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Enemy of the people

The term enemy of the people or enemy of the nation, is a designation for the political or class opponents of the subgroup in power within a larger group. The term implies that by opposing the ruling subgroup, the "enemies" in question are acting against the larger group, for example against society as a whole, it is similar to the notion of "enemy of the state". The term originated in Roman times as Latin: hostis publicus translated into English as the "public enemy"; the term in its "enemy of the people" form has been used for centuries in literature. The Soviet Union made extensive use of the term until 1956, notably Stalin, who used it to describe anybody critical of himself personally, it is used by authoritarian rulers, since early 2017 it has been used on multiple occasions by US President Donald Trump to refer to news organizations and journalists who he perceives as critical of and biased against him, a practice, called "menacing" by a writer of an opinion piece and likened to McCarthyism by other authors and journalists.

The expression dates back to Roman times. The Senate declared emperor Nero a hostis publicus in AD 68, its direct translation is "public enemy". Whereas "public" is used in English in order to describe something related to collectivity at large, with an implication towards government or the State, the Latin word "publicus" could, in addition to that meaning refer directly to people, making it the equivalent of the genitive of populus, populi. Thus, "public enemy" and "enemy of the people" are, near synonyms; the words "ennemi du peuple" were used extensively during the French Revolution. On 25 December 1793 Robespierre stated: "The revolutionary government owes to the good citizen all the protection of the nation; the Law of 22 Prairial in 1794 extended the remit of the Revolutionary Tribunal to punish "enemies of the people", with some political crimes punishable by death, including "spreading false news to divide or trouble the people". Enemy of the people in Albania was the enemy typology of the Communist Albanian regime used to denounce political or class opponents.

The term is today considered totalitarian and hostile. There are still some politicians who use the term on political opponents with the intention of dehumanization. After the communist take over in, many who were labeled with this term were imprisoned. Enver Hoxha declared religious leaders, disloyal party officials and clan leaders as "enemies of the people"; this is said to led to the death of 6000 people. Thousands were sentenced to death. From 1945 to 1991, around 5000 men and women were executed and close to 100,000 were sent to prison as they were labeled enemies of the people. Many who were targeted held important leadership positions in the party and state structures of the regime. Hoxha used the term against the Soviet union and the US when he spoke: "as to ’Albania being only one mouthful’, watch out, for socialist Albania is a hard bone that will stick in your throat and choke you!". On June 1, 1945, The Albanian Central Commission for the Discovery of Crimes, of War Criminals and Enemies of the People requested the International Commission for the Discovery of Crimes and War Criminals to hand over a number of Albanian war criminals found in concentration camps in Italy such as Bari, Lecce and others.

In 1954, Hoxha condemned the American and British liberation of Albania calling them "enemies of the people". In the 1960s, many Albanian migrants returned from Austria and Italy after having fled in the 1940s, despite having been promised not to be punished, were arrested as "enemies of the people". In 1990, Ismail Kadare applied for political asylum in France, granted, resulting in him being condemned by Albanian officials as an "enemy of the people"; the Soviet Union made extensive use of the term, as it fit well with the idea that the people were in control. The term was used by Vladimir Lenin after coming to power, as early as in the decree of 28 November 1917: all leaders of the Constitutional Democratic Party, a party filled with enemies of the people, are hereby to be considered outlaws, are to be arrested and brought before the revolutionary court. Other similar terms were in use as well: enemy of the labourers enemy of the proletariat class enemy, etc. In particular, the term "enemy of the workers" was formalized in the Article 58, similar articles in the codes of the other Soviet Republics.

At various times these terms were applied, in particular, to Tsar Nicholas II and the Imperial family, the bourgeoisie, business entrepreneurs, kulaks, Mensheviks, Bundists, Bukharinists, the "old Bolsheviks", the army and police, saboteurs, wreckers, "social parasites", those considered bourgeois nationalists. An "enemy of the people" could be imprisoned, expelled or executed, lose their property to confiscation. Close relatives of enemies of the people were labeled as "traitor o

Paul Harragon

Paul William Harragon OAM nicknamed Chief or Chief Harragon is an Australian rugby league football identity. A former Australian international and New South Wales State of Origin representative forward, he played rugby for the Newcastle Knights whom he captained to the 1997 ARL premiership. Harragon was a regular presenter of The Footy Show and as of 2013 is the Chairman of the Newcastle Knights Advisory Board. Harragon was born in New South Wales, Australia. Harragon was raised in the New South Wales town of Kurri Kurri, played for Lakes United in the Newcastle competition, he joined the Newcastle Knights in 1988 and made his first grade debut in 1989 against the Balmain Tigers. He captained Country, New South Wales and Australia, he was named man-of-the-match in the second game of the 1994 State of Origin series. At the end of the 1994 NSWRL season, he went on the 1994 Kangaroo tour. Harragon captained the Knights to the 1997 ARL premiership title in a grand final against Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles, despite suffering from serious headaches and seizures throughout most of the season.

Harragon excelled at the State of Origin level, making 20 consecutive appearances for New South Wales between Game I 1992 and Game II 1998. He holds the record for the second most consecutive Origin games by a New South Welshman, most appearances by a NSW forward. Between 1992 & 1998, Harragon was a frequent choice to play for the Kangaroos. During the 1992 Great Britain Lions tour of Australia and New Zealand, he helped Australia retain The Ashes. All up he scored three tries while representing his country, he missed the 1995 World Cup final due with Gary Larson being flown in to replace him. That year it was reported that Harragon would receive $1.2 million to secure his loyalty to the Australian Rugby League in addition to $700,000 per season for the next three seasons. In 1996, he captained the team in a World Cup Test against South Africa, in 1997 he played in a match against the "Rest of the World". In 1999, Harragon participated in the first rugby league game to be played at Stadium Australia.

That year, after playing 169 first grade games in a career lasting ten years, Harragon retired due to an ongoing knee injury mid-season. Harragon has since become a media personality, working for local Newcastle station NBN Television, before joining Channel 9 as a member of The Footy Show panel, as a rugby commentator. Following format changes to the programme before the 2009 season, Harragon decided to leave the production. On Saturday 1 September 2007, his single "That's Gold" debuted at #8 on the ARIA Singles chart and #2 on the ARIA Physical Singles Chart; the song was distributed by Destra Entertainment/MRA Records. "That's Gold" is an homage to Spandau Ballet's 80s hit "Gold". Harragon was a director of and is a life member of the Newcastle Knights, is spokesman for NIB Health Funds and Subway. In 2016, Harragon became a contestant on Network Ten's second series of I'm a Celebrity... Get Me Out of Here! in which he placed second. Harragon lives in Newcastle with his daughter and two sons.

Harragon, Paul. One perfect day: an autobiography. Ironbark. ISBN 978-0-330-36183-5. ISBN 0-330-36183-X. State of Origin Official website Rugby League Player Stats NRL points'That's Gold' Lyrics

Mine railway

A mine railway, sometimes pit railway, is a railway constructed to carry materials and workers in and out of a mine. Materials transported include ore and overburden, it is little remembered, but the mix of heavy and bulky materials which had to be hauled into and out of mines gave rise to the first several generations of railways, at first made of wood rails, but adding protective iron, steam locomotion by fixed engines and the earliest commercial steam locomotives, all in and around the works around mines. Wagonways were developed in Germany in the 1550s to facilitate the transport of ore tubs to and from mines, using primitive wooden rails; such an operation was illustrated in 1556 by Georgius Agricola of Germany. This used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks, to keep it going the right way; such a transport system was used by German miners at Caldbeck, England from the 1560s. An alternative explanation derives it from the Magyar hintó – a carriage.

There are possible references to their use in central Europe in the 15th century. A funicular railway was made at Broseley in Shropshire, England at some time before 1605; this carried coal for James Clifford from his mines down to the river Severn to be loaded onto barges and carried to riverside towns. Though the first documentary record of this is its construction preceded the Wollaton Wagonway, completed in 1604, hitherto regarded as the earliest British installation; this ran from Strelley to Wollaton near Nottingham. Another early wagonway is noted onwards. Huntingdon Beaumont, concerned with mining at Strelley laid down broad wooden rails near Newcastle upon Tyne, on which a single horse could haul fifty to sixty bushels of coal. By the 18th century, such wagonways and tramways existed in a number of areas. Ralph Allen, for example, constructed a tramway to transport stone from a local quarry to supply the needs of the builders of the Georgian terraces of Bath; the Battle of Prestonpans, in the Jacobite rising of 1745, was fought astride the 1722 TranentCockenzie Waggonway.

This type of transport spread through the whole Tyneside coalfield, the greatest number of lines were to be found in the coalfield near Newcastle upon Tyne. They were used to transport coal in chaldron wagons from the coalpits to a staithe on the river bank, whence coal could be shipped to London by collier brigs; the wagonways were engineered so that trains of coal wagons could descend to the staithe by gravity, being braked by a brakesman who would "sprag" the wheels by jamming them. Wagonways on less steep gradients could be retarded by allowing the wheels to bind on curves; as the work became more wearing on the horses, a vehicle known as a dandy wagon was introduced, in which the horse could rest on downhill stretches. A tendency to concentrate employees started when Benjamin Huntsman, looking for higher quality clock springs, found in 1740 that he could produce high quality steel in unprecedented quantities in using ceramic crucibles in the same fuel shortage/glass industry inspired reverbatory furnaces that were spurring the coal mining, cast iron cannon foundries, the much in demand gateway or stimulus products of the glass making industries.

These technologies, for several decades, had begun quickening industrial growth and causing early concentrations of workers so that there were occasional early small factories that came into being. This trend concentrating effort into bigger central located but larger enterprises turned into a trend spurred by Henry Cort's iron processing patent of 1784 leading in short order to foundries collocating near coal mines and accelerating the practice of supplanting the nations cottage industries. With that concentration of employees and separation from dwellings, horsedrawn trams became available as a commuter resource for the daily commute to work. Mine railways were used from 1804 around Coalbrookdale in such industrial concentrations of mines and iron works, all demanding traction-drawing of bulky or heavy loads; these gave rise to extensive early wooden rail ways and initial animal powered trains of vehicles successively in just two decades protective iron strips nailed to protect the rails, steam drawn trains cast iron rails.

George Stephenson, inventor of the world-famous Rocket and a board member of a mine, convinced his board to use steam for traction. Next, he petitioned Parliament to license a public passenger railway, founding the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Soon after the intense public publicity, in part generated by the contest to find the best locomotive won by Stephenson's Rocket, railways underwent explosive growth worldwide, the industrial revolution went global. Today, most mine railways are electrically powered. In the cramped conditions of hand-hewn mining tunnels, children were often used, the animals were led and tended by boys; until the movement against child labour pushed passage of laws requiring universal mandatory education of children to the sixth grade in the United States, in the Appalachian anthracite coal fields in Eastern Pennsylvania, these urchins were used and known as mule-boys into the 1920s, a position one step up the ladder towards the better pay as an apprentice miner from breaker boys, while the earnings of each stage allow