Natural gas

Natural gas is a occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting of methane, but including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, or helium. It is formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure under the surface of the Earth over millions of years; the energy that the plants obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the gas. Natural gas is a non-renewable hydrocarbon used as a source of energy for heating and electricity generation, it is used as a fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals. Natural gas has a complicated effect on climate change. However, natural gas use supplants coal use, far more environmentally damaging, leading to lower net carbon dioxide emissions in countries such as the United States. Natural gas is found in deep underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as methane clathrates.

Petroleum is another fossil fuel found close to and with natural gas. Most natural gas was created over time by two mechanisms: thermogenic. Biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material. In petroleum production, gas is sometimes burned as flare gas. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, but not all, must be processed to remove impurities, including water, to meet the specifications of marketable natural gas; the by-products of this processing include ethane, butanes and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water vapor, sometimes helium and nitrogen. Natural gas is sometimes informally referred to as "gas" when compared to other energy sources such as oil or coal. However, it is not to be confused with gasoline in North America, where the term gasoline is shortened in colloquial usage to gas. Natural gas was discovered accidentally in ancient China, as it resulted from the drilling for brines.

Natural gas was first used by the Chinese in about 500 BCE. They discovered a way to transport gas seeping from the ground in crude pipelines of bamboo to where it was used to boil salt water to extract the salt, in the Ziliujing District of Sichuan; the discovery and identification of natural gas in the Americas happened in 1626. In 1821, William Hart dug the first natural gas well at Fredonia, New York, United States, which led to the formation of the Fredonia Gas Light Company; the city of Philadelphia created the first municipally owned natural gas distribution venture in 1836. By 2009, 66 000 km³ had been used out of the total 850 000 km³ of estimated remaining recoverable reserves of natural gas. Based on an estimated 2015 world consumption rate of about 3400 km³ of gas per year, the total estimated remaining economically recoverable reserves of natural gas would last 250 years at current consumption rates. An annual increase in usage of 2–3% could result in recoverable reserves lasting less as few as 80 to 100 years.

In the 19th century, natural gas was obtained as a by-product of producing oil. The small, light gas carbon chains came out of solution as the extracted fluids underwent pressure reduction from the reservoir to the surface, similar to uncapping a soft drink bottle where the carbon dioxide effervesces; the gas was viewed as a by-product, a hazard, a disposal problem in active oil fields. The large volumes produced could not be utilized until expensive pipeline and storage facilities were constructed to deliver the gas to consumer markets; until the early part of the 20th century, most natural gas associated with oil was either released or burned off at oil fields. Gas venting and production flaring are still practised in modern times, but efforts are ongoing around the world to retire them, to replace them with other commercially viable and useful alternatives. Unwanted gas is returned to the reservoir with'injection' wells while awaiting a possible future market or to re-pressurize the formation, which can enhance oil extraction rates from other wells.

In regions with a high natural gas demand, pipelines are constructed when it is economically feasible to transport gas from a wellsite to an end consumer. In addition to transporting gas via pipelines for use in power generation, other end uses for natural gas include export as liquefied natural gas or conversion of natural gas into other liquid products via gas to liquids technologies. GTL technologies can convert natural gas into liquids products such as diesel or jet fuel. A variety of GTL technologies have been developed, including Fischer–Tropsch, methanol to gasoline and syngas to gasoline plus. F–T produces a synthetic crude that can be further refined into finished products, while MTG can produce synthetic gasoline from natural gas. STG+ can produce drop-in gasoline, jet fuel and aromatic chemicals directly from natural gas via a single-loop process. In 2011, Royal Dutch Shell's 140,000 barrels per day F–T plant went into operation in Qatar. Natural gas can be "associated", or "non-associated", is found in coal beds.


Seven Deadly

Seven Deadly is the twentieth studio album by British hard rock band UFO, released on 27 February 2012. Since its release, this album has been met with positive reviews. Geoff Barton of Classic Rock found the album "bursting with creativity and athleticism" and praised Phil Mogg for the "vim and vigour" of his singing and for his "evocative and erudite" lyrics, he adds that the album has a "darker edge this time around" and may be the best possible swansong for UFO. Rebecca Miller of Metal Temple wrote, "Not contented to sit back on their laurels, the band continues to produce high quality rock albums and Seven Deadly is no exception". All tracks are written by Phil Mogg except where noted. Band membersPhil Mogg – vocals Vinnie Moore – lead guitar Paul Raymondkeyboards, rhythm guitar Andy Parker – drumsAdditional musiciansLars Lehmann - Bass Alexa Wild, Marino Carlini – backing vocals Marc Hothan – Harp on "The Fear" Tommy Newton – recorded and mixed Andy Le Vien – additional recordings at RMS Studio Steve Ward – additional recordings at SW Sounds Tristan Greatrex – album artwork Pat Johnson – band photo Peter Knorn – management

Lower Swanwick

Lower Swanwick is a village on the River Hamble in Hampshire, England. It is located within the borough of Fareham at the eastern end of Bursledon Bridge, which carries the A27 across the River. Lower Swanwick is close to the city of Southampton. Nearby villages include Bursledon, Hamble-le-Rice and Swanwick; the housing in the area is modern with a few older houses although a long row of colourful'Fisherman's Cottages' can be seen on Swanwick Lane. The area has close ties to the sea with local marinas dominating the riverbank; the local Post Office is now closed as part of the'Post Office Network Change Programme'. The Old Ship pub on Bridge Road was a farm house for Oslands Farm to become The Oslands Hotel; the name change to The Old Ship occurred on the 10 November 1967 when Thomas Fredrick Newman became the tenant landlord. The building behind the pub was a farm barn and is now 3 bed room house behind the pub is a long low building formally a dairy, this is now a 3 bed room bungalow on a large plot of land known an Nether Oslands.

Swanwick Shore Strict Baptist Chapel on Bridge Road was built in 1844 and is a Grade II listed building. Swanwick has become popular with visitors, because the river and its landmarks are where many of the scenes for the former television series Howards' Way were filmed.'The Jolly Sailor' Public House, a pub made famous by the former BBC television series Howards' Way can be seen from Bursledon Bridge, which carries the A27 across the River Hamble, when looking west