In some extinct plants and ovules were borne on the surface of leaves. In other extinct taxa, a cupule surrounds the ovule; the ovule appears to be a megasporangium with integuments surrounding it. Ovules are composed of diploid maternal tissue, which includes a megasporocyte. Megaspores remain inside the ovule and divide by mitosis to produce the haploid female gametophyte or megagametophyte, which remains inside the ovule; the remnants of the megasporangium tissue surround the megagametophyte. Megagametophytes produce archegonia. After fertilization, the ovule contains a diploid zygote and after cell division begins, an embryo of the next sporophyte generation. In flowering plants, a second sperm nucleus fuses with other nuclei in the megagametophyte forming a polyploid endosperm tissue, which serves as nourishment for the young sporophyte. An integument is a protective cell layer surrounding the ovule. Gymnosperms have one integument while angiosperms have two integuments; the evolutionary origin of the inner integument has been proposed to be by enclosure of a megasporangium by sterile branches.
Elkinsia, a preovulate taxon, has a lobed structure fused to the lower third of the megasporangium, with the lobes extending upwards in a ring around the megasporangium. This might, through fusion between lobes and between the structure and the megasporangium, have produced an integument; the origin of the second or outer integument has been an area of active contention for some time. The cupules of some extinct taxa have been suggested as the origin of the outer integument. A few angiosperms produce vascular tissue in the outer integument, the orientation of which suggests that the outer surface is morphologically abaxial; this suggests that cupules of the kind produced by the Caytoniales or Glossopteridales may have evolved into the outer integument of angiosperms. The integuments develop into the seed coat; the integuments do not enclose the nucellus but retain an opening at the apex referred to as the micropyle. The micropyle opening allows the pollen to enter the ovule for fertilization. In gymnosperms, the pollen is drawn into the ovule on a drop of fluid that exudes out of the micropyle, the so-called pollination drop mechanism.
Subsequently, the micropyle closes. In angiosperms, only a pollen tube enters the micropyle. During germination, the seedling's radicle emerges through the micropyle. Located opposite from the micropyle is the chalaza. Nutrients from the plant travel through the phloem of the vascular system to the funiculus and outer integument and from there apoplastically and symplastically through the chalaza to the nucellus inside the ovule. In chalazogamous plants, the pollen tubes enter the ovule through the chalaza instead of the micropyle opening; the nucellus is part of the inner structure of the ovule, forming a layer of dipl