Energy in the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

United States total primary energy consumption by fuel in 2015[1]

  Oil (37%)
  Natural Gas (31.3%)
  Coal (17.4%)
  Nuclear (8.3%)
  Hydro (2.5%)
  Others (Renew.) (3.1%)

The United States was the second-largest energy consumer in 2010 (after China) considering total use.[2] The nation is ranked seventh in energy consumption per-capita after Canada and several small nations.[3][4] Not included is the significant amount of energy used overseas in the production of retail and industrial goods consumed in the U.S.

Most of this energy comes from fossil fuels: in 2010, data showed that 25% of the nation's energy originates from petroleum, 22% from coal, and 22% from natural gas. Nuclear power supplied 8.4% and renewable energy supplied 8%,[5] mainly from hydroelectric dams and biomass; however, this also includes other renewable sources like wind power, geothermal, and solar energy.[6] As of 2006, energy consumption had increased more rapidly than domestic energy production over the last 50 years in the nation (when they were roughly equal). This difference was largely met through imports.[7]

According to the Energy Information Administration's statistics, the per-capita energy consumption in the US has somewhat been consistent from the 1970s to the present time. The average was about 334 million British thermal units (BTUs) per person from 1980 to 2010. One explanation suggested that the energy required to increase the nation's consumption of manufactured equipment, cars, and other goods has been shifted to other countries producing and transporting those goods to the US with a corresponding shift of green house gases and pollution. In comparison, the world average increased from 63.7 in 1980 to 75 million BTUs per person in 2008.

History[edit]

US energy consumption, by source, 1776-2016. Vertical axis is in quadrillion BTU

From its founding until the late 18th century, the United States was a largely agrarian country with abundant forests. During this period, energy consumption overwhelmingly focused on readily available firewood. Rapid industrialization of the economy, urbanization, and the growth of railroads led to increased use of coal, and by 1885 it had eclipsed wood as the nation's primary energy source.[citation needed]

Coal remained dominant for the next seven decades, but by 1950, it was surpassed in turn by both petroleum and natural gas. The 1973 oil embargo precipitated an energy crisis in the United States.[8][9] In 2007, coal consumption was the highest it has ever been, with it mostly being used to generate electricity.[10] Natural gas has replaced coal as the preferred source of heating in homes, businesses and industrial furnaces, which burns cleaner and is easier to transport.[citation needed]

Although total energy use increased by approximately a factor of 50 between 1850 and 2000, energy use per capita increased only by a factor of four.[citation needed] As of 2009, United States per capita energy use had declined to 7075 (kilograms of oil-equivalent), 12% less than 2000, and in 2010 to levels not seen since the 1960s.[11] At the beginning of the 20th century, petroleum was a minor resource used to manufacture lubricants and fuel for kerosene and oil lamps. One hundred years later it had become the preeminent energy source for the United States and the rest of the world. This rise closely paralleled the emergence of the automobile as a major force in American culture and the economy.

While petroleum is also used as a source for plastics and other chemicals, and powers various industrial processes, today two-thirds of oil consumption in the U.S. is in the form of its derived transportation fuels.[12] Oil's unique qualities for transportation fuels in terms of energy content, cost of production, and speed of refueling all contributed to it being used over other fuels.[citation needed]

In June 2010, the American Energy Innovation Council, a group which includes Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft; Jeffrey R. Immelt, chief executive of General Electric; and John Doerr,[13] has urged the government to more than triple spending on energy research and development, to $16 billion a year. Gates endorsed the administration's goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 percent by 2050, but said that was not possible with today's technology or politicism. He said that the only way to find such disruptive new technology was to pour large sums of money at the problem.[citation needed] The group notes that the federal government spends less than $5 billion a year on energy research and development, not counting one-time stimulus projects. About $30 billion is spent annually on health research and more than $80 billion on military research and development.[citation needed] They advocate a jump in spending on basic energy research.[14]

Summary[edit]

Energy in the United States[15]
Population
(million)
Prim. energy
(TWh)
Production
(TWh)
Import
(TWh)
Electricity
(TWh)
CO2-emission
(Mt)
2004 294.0 27,050 19,085 8,310 3,921 5,800
2007 302.1 27,214 19,366 8,303 4,113 5,769
2008 304.5 26,560 19,841 7,379 4,156 5,596
2009 307.5 25,155 19,613 6,501 3,962 5,195
2010 310.1 25,776 20,056 6,205 4,143 5,369
2012 312.0 25,484 20,757 5,322 4,127 5,287
2012R 314.3 24,895 21,009 4,360 4,069 5,074
2013 316.5 25,451 21,876 3,586 4,110 5,120
Change 2004-2010 5.5% -4.7% 5.1% -25.3% 5.7% -7.4%
Mtoe = 11.63 TWh>, Prim. energy includes energy losses that are 2/3 for nuclear power[16]

2012R = CO2 calculation criteria changed, numbers updated

United States primary energy consumption by source and final consumption by sector (2008)[17]
Supply Sources Percent of Source Demand Sectors Percent of Sector
Petroleum
37.1%
71% Transportation
23% Industrial
5% Residential and Commercial
1% Electric Power
Transportation
27.8%
95% Petroleum
2% Natural Gas
3% Renewable Energy
Natural Gas
23.8%
3% Transportation
34% Industrial
34% Residential and Commercial
29% Electric Power
Industrial
20.6%
42% Petroleum
40% Natural Gas
9% Coal
10% Renewable Energy
Coal
22.5%
8% Industrial
<1% Residential and Commercial
91% Electric Power
Residential and Commercial
10.8%
16% Petroleum
76% Natural Gas
1% Coal
1% Renewable Energy
Renewable Energy
7.3%
11% Transportation
28% Industrial
10% Residential and Commercial
51% Electric Power
Electric Power
40.1%
1% Petroleum
17% Natural Gas
51% Coal
9% Renewable Energy
21% Nuclear Electric Power
Nuclear Electric Power
8.5%
100% Electric Power

Note: Sum of components may not equal 100 percent due to independent rounding.

Primary energy consumption[edit]

U.S. Energy Flow - 2017. A quad is 1015 BTU, or 1.055 × 1018 joules. Note the breakdown of useful and waste energy in each sector (dark vs. light grey) due to the nature of heat engines, which cannot convert all thermal energy into useful work and consequently lose a portion of their heat to the environment.
U.S. Primary Energy Consumption by Source and Sector, 2009. From the U.S. Energy Information Administration (Department of Energy).

Primary energy use in the United States was 25,155 TWh or about 81,800 kWh per person in 2009. Primary energy use was 1,100 TWh less in the United States than in China in 2009. The share of energy import was 26% of the primary energy use. The energy import declined about 22% and the annual CO2 emissions about 10% in 2009 compared to 2004.[18]

Total primary energy consumption (Mtoe)[19]
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
1,914 1,929.6 1,967.5 2,000.9 2,041.3 2,067.3 2,118.4 2,140.7 2,167.2 2,215.9 2,279.6
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2010-2011 CAGR 2001-11
2,235.8 2,270.6 2,265.2 2,311 2,324.6 2,304.5 2,340.4 2,301.4 2,201.4 2,249 2,225 -1.1% -0.04%

Energy consumption by source[edit]

Energy consumption by source in 2006 (PWh)
Fuel type United States[20] World[21]
Oil 11.71 50.33
Gas 6.50 31.65
Coal 6.60 37.38
Hydroelectric 0.84 8.71
Nuclear 2.41 8.14
Geothermal, wind,
solar, wood, waste
0.95 1.38
Total 29.26 138.41

Petroleum[edit]

Oil is one of the largest sources of energy in the United States. The United States influences world oil reserves for both growth and development.[22] As the 20th century progressed, petroleum gained increasing importance by providing heating and power to the commercial and industrial sectors. Oil was also used in transportation; first for railroads and later for motor vehicles.[23]

As automobiles became more affordable, demand for oil quickly rose. Since the rise of the automobile industry, oil price, demand, and production have all increased as well. Between 1900 and 1980, fuel was directly correlated with Gross National Product (GNP). Furthermore, oil shocks have often coincided with recessions, and the government has responded to oil shocks in several ways.[24] In the 1920s, oil prices were peaking and many commentators believed that oil supplies were running out. Congress was confronted by requests to augment supplies, so a generous depletion allowance was enacted for producers in 1926, which increased investment returns substantially. This change induced additional exploration activity, and subsequently the discovery of large new oil reservoirs.[25]

The next decade the situation was reversed, with prices low and dropping. This resulted in demands for more "orderly" competition and set minimum oil prices. Rather than repealing the previous policies enacted in the 1920s, Congress enacted a price-support system. Similar cycles have occurred in the 1950s and '70s.[25]

Gas[edit]

Natural Gas production, 1900-2013

Natural gas was the largest source of energy production in the United States in 2016, representing 33 percent of all energy produced in the country.[26] Natural gas has been the largest source of electrical generation in the United States since July 2015.

The United States has been the world's largest producer of natural gas since 2009, when it surpassed Russia. US Natural gas production achieved new record highs for each year from 2011 through 2015. Marketed natural gas production in 2015 was 28.8 trillion cubic feet, a 5.4% increase over 2014, and a 52% increase over the production of 18.9 trillion cubic feet per day in 2005.[27]

Because of the greater supply, consumer prices for natural gas are significantly lower in the United States than in Europe and Japan.[28] The low price of natural gas, together with its smaller carbon footprint compared to coal, has encouraged a rapid growth in electricity generated from natural gas.

Between 2005 and 2014, US production of natural gas liquids (NGLs) increased 70%, from 1.74 million barrels per day in 2005 to 2.96 million barrels per day in 2014. The US has been the world's leading producer of natural gas liquids since 2010, when US NGL production passed that of Saudi Arabia.

Although the United States leads the world in natural gas production, it is only fifth in proved reserves of natural gas, behind Russia, Iran, Qatar, and Turkmenistan.

Coal[edit]

Generation of electricity is the largest user of coal, although its use is in decline. About 50% of electric power was produced by coal in 2005, declining to 30% in 2016.[29]:1 Electric utilities buy more than 90% of the coal consumed in the United States.[30]

The United States is a net exporter of coal. Coal exports, for which Europe is the largest customer, peaked in 2012, and have declined since. In 2015, the U.S. exported 7.0% of mined coal.[31]

Coal has been used to generate electricity in the United States since an Edison plant was built in New York City in 1882.[32] The first AC power station was opened by General Electric in Ehrenfeld, Pennsylvania in 1902, servicing the Webster Coal and Coke Company.[32] By the mid-20th century, coal had become the leading fuel for generating electricity in the US. The long, steady rise of coal-fired generation of electricity shifted to a decline after 2007. The decline has been linked to the increased availability of natural gas, decreased consumption,[33] renewable power, and more stringent environmental regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency has advanced restrictions on coal plants to counteract mercury pollution, smog, and global warming.

Hydroelectricity[edit]

Nuclear[edit]

Other renewables[edit]

Final energy consumption[edit]

Consumption by sector[edit]

The U.S. Department of Energy tracks national energy consumption in four broad sectors: industrial, transportation, residential, and commercial. The industrial sector has long been the country's largest energy user, currently representing about 33% of the total. Next in importance is the transportation sector, followed by the residential and commercial sectors.

Sector Summary
Sector Name Description Major uses[34][35][36]
Industrial Facilities and equipment used for producing and processing goods. 22% chemical production
16% petroleum refining
14% metal smelting/refining
Transportation Vehicles which transport people/goods on ground, air, or water. 61% gasoline fuel
21% diesel fuel
12% aviation
Residential Living quarters for private households. 32% space heating
13% water heating
12% lighting
11% air conditioning
8% refrigeration
5% electronics
5% wet-clean (mostly clothes dryers)
Commercial Service-providing facilities and equipment (businesses, government, other institutions). 25% lighting
13% heating
11% cooling
6% refrigeration
6% water heating
6% ventilation
6% electronics

Regional variation[edit]

Residential Energy Consumption per capita by State.[37]
US household energy usage.png
Average annual residential electricity usage by city, 2000-2005. Measured in Kilowatt hours per customer.[38]

Household energy use varies significantly across the United States. An average home in the Pacific region (consisting of California, Oregon, and Washington) consumes 35% less energy than a home in the South Central region. Some of the regional differences can be explained by climate. The heavily populated coastal areas of the Pacific states experience generally mild winters and summers, reducing the need for both home heating and air conditioning. The warm, humid climates of the South Central and South Atlantic regions lead to higher electricity usage, while the cold winters experienced in the Northeast and North Central regions result in much higher consumption of natural gas and heating oil. The state with the lowest per capita energy use is New York, at 205 million Btu/yr,[39] and the highest is Wyoming, at slightly over 1 billion Btu/yr.[40]

Other regional differences stem from energy efficiency measures taken at the local and state levels. California has some of the strictest environmental laws and building codes in the country, leading its per-household energy consumption to be lower than all other states except Hawaii.

The land-use decisions of cities and towns also explain some of the regional differences in energy use. Townhouses are more energy efficient than single-family homes because less heat, for example, is wasted per person. Similarly, areas with more homes in a compact neighborhood encourage walking, biking and transit, thereby reducing transportation energy use. A 2011 U.S. E.P.A. study found that multi-family homes in urban neighborhoods, with well-insulated buildings and fuel-efficient cars, can save more than 2/3 of the energy used by conventionally built single-family houses in suburban areas (with standard cars).[41]

Electricity[edit]

Power plants map
Electricity generation by type

The United States is the world's second largest producer and consumer of electricity.[42] It consumes about 20%[43] of the world's electricity supply. This section provides a summary of the consumption and generation of the nation's electric industry, based on data mined from US DOE Energy Information Administration/Electric Power Annual 2015 files.[44] Data was obtained from the most recent DOE Energy Information Agency (EIA) files. Consumption is detailed from the residential, commercial, industrial, and other user communities. Generation is detailed for the major fuel sources of coal, natural gas, nuclear, petroleum, hydro, and the other renewables of wind, wood, other biomass, geothermal, and solar. Changes to the electrical energy fuel mix and other trends are identified. Progress in wind and solar contributing to the energy mix are addressed. Expected changes in the generation environment during the next 5 years are discussed.

Consumption[edit]

US Electric Energy Consumption by User Community 2006-2016
Electric Customers 2016
Residential Electric costs by State 2016
Residential Average cost per kWh 2006-2016

Electricity consumption data in this section is based upon data mined from US DOE Energy Information Administration/Electric Power Annual 2016 files[45] In 2016 the total US consumption of electricity was 4,137.1 terawatt-hours (TWh). Consumption was essentially flat from 2015, with a 6 TWh or 0.15% drop. This is broken down as:

  • Residential customers (131.07 million) directly consumed 1,411.1 TWh, or 34.11% of the total. This was up 7 TWh from 2015. An average residential customer used 897.2 kWh/month and with the average US residential cost of $0.1255/kWh the average monthly electrical bill would be $112.59, down slightly from 2015.[citation needed]
  • Commercial customers (18.148 million) directly consumed 1,367.2 TWh or 33.05% of the total. This was just a little more (6.44 TWh) than in 2015. An average commercial customer used 6,278 kWh/month and with the average US commercial electric cost of $0.1043/kWh the average monthly electrical bill would be $654.78, down slightly from 2015.[citation needed]
  • Industrial customers (about 838,100) directly consumed 976.7 TWh or 23.61% of the total. This was a little less than in 2015 (-1.0%).
  • Transportation customers (86) directly consumed 7.50 TWh or 0.18% of the total. This was a little lower (0.14 TWh) than in 2015.
  • System loss throughout the total electrical grid infrastructure by direct use of the suppliers (139.8 TWh)[46] and for transmission and other system losses and for unaccounted for loads (234.8 TWh) amounts to 374.6 TWh or 9.1% of the total which is down by 0.2% from 2015. Thus, the US electric distribution system is 90.94% efficient and efficiency has improved over the last year.

A profile of the electric energy consumption[47] for 2016 is shown in the following graph. The April minimum of 298 TWh to the July peak of 417 TWh shows the monthly range of consumption variations.

2016 Electric Energy Consumption Profile[48]

The following table derived from data mined from Electric Power Annual.[49][50] identifies those states which must import electrical energy from neighboring states to meet their consumption needs. Each state's total electric generation for 2016 is compared with the states consumption and its share of the system loss and the difference between the generated electric energy and its total consumption (including its share of the system loss) is the amount of energy it imports. For Hawaii (HI) total consumption equals generated energy. For the other states, multiplying their direct consumption by 1.099688991 (4127150643/3753016241), results in United States supply (including net imports) being equal to the country's total consumption. The following chart provides the details. The graphic shows each import states situation with respect to electric energy consumption being greater than its generation.

Generation[edit]

Profile of Electric Energy by Fuel Source 2006-2016

United States has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1,074.3 GW.[51] The electricity generation was 4,076.8 TWh in 2016.[52]

United States net imports were 60.27 TWh, for a total of 4,137.1 TWh of electrical energy use.[53] Electrical energy generated from coal was 1,239.15 TWh (29.95%); Natural and other Gases, 1,391.11 TWh (33.63%); Nuclear, 805.69 TWh (19.47%); Hydro, 269.81 TWh (6.47%); Renewables (other than Hydro), 341.64 TWh (8.26%); Imports less exports, 60.27 TWh (1.46%); Petroleum, 24.20 TWh (0.59%); and Misc (including pumped storage) 7.22 TWh (0.18%). United States renewable sources (hydro reported separately) are wind, 226.99 TWh (5.49%); wood, 40.95 TWh (0.99%); other biomass, 21.81 TWh (0.53% ); geothermal, 15.83 TWh (0.38%) and solar, 36.05 TWh (0.87%).[44] Small scale solar is estimated to have produced an additional 12.77 TWh. Natural gas electricity generation exceeded generation from coal for the first time in 2016.

The following tables summarize the electrical energy generated by fuel source for the United States. Data from Electric Power Annual 2016[44] was used throughout this section.

Electricity generation in the United States in 2016[54][55]
Power Source Generators Summer Capacity (GW) % of total Capacity Capacity factor Annual Energy (TWh) % of Total US
Coal 844 266.62 24.82 0.531 1,239.15 29.95
Nat Gas+ 5,929 449.28 41.82 0.353 1391.11 33.63
Nuclear 99 99.56 9.27 0.924 805.7 19.47
Hydro 4,050 79.91 7.44 0.383 267.81 6.47
Other Renewables 5,955 119.78 11.15 0.326 341.63 8.26
Petroleum 3,541 34.38 3.20 0.080 24.2 0.58
Other 153 2.02 0.19 0.786 13.91 0.34
Storage 153 22.78 2.12 -0.034 -6.69 -0.16
Net Imports 60.28 1.46
Total 20,724 1074.33 100 0.440 4,137.1 100
US Electric Energy Renewables 2006-2016
Electric Production by Renewables in 2016[56]
Power source Summer capacity (GW) % of renewable capacity % of total capacity Capacity factor Total generation (TWh) % of renewable energy % of total
Hydro 79.91 40.02 7.44 0.383 267.81 43.93 6.47
Wind 81.29 40.71 7.57 0.319 226.99 37.25 5.49
Biomass 14.02 7.02 1.30 0.511 62.76 10.3 1.52
Solar 21.95 10.99 2.04 0.187 36.05 5.92 0.87
Geothermal 2.52 1.26 0.23 0.717 15.83 2.6 0.38
Total 199.69 100.00 18.59 0.348 609.44 100.00 14.73

Note: Biomass includes wood and wood derived fuel, landfill gas, biogenic municipal solid waste and other waste biomass.

Electricity generation by source[edit]

2015 Electric Generation by State by Fuel Source by % of State Generation
STATES in 2015 who EXPORTED Electric Energy
Electricity generation by source (TWh per year)[52][57]
Year Fossil Fuel Nuclear Renewable Misc5 Total6
Coal Oil Gas1 sub
total
Hydro2 Geo
Thermal
Solar3 Wind Wood Bio4
other
sub
total
20177 1,207.90 21.09 1,287.02 2,516.02 804.95 300.05 15.98 52.96 254.25 43.28 20.77 687.29 6.55+ 4,014.80+
Proportion 2017 30.09% 0.53% 32.06% 62.67% 20.05% 7.47% 0.40% 1.32% 6.33% 1.08% 0.52% 17.12% 0.16% 100.0%
2016 1,239.15 24.20 1,391.11 2,654.47 805.69 267.81 15.83 36.05 226.99 40.95 21.81 609.45 67.49 4,137.10
Proportion 2016 29.95% 0.59% 33.63% 64.16% 19.47% 6.47% 0.38% 0.87% 5.49% 0.99% 0.53% 14.73% 1.63% 100.0%
2015 1,352.40 28.25 1,346.60 2,727.25 797.18 249.08 15.92 24.89 190.72 41.93 21.70 544.24 75.61 4,144.27
Proportion 2015 32.63% 0.68% 32.49% 65.81% 19.24% 6.01% 0.38% 0.60% 4.6% 01.01% 0.52% 13.13% 1.82% 100.0%
2014 1,581.71 30.23 1,138.63 2,750.57 797.17 259.37 15.88 17.69 181.655 42.34 21.65 538.58 60.50 4,146.2
2013 1,581.12 27.16 1,137.69 2,745.97 789.02 268.57 15.78 9.04 167.84 40 20.83 522.07 55.64 4,112.7
2012 1,514.04 23.19 1,237.79 2,775.02 769.33 276.24 15.56 4.33 140.82 37.8 19.82 494.57 56.1 4095
2011 1,733.4 30.2 1,025.3 2,788.9 790.2 319.4 15.3 1.82 120.2 37.4 19.2 513.32 46 4138.4
2010 1,847.3 37.1 999.0 2,883.4 807.0 260.2 15.2 1.21 94.7 37.2 18.9 427.4 33.3 4,151.0
Proportion 2010 44.5% 0.9% 24.1% 69.5% 19.4% 6.3% 0.37% 0.029% 2.3% 0.9% 0.5% 10.3% 0.8% 100.0%
2009 1,755.9 38.9 931.6 2,726.5 798.9 273.4 15.0 0.89 73.9 36.1 18.4 417.7 41.4 3,984.4
2008 1,985.8 46.2 894.7 2,926.7 806.2 254.8 14.8 0.86 55.4 37.3 17.7 380.9 38.3 4,152.2
2007 2,016.5 65.7 910.0 2,992.2 806.4 247.5 14.6 0.61 34.5 39.0 16.5 352.7 36.6 4,188.0
2000 1,966 111 615 2,692 754 260 14 0.49 5.6 37.6 23 318.7 38.6 3,836
Proportion 2000 51.3% 2.9% 16.0% 70.2% 19.7% 7.2% 0.37% 0.013% 0.15% 1.0% 0.6% 9.3% 0.9% 100.0%
1999 1,881 118 57l 2,570 728 319.5 14.8 0.50 4.5 37 22.6 392.8 55 3,723.8

Notes: 1 Gas includes natural gas and other gases. 2 Hydro excludes pumped storage (not an energy source, used by all sources, other than hydro). 3 Solar includes photovoltaics and thermal. 4 Bio other includes waste, landfill gas, and other. 5 Misc includes misc generation, pumped storage, and net imports. 6 Total includes net imports. 7 2017 data is from Electric Power Monthly and does not include import-export data.[57]

States imports and exports[edit]

Using the data from the US DOE Energy Information Administration/Electric Power Annual 2015 files[58] Data was obtained from the most recent DOE Energy Information Agency (EIA) full year files.[59] The following table derived from data mined from Electric Power Annual .[49][50] identifies those states which generate more electrical energy than they need to meet their consumption needs. They supply those that need additional energy. Each states total electric generation for 2016 is compared with the states consumption and its share of the system loses and the difference between the generated electric energy and its total consumption (including its share of the system loses) is the amount of energy it exports. For Hawaii (HI), total consumption equals generated energy. For the other states multiplying their direct consumption by 1.1099688991 (4127150643/3753016241) results in United States supply (including net imports) being equal to the country's total consumption usage. State export is determined by subtracting the state's total consumption from its generation.

States which import electric energy from other States
Net-importer states in 2016[49][50]
State Consumption Generation State imports
Retail Sales (MWh) Total Usage (MWh) MWh % 2016 % 2015 Improvement
CA 256,846,635 282,451,417 196,963,215 85,488,202 30.27% 30.57%
OH 150,597,796 165,610,738 118,922,078 46,688,660 28.19% 24.70%
TN 100,758,439 110,802,946 79,340,633 31,462,313 28.39% 30.41%
VA 112,280,665 123,473,811 92,554,876 30,918,935 25.04% 30.53%
MD 61,353,911 67,470,220 37,166,687 30,303,533 44.91% 45.74%
NY 147,803,038 162,537,374 134,417,107 28,120,267 17.30% 14.19%
MA 53,475,888 58,806,845 31,955,022 26,851,823 45.66% 45.85%
FL 235,721,822 259,220,693 238,262,150 20,958,543 8.09% 7.11%
GA 138,112,239 151,880,509 133,380,416 18,500,093 12.18% 12.61%
NC 134,404,319 147,802,950 130,779,157 17,023,793 11.52% 11.58%
MN 66,546,492 73,180,445 59,478,753 13,701,692 18.72% 21.11%
DC 11,394,003 12,529,860 76,474 12,453,386 99.39% 99.56%
IN 103,704,821 114,043,050 101,759,059 12,283,991 10.77% 8.25%
WI 69,736,338 76,688,283 64,966,611 11,721,672 15.28% 10.96%
ID 23,062,961 25,362,084 15,660,938 9,701,146 38.25% 37.37%
MO 78,618,056 86,455,411 78,611,513 7,843,898 9.07% 5.40%
CO 54,802,037 60,265,197 54,418,480 5,846,717 9.70% 10.75%
NJ 75,359,371 82,871,871 77,611,403 5,260,468 6.35% 8.89%
VT 5,516,450 6,066,379 1,911,207 4,155,172 68.50% 66.91%
DE 11,258,438 12,380,780 8,731,261 3,649,519 29.48% 37.39%
MI 104,467,813 114,882,104 112,121,790 2,760,314 2.40% 1.60%*
SD 12,129,530 13,338,711 11,524,184 1,814,527 13.60% 26.62%
KY 74,553,575 81,985,746 80,273,501 1,712,245 2.09% 1.30%*
RI 7,524,270 8,274,357 6,564,885 1,709,472 20.66% 16.55%
ME 11,448,951 12,590,285 11,514,427 1,075,858 8.55% 8.96%
AK 6,123,202 6,733,618 6,335,034 398,584 5.92% 5.94%
Total 2,107,601,060 2,317,705,683 1,885,300,861 432,404,822 *=export
States Which EXPORT Electric Energy to other States- 2016
Net-exporters states in 2016[49][50]
State Generation Consumption State exports
Retail Sales (MWh) Total Usage (MWh) MWh % 2016 % 2015 Change
PA 215,066,509 145,327,683 159,815,253 55,251,256 25.69% 26.0%
AL 142,385,098 88,225,141 97,020,216 45,364,882 31.86% 36.8%
WV 75,942,968 32,076,146 35,273,785 40,669,183 53.55% 51.5%
IL 187,441,635 141,050,409 155,111,582 32,330,053 17.25% 22.5%
WY 46,656,630 16,554,870 18,205,208 28,451,422 60.98% 62.5%
AZ 108,763,449 78,237,828 86,037,278 22,726,171 20.90% 25.8%
ND 37,856,452 18,520,188 20,366,447 17,490,005 46.20% 47.1%
WA 114,086,582 88,885,316 97,746,203 16,340,379 14.32% 10.5%
TX 454,047,591 398,661,809 438,404,002 15,643,589 3.45% 5.4%
MT 27,783,529 14,100,601 15,506,276 12,277,253 44.19% 47.4%
OK 78,655,007 61,516,554 67,649,077 11,005,930 13.99% 12.6%
AR 60,445,059 46,188,438 50,792,917 9,652,142 15.97% 9.3%
SC 96,985,764 79,577,550 87,510,556 9,475,208 9.77% 8.6%
MS 62,881,295 49,050,164 53,939,925 8,941,370 14.22% 18.4%
OR 60,182,013 47,349,350 52,069,559 8,112,454 13.48% 11.4%
NM 32,912,045 23,039,547 25,336,336 7,575,709 23.02% 23.4%
NH 19,282,493 10,904,956 11,992,060 7,290,433 37.81% 40.4%
LA 107,268,804 91,452,659 100,569,482 6,699,322 6.25% 7.8%
UT 38,133,928 30,179,534 33,188,101 4,945,827 12.97% 21.9%
CT 36,496,560 28,931,087 31,815,198 4,681,362 12.83% 14.7%
NE 36,524,869 30,199,354 33,209,897 3,314,972 9.08% 19.8%
KS 47,599,991 40,810,174 44,878,499 2,721,492 5.72% 5.0%
IA 54,392,507 48,431,193 53,259,250 1,133,257 2.08% 9.7%
NV 39,787,005 36,144,630 39,747,852 39,153 0.10% 0.1%
HI 9,948,845 9,445,389 9,948,845 0 0.00% 0.0%
Net import 60,272,000
Total 2,251,798,628 1,654,860,570 1,819,393,805 372,132,823

Renewable energy[edit]

Sources of total United States renewable energy, 2012 (US EIA)
The Shepherds Flat Wind Farm is an 845 megawatt (MW) wind farm in the U.S. state of Oregon.

Renewable energy in the United States accounted for 13.2 percent of the domestically produced electricity in 2014,[60] and 11.2 percent of total energy generation.[61] As of 2014, more than 143,000 people work in the solar industry and 43 states deploy net metering, where energy utilities buy back excess power generated by solar arrays.[62]

Renewable energy reached a major milestone in the first quarter of 2011, when it contributed 11.7 percent of total U.S. energy production (2.245 quadrillion BTUs of energy), surpassing energy production from nuclear power (2.125 quadrillion BTUs).[63] 2011 was the first year since 1997 that renewables exceeded nuclear in US total energy production.[64]

Hydroelectric power is currently the largest producer of renewable power in the U.S. It produced around 6.2% of the nation's total electricity in 2010 which was 60.2% of the total renewable power in the U.S.[65] The United States is the fourth largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world after China, Canada and Brazil. The Grand Coulee Dam is the 5th largest hydroelectric power station in the world.

U.S. wind power installed capacity now exceeds 65,000 MW and supplies 4% of the nation's electricity.[66][67] Texas is firmly established as the leader in wind power development, followed by Iowa and California.[68]

The U.S. has some of the largest solar farms in the world. Solar Star is a 579 megawatt (MWAC) farm near Rosamond, California.[69] The Desert Sunlight Solar Farm is a 550 MW solar power plant in Riverside County, California[70] and the Topaz Solar Farm, a 550 MW photovoltaic power plant, is in San Luis Obispo County, California.[71] The solar thermal SEGS group of plants in the Mojave Desert has a total generating capacity of 354 MW.[72]

The Geysers in Northern California is the largest complex of geothermal energy production in the world.

The development of renewable energy and efficient energy use marks "a new era of energy exploration" in the United States, according to President Barack Obama.[73] Studies suggest that if there is enough political will it is feasible to supply the total United States with 100% renewable energy by 2050.[74][75]

Trends and projections[edit]

In 2015 electrical energy usage in the United States was 1.6% more than in 2005 and 1% less than the peak in 2007. Per capita consumption has decreased about 7% since its peak in 2007 and every year since has shown a decrease in individual consumption. Conservation efforts are helping. At least, for the next decade, coal, natural gas, and nuclear will remain the top three fuels for electric energy generation in the USA. Coal will continuously decrease its contribution with natural gas increasing its contribution. Nuclear will have some downs (decommissionings) and ups (new online plants) but probably remain about constant. Hydro will maintain. Petroleum will continue to decrease in importance. Wind and solar will continue to grow in importance; their combined generation was 5.29% of US electric generation for 2015 or 5.20% of total US consumption.

Per capita energy use in the United States

From the beginning of the United States until 1973, total energy (including electrical) use increased by about 3%/year, while population increased an average of 2.2%/year. Per capita energy use from 1730 to 1870 was about 100 million Btu/person. In the 20th century this increased to 300 million (332 million Btu/person/year, 97 thousand kWh/person/year in 1981).[76]

In 2001, Vice President Dick Cheney said the US would need "at least 1,300 new power plants over the next 20 years."[77]

Efficiency improvements could cause energy use to drop considerably.

A concentrating solar array (CSP) with thermal storage has a practical capacity factor of 33%[78] and could provide power 24 hours a day. Prior to 2012, in six southwestern states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah) the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) owned nearly 98 million acres (an area larger than the state of Montana) that was open to proposals for solar power installations. To streamline consideration of applications, the BLM produced a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). By the subsequent Record of Decision in October 2012, the BLM withdrew 78 percent of its land from possible solar development, leaving 19 million acres still open to applications for solar installations, an area nearly as large as South Carolina. Of the area left open to solar proposals, the BLM has identified 285 thousand acres in highly favorable areas it calls Solar Energy Zones.[79] In Spain, with natural gas backups, CSP has reached a capacity factor of 66%, with 75% being a theoretical maximum.[80][not in citation given]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Statistical Review of World Energy (June 2016)
  2. ^ Barr, Robert. "China surpasses US as top energy consumer". Associated Press. Retrieved 16 June 2012. 
  3. ^ World Per Capita Total Primary Energy Consumption,1980-2005 Archived October 13, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. (MS Excel format)
  4. ^ World Resources Institute "Energy Consumption: Consumption per capita Archived December 12, 2004, at the Wayback Machine." (2001). Nations with higher per-capita consumption are: Qatar, Iceland, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Luxembourg and Canada. Except for Canada, these are small countries with a prominent energy-intensive industry such as oil refining or steelmaking.
  5. ^ See #Fossil-fuel equivalency - these figures are actually closer to 2.8% each.
  6. ^ US Dept. of Energy, "Annual Energy Report" (2010), Energy Flow diagram
  7. ^ Ristinen, Robert, A. Energy and the Environment. Malloy, 2006. Print.
  8. ^ Rocks, Lawrence; Runyon, Richard P. (1972). The Energy Crisis. Retrieved November 6, 2016. 
  9. ^ Rocks, Lawrence; Runyon, Richard P. (1972). The Energy Crisis. Retrieved November 6, 2016. 
  10. ^ "Annual Coal Report" (PDF). Eia.gov. Retrieved 14 October 2017. 
  11. ^ "World Development Indicators - Google Public Data Explorer". Google.com. Retrieved 14 October 2017. 
  12. ^ US Dept. of Energy, "Energy in the United States: 1635-2000"
  13. ^ "Who We Are". American Energy Innovation Council. Retrieved 2015-01-06. 
  14. ^ Broder, John M. (2010-06-09). "A Call to Triple U.S. Spending on Energy Research". The New York Times. 
  15. ^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics Statistics 2015, 2014 (2012R as in November 2015 + 2012 as in March 2014 is comparable to previous years statistical calculation criteria, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2006 IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15
  16. ^ Energy in Sweden 2010 Archived October 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., Facts and figures, The Swedish Energy Agency, Table 8 Losses in nuclear power stations Table 9 Nuclear power brutto
  17. ^ US Dept. of Energy, "U.S. Primary Energy Consumption by Source and Sector, 2008" (2009)
  18. ^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2011 October 2011
  19. ^ "World Energy Consumption: Map, Figures by Region - Enerdata". Yearbook.enerdata.net. Retrieved 14 October 2017. 
  20. ^ Energy Information Administration (August 2005). "2004 U. S. Energy Consumption by Energy Source". Eia.doe.gov. Retrieved 14 October 2017. 
  21. ^ "World Consumption of Primary Energy by Energy Type and Selected Country Groups, 1980-2004". Energy Information Administration. July 31, 2006. Archived from the original (XLS) on 2006-11-09. Retrieved 2007-01-20. 
  22. ^ "What role have natural resources played in the politics and economy of the Middle East?". Global Connections. Public Broadcasting System (PBS). Retrieved 22 June 2014. 
  23. ^ Hamilton, James. "Historical Oil Shocks" (PDF). Econweb. University of California, San Diego. Retrieved 22 June 2014. 
  24. ^ Cleveland, Cutler J.; Costanza, Robert; Hall, Charles A. S.; Kaufmann, Robert. "Energy and the U.S. Economy: A Biophysical Perspective" (PDF). oilcrisis. Science. Retrieved 22 June 2014. 
  25. ^ a b Van Doren, Peter. "A Brief History of Energy Regulations" (PDF). downsizinggovernment. CATO Institute. Retrieved 22 June 2014. 
  26. ^ US Energy Information Administration,Overview, accessed 13 February 2017.
  27. ^ US EIA, Natural gas wellhead value and marketed production, accessed 25 April 2015.
  28. ^ [1]
  29. ^ Inventory of Assessed Federal Coal Resources and Restrictions to Their Development (PDF) (Report). U.S. Departments of Energy, Interior and Agriculture. August 2007. p. 94. Retrieved March 28, 2017. 
  30. ^ http://www.pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/news/cityregion/s_586978.html
  31. ^ U.S. coal exports fall on lower European demand, increased global supply, US Energy Information Administration, 3 Oct. 2014.
  32. ^ a b Speight, James G. (2012-09-04). The Chemistry and Technology of Coal, Third Edition. CRC Press. p. 13. ISBN 9781439836460. 
  33. ^ Trevor Houser, Jason Bordoff and Peter Marsters (April 25, 2017). "Can Coal Make a Comeback?". energypolicy.columbia.edu. Center on Global Energy Policy, School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University. Retrieved 15 May 2017. Increased competition from cheap natural gas is responsible for 49 percent of the decline in domestic U.S. coal consumption. Lower-than-expected demand is responsible for 26 percent, and the growth in renewable energy is responsible for 18 percent. 
  34. ^ US Dept. of Energy, "Manufacturing Trend Data" (2002), Table 2b
  35. ^ US Dept. of Energy, "Annual Energy Outlook" (February 2006), Table A2
  36. ^ US Dept. of Energy, "Buildings Energy Data Book" (September 2006), sec. 1.2.3
  37. ^ U.S. Energy Information Administration (2009), Consumption Estimates, retrieved 2011-10-03 
  38. ^ New York City Mayor's Office of Sustainability (2007). "New York City's Climate Change Challenges through 2030" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-02-28. 
  39. ^ Danielle Kurtzleben. "The 10 States that Use the Least Energy Per Capita". US News & World Report. 
  40. ^ Danielle Kurtzleben. "The 10 States that Use the Most Energy Per Capita". US News & World Report. 
  41. ^ EPA, OA, OP, OSC, US. "Smart Growth - US EPA" (PDF). US EPA. Retrieved 14 October 2017. 
  42. ^ "United States: Energy". CIA World Factbook 2009. Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
  43. ^ [2][dead link]
  44. ^ a b c "Electric Power Annual 2015 - U.S. Energy Information Administration". Eia.gov. Retrieved 14 October 2017. 
  45. ^ "Electric Power Annual"[3] retrieved 2018-4-23
  46. ^ "Electric Power Annual 2016 "[4] retrieved 2018-4-23
  47. ^ Electric Power Monthly [5] Eia.gov, retrieved 2018-05-11
  48. ^ "Electric Power Monthly". Retrieved 11 May 2018. 
  49. ^ a b c d "State Historical Tables for 2016" (XLS). Eia.gov. Retrieved 11 May 2018. 
  50. ^ a b c d "State Historical Tables for 2016" (XLS). Eia.gov. Retrieved 11 May 2018. 
  51. ^ "EPA Generating Capacity"[6] Eia.gov, retrieved 2018-5-11
  52. ^ a b "EPA Net Generation "[7] Eia.gov, retrieved 2018-5-11
  53. ^ "EPA Import/Export "[8] Eia.gov, retrieved 2018-4-17
  54. ^ "EPA Import/Export"Import/Export Eia.gov, retrieved 2018-4-17
  55. ^ "Existing Capacity" Existing Capacity Eia.gov, retrieved 2018-4-17
  56. ^ "Electric Power Monthly". US Energy Information Administration. Retrieved 2018-05-11. 
  57. ^ a b "Electric Power Monthly - U.S. Energy Information Administration". Eia.gov. Retrieved 11 May 2018. 
  58. ^ "Electricity - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". Eia.gov. Retrieved 11 May 2018. 
  59. ^ "Electric Power detailed State data". Eia.gov. Retrieved 11 May 2018. 
  60. ^ US Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Monthly, January 2013. Eia.gov
  61. ^ US Energy Information Administration,Energy monthly, Eia.gov, accessed 6 Nov. 2013.
  62. ^ Editorial Board (26 April 2014). "The Koch Attack on Solar Energy". The New York Times. 
  63. ^ Ron Pernick and Clint Wilder (2012). "Clean Tech Nation" (PDF). p. 5. 
  64. ^ US Energy Information Administration, Total Energy. Eia.gov
  65. ^ "Direct Federal Financial Interventions and Subsidies in Energy in Fiscal Year 2013". Energy Information Administration. Retrieved 10 November 2015. 
  66. ^ US Energy Information Administration, [9], September 2013. Eia.gov
  67. ^ "AWEA 4th quarter 2012 Public Market Report" (PDF). American Wind Energy Association (AWEA). January 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 18, 2013. Retrieved January 30, 2013. 
  68. ^ American Wind Energy Association, Annual U.S. wind power rankings track industry's rapid growth Archived 2010-06-19 at the Wayback Machine.
  69. ^ "Solar Star, Largest PV Power Plant in the World, Now Operational". GreenTechMedia.com. 24 June 2015. 
  70. ^ "DOE Closes on Four Major Solar Projects". Renewable Energy World. 30 September 2011. 
  71. ^ Steve Leone (7 December 2011). "Billionaire Buffett Bets on Solar Energy". Renewable Energy World. 
  72. ^ SEGS I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII & IX Archived 2014-08-05 at the Wayback Machine.
  73. ^ [10][dead link]
  74. ^ M.Z. Jacobson et al. 2015: 100% clean and renewable wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) all-sector energy roadmaps for the 50 United States. Energy and Environmental Science Issue 8, p. 2093-2117. doi:10.1039/C5EE01283J.
  75. ^ M.Z. Jacobson et al. 2015: Low-cost solution to the grid reliability problem with 100% penetration of intermittent wind, water, and solar for all purposes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Issue 112, Number 49, p. 15060–15065. doi:10.1073/pnas.1510028112.
  76. ^ "Per capita energy consumption has declined in the United States". Knowledge Problem. 
  77. ^ "Mixing Oil and (Clean) Water". Newsweek. 7 May 2001. p. 6 of print edition. Retrieved 3 April 2018. 
  78. ^ "Concentrating Solar Power Projects: Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System : Concentrating Solar Power". Nrel.gov. Retrieved 14 October 2017. 
  79. ^ "Solar Energy Program". blmsolar.anl.gov. Retrieved 14 October 2017. 
  80. ^ "Torresol Energy - Gemasolar thermosolar plant". Torresolenergy.com. Retrieved 14 October 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]