England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north; the Irish Sea lies the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. It is the largest country of the British Isles; the area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.

The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and, prior to Brexit, the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.

The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used. The etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. A romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend. Albion is applied to England in a more poetic capacity, though its original meaning is the island of Britain as a whole; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to 780,000 years ago.

The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago. Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years. After the last ice age only large mammals such as mammoths and woolly rhinoceros remained. 11,000 years ago, when the ice sheets began to recede, humans repopulated the area. The sea level was lower than now and Britain was connected by land bridge to Ireland and Eurasia; as the seas rose, it was separated from Ireland 10,000 years ago and from Eurasia two millennia later. The Beaker culture arrived around 2,500 BC, introducing drinking and food vessels constructed from clay, as well as vessels used as reduction pots to smelt copper ores, it was during this time that major


Tharbis, according to Josephus, was a Cushite princess of the Kingdom of Kush, who married Moses prior to his marriage to Zipporah as told in the Book of Exodus. Tharbis is speculated to have been the widow of Kikianus. According to the first-century Romano-Jewish scholar Josephus, in Moses' early adult life, he had led the Egyptians in a campaign against invading Ethiopians and defeated them. While Moses was besieging the city of Meru, Tharbis watched him lead the Egyptian army from within the city walls, fell in love with him, he agreed to marry her. She did so and Moses promptly married her; the account of this expedition is mentioned by Irenaeus. After the war, when Moses sought to return to Egypt – Tharbis is said to have resisted and insisted that he remain in Ethiopia as her husband, he being "most skilful in astronomy", cast two rings. He gave the first ring to Tharbis, wore the second himself, waited for her oblivious nature to lose interest in retaining him as a husband – and when she had forgotten her love for him, he returned to Egypt alone.

Some have suggested this period may have started when Moses was 27, that he remained with Tharbis for forty years. Some have suggested that this story is an invention, arising from the "enigmatic" verse in Numbers 12:1 that states "Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Cushite woman whom he had married". Miriam is punished for her rebuke of her brother by being afflicted with leprosy, it is suggested that Artapanus of Alexandria may have concocted the story "to impress his pagan audience" with "such a love story". In 1937, Amy Redpath Roddick published an 80-page "poetic drama" telling a fictionalised account of the life of Tharbis. Tharbis is portrayed in Cecil B. DeMille's 1956 biblical-epic The Ten Commandments. In the film, she appears and is not Moses wife

Bad Boy (Red Velvet song)

"Bad Boy" is a song by South Korean girl group Red Velvet, released as a single from The Perfect Red Velvet, the reissue of Perfect Velvet. It was released by S. M. Entertainment on January 29, 2018, along with the album and an accompanying music video. Written by S. M. Entertainment artist and songwriter Yoo Young-jin and produced by The Stereotypes, Maxx Song and Whitney Philips, "Bad Boy" is an R&B song with elements of hip hop that has a synth melody and heavy bass sound, its lyrics describe a relationship between a cold woman. The song was well-received by critics overseas and in the group's native country South Korea, who praised the music, the music video and its choreography, the group's transition to a sexy concept, something they have never attempted before. "Bad Boy" was included in Billboard's'100 Best Songs of 2018: Critics' Picks' list, topped their annual'20 Best K-pop Songs of 2018: Critics' Picks' list, they were the first female act to top this list. Dazed included the song in their'20 best K-pop songs of 2018'.

Commercially, the song was a domestic and international success, topping the Gaon Download Chart and charting at number two on the Gaon Digital Chart in South Korea. It charted at number two on Billboard's World Digital Songs chart; as of February 2020, it has sold over 500,000 units in the United States, has 250 million views on YouTube and 100 million streams on Spotify. The group entered the Canadian Hot 100 for the first time with the song, making them only the seventh K-pop artist and the third female act to appear on the chart, it charted in Japan and Singapore. The song is notable for being one of two songs performed by Red Velvet at the "Spring is Coming" concert in Pyongyang at the East Pyongyang Grand Theatre to an audience that included Kim Jong-un; the concert was seen as an act of cultural diplomacy and intended as part of a wider diplomatic initiative between South Korea and North Korea. Their appearance at the concert made them only the fifth idol group to perform in North Korea and the first artist from SM Entertainment in fifteen years since Shinhwa.

A few months after the release of the group's second studio album Perfect Velvet, the group's company S. M. Entertainment announced through an image teaser posted on their official social media accounts on January 23, 2018 that Red Velvet will be releasing their first reissue of an album, a repackage of Perfect Velvet titled The Perfect Red Velvet; the lead single was described as a song with a "sexy" or "girl crush" concept by South Korean news sites, which the group has never done before. On January 26, teaser images of members Wendy and Joy were released through Red Velvet's social media accounts which Kang Seo-jung of Osen commented had the vibe of a powerful "eonni". Kang noted how the song's concept differs from the group's past releases. "Bad Boy" is described as a hip hop-based R&B song with a heavy bass sound. The song was composed by Maxx Song, The Stereotypes, Whitney Philips and Yoo Young-jin with Korean lyrics by JQ,Moon Hee-yeon detailing the attraction and emotions between a'bad boy' and a cold woman.

Mexican news site Milenio called the song's melody a mix of R&B and hip hop and stated that its lyrics tell the story of the beginning of the couple's relationship. On August 6, 2018 an English version of "Bad Boy" was released as a bonus track of their next EP "Summer Magic". An accompanying music video directed by Kim Ja-kyoung of Flexible Pictures and choreographed by Japanese hip hop dancer and choreographer Rie Hata who had worked with CL for the choreography of "The Baddest Female" and with the group's label mate BoA for her single "Nega Dola" was released on the same day as the album and song; the video was called'sultry' by Annie Martin of UPI and it featured the members in various coordinating outfits, which included all-black ensembles and pink pajamas. They were seen in sexy uniforms, with athleisure fishnet-and-leather outfits. Tamar Herman of Billboard stated that it depicted the group as "femme fatales aiming to destroy the titular'Bad Boy'", she noted how it wasn't "particularly plot-oriented" but "the dangerous vibes of Irene, Seulgi and Joy contrast with the more youthful, unicorn-riding image of youngest-member Yeri, who the others protect, with Seulgi covering her ears during one scene".

Talking about the choreography, she said that it was "filled with suggestive hip rolls and aggressive come-hither hand motions, beckoning sultrily toward the audience and shooting at the camera". On January 29, 2018, Red Velvet held a comeback showcase broadcast live through the Naver app V Live, hosted by label mate Girls' Generation member Hyoyeon where the members discussed "Bad Boy" and performed it live for the first time. Red Velvet began their music show promotions for the song through M! Countdown on February 1; the group performed the song on Music Bank, Show! Music Core and Show Champion where they achieved their first music show win for "Bad Boy" on February 7. On April 1, 2018, Red Velvet performed the song along with "Red Flavor" in Pyongyang at the East Pyongyang Grand Theatre to an audience that included Kim Jong-un during a concert billed as "Spring is Coming", intended as part of a wider diplomatic initiative between South Korea and North Korea; this made them only the fifth idol group to perform in North Korea and the first artist from SM Entertainment in fifteen years since Shinhwa.

The group performed a half-Korean, half-English version of the song at a fan meeting in Chicago in April 2018, months before the release of its official English version in August. Tamar Herman of Billboard labelled the song their "darkest yet", noting the difference be