In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting of hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons are examples of group 14 hydrides. Hydrocarbons from which one hydrogen atom has been removed are functional groups called hydrocarbyls; because carbon has 4 electrons in its outermost shell carbon has four bonds to make, is only stable if all 4 of these bonds are used. Aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes and alkyne-based compounds are different types of hydrocarbons. Most hydrocarbons found on Earth occur in petroleum, where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen which, when bonded, can catenate to form limitless chains; as defined by IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry, the classifications for hydrocarbons are: Saturated hydrocarbons are the simplest of the hydrocarbon species. They are composed of single bonds and are saturated with hydrogen; the formula for acyclic saturated hydrocarbons is CnH2n+2. The most general form of saturated hydrocarbons is CnH2n +2.
Those with one ring are the cycloalkanes. Saturated hydrocarbons are the basis of petroleum fuels and are found as either linear or branched species. Substitution reaction is their characteristics property. Hydrocarbons with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae are called structural isomers; as given in the example of 3-methylhexane and its higher homologues, branched hydrocarbons can be chiral. Chiral saturated hydrocarbons constitute the side chains of biomolecules such as chlorophyll and tocopherol. Unsaturated hydrocarbons have one or more triple bonds between carbon atoms; those with double bond are called alkenes. Those with one double bond have the formula CnH2n; those containing triple bonds are called alkyne. Those with one triple bond have the formula CnH2n−2. Aromatic hydrocarbons known as arenes, are hydrocarbons that have at least one aromatic ring. Hydrocarbons can be gases, waxes or low melting solids or polymers; because of differences in molecular structure, the empirical formula remains different between hydrocarbons.
This inherent ability of hydrocarbons to bond to themselves is known as catenation, allows hydrocarbons to form more complex molecules, such as cyclohexane, in rarer cases, arenes such as benzene. This ability comes from the fact that the bond character between carbon atoms is non-polar, in that the distribution of electrons between the two elements is somewhat due to the same electronegativity values of the elements, does not result in the formation of an electrophile. With catenation comes the loss of the total amount of bonded hydrocarbons and an increase in the amount of energy required for bond cleavage due to strain exerted upon the molecule. In simple chemistry, as per valence bond theory, the carbon atom must follow the 4-hydrogen rule, which states that the maximum number of atoms available to bond with carbon is equal to the number of electrons that are attracted into the outer shell of carbon. In terms of shells, carbon consists of an incomplete outer shell, which comprises 4 electrons, thus has 4 electrons available for covalent or dative bonding.
Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic like lipids. Some hydrocarbons are abundant in the solar system. Lakes of liquid methane and ethane have been found on Titan, Saturn's largest moon, confirmed by the Cassini-Huygens Mission. Hydrocarbons are abundant in nebulae forming polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds. Hydrocarbons are a primary energy source for current civilizations; the predominant use of hydrocarbons is as a combustible fuel source. In their solid form, hydrocarbons take the form of asphalt. Mixtures of volatile hydrocarbons are now used in preference to the chlorofluorocarbons as a propellant for aerosol sprays, due to chlorofluorocarbons' impact on the ozone layer. Methane and ethane are gaseous at ambient temperatures and cannot be liquefied by pressure alone. Propane is however liquefied, exists in'propane bottles' as a liquid. Butane is so liquefied that it provides a safe, volatile fuel for small pocket lighters. Pentane is a colorless liquid at room temperature used in chemistry and industry as a powerful nearly odorless solvent of waxes and high molecular weight organic compounds, including greases.
Hexane is a used non-polar, non-aromatic solvent, as well as a significant fraction of common gasoline. The C6 through C10 alkanes and isomeric cycloalkanes are the top components of gasoline, jet fuel and specialized industrial solvent mixtures. With the progressive addition of carbon units, the simple non-ring structured hydrocarbons have higher viscosities, lubricating indices, boiling points, solidification temperatures, deeper color. At the opposite extreme from methane lie the heavy tars that remain as the lowest fraction in a crude oil refining retort, they are collected and utilized as roofing compound
Camp Orkila is on the northwest shoulder of Orcas Island in the San Juan Islands of Washington, overlooking Presidents Channel, the Canadian Gulf Islands. It has been in operation since 1906, it is operated by the Greater Seattle Area's YMCA. It is open year-round and offers many different programs ranging from conference and retreat hosting to summer camp and teen expedition programs for grades 3 through 12 during the summer, the Orkila Outdoor Environmental Education Center during the spring and fall. Camp Orkila's main property is situated on the northwest shoulder of Orcas Island, is 280 acres in size; this property includes many cabins for campers to sleep in, as well as two lodges for eating, two campfire pits and high ropes team building courses, a junior-Olympic sized pool, a Marine Salmon Center, a zip-line, a barn, a garden, many other program areas allowing for a wide range of activities and specialty camps throughout the summer. Cabins were open-air, however doors were added for the summer of 2017.
While cabins make up the majority of the living space on property, there are many staff-specific living spaces, as well as the Dederer Conference Center, located near the entrance to camp which serves as director housing during the summer, is used for guest housing as well as staff housing during the spring and fall seasons. The YMCA owns Satellite Island as well as a 10.5 acre property in Moran State Park known as Twin Lakes. Satellite Is used by both traditional campers for one night island trip each week, as well as a location for Orkila's Teen Expedition participants to stay as a part of their expeditions throughout the San Juan islands. Twin lakes fills a similar role, while remaining on the island, is accessible by a 2.2 mile hike. Other overnight camps for children in the San Juan Islands include: Canoe Island Camps Camp Nor'Wester Camp Four Winds Westward Ho Camp Orkila's homepage Seattle YMCA homepage Camp Orkila Freedom Sports Week Promotional Video Orkila Outdoor Environmental Education Center
The War on Democracy is a 2007 documentary film directed by Christopher Martin and John Pilger, who wrote the narration. Focusing on the political situations in nations of Latin America, the film criticizes both the United States' intervention in foreign countries' domestic politics and its "War on Terrorism"; the film was first released in the United Kingdom on 15 June 2007. Critics accuse the film of fostering anti-American sentiment; the film was produced over a two-year period. Carl Deal, chief archivist on the Michael Moore films Fahrenheit 9/11 and Bowling for Columbine, provided the archive footage used in the film, it is mastered in high-definition video. The War on Democracy was screened at both the 2007 Cannes Film Festival and the Galway Film Festival; the film was sold to distributors Lionsgate for distribution in the U. K. and Hopscotch distribution in Australia and New Zealand. Pre-release screening took place at two Fopp locations on 12 June 2007, including one, followed by a question and answer session with co-director John Pilger.
Peter Bradshaw wrote in The Guardian: recounts the shabby tale of how the postwar United States set about... inconvenient nationalisers in small countries, using phoney pretexts cooked up with the help of compliant media... Pilger makes no secret of his own admiration for Chávez, a Bolivarian hero who has had the effrontery to survive without kowtowing to the mighty superpower, but how about Chávez's decision to bypass the National Assembly for 18 months, rule by decree? Pilger passes over it lightly. Maybe he thinks that questioning Chávez on this point would be playing into the hands of the smearmongers. Maybe, but he's in dereliction of his journalistic duty, just the same... But however posterity depicts, the truth of Pilger's overall story is plain enough. Andrew Billen wrote in The Times: By any standards his latest outing was an impressive polemic, but by any standards, Pilger's patsy questioning of President Chávez was a disgrace. New Statesman, in a recent cover story, has suggested that Chávez is halfway to becoming a dictator.
All Pilger parenthetically conceded was that Chávez "recently announced temporary presidential powers that bypass parliament". James Walton in The Daily Telegraph thought that while "Pilger stressed that Venezuela's potential utopia is under threat", he "made the same claims for Chavez that he was making for the Sandinistas in Nicaragua" in the 1980s. In Pilger's account of US involvement in Latin America, Walton wrote, "while this was the most familiar section of the programme, it was the most powerful and persuasive – because, once he was attacking his baddies, Pilger duly seemed on more solid ground, his recital, pretty polished by now, included chapter and verse on American involvement in torture and terrorism. He exposed "the epic lie" that this was done for the sake of democracy"; the War on Democracy won the One World Media TV Documentary Award in 2008. The War on Democracy grossed $199,500 at the box office in Australia; the Revolution Will Not Be Televised, documentary filmed from within the Chavez camp during the failed coup of 2002.
South of the Border, documentary by Oliver Stone Bolivarian revolution Hugo Chávez Economy of Venezuela The War on Democracy, Complete documentary online, at www.johnpilger.com "Have Your Say - Live!!!, with John Pilger", BBC News World Review, Empire Review, NarcoNews The War on Democracy on IMDb