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English Civil War

The English Civil War was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists principally over the manner of England's governance. The first and second wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament; the war ended with Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651. The outcome of the war was threefold: the trial and execution of Charles I. A king had never been executed before. In England, the monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship was ended, while in Ireland the victors consolidated the established Protestant Ascendancy. Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although the idea of Parliamentary sovereignty was only established as part of the Glorious Revolution in 1688; the term "English Civil War" appears most in the singular, although historians divide the conflict into two or three separate wars.

These were not restricted to England, as Wales was part of the Kingdom of England and affected accordingly. The conflicts involved wars with Scotland and Ireland, civil wars within them; the wars spanning all three countries are known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. In the early 19th century, Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "the Great Civil War". Unlike other civil wars in England, which focused on who should rule, these conflicts were more concerned with the manner in which the three kingdoms of England and Ireland were governed; the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica called the series of conflicts the "Great Rebellion", while some historians – notably Marxists such as Christopher Hill – long favoured the term "English Revolution". Each side had a geographical stronghold, such that minority elements were fled; the royalty's included the countryside, the shires, the cathedral city of Oxford, the less economically developed areas of northern and western England. Parliament's spanned the industrial centres and economically advanced regions of southern and eastern England, including the remaining cathedral cities.

Lacey Baldwin Smith says, "the words populous and rebellious seemed to go hand in hand". Many officers and veteran soldiers had fought in European wars, notably the Eighty Years' War between the Spanish and the Dutch, which began in 1568; the main battle tactic came to be known as shot infantry. The two sides would line up opposite one another, with infantry brigades of musketeers in the centre; these carried matchlock muskets, an inaccurate weapon which could be lethal at a range of up to 300 yards. Musketeers would assemble three rows deep, the first kneeling, second crouching, third standing, allowing all to fire a volley simultaneously. At times, troops divided into two groups. Among the musketeers were pike men, carrying pikes of 12 feet to 18 feet long, whose main purpose was to protect the musketeers from cavalry charges. Positioned on each side of the infantry were cavalry, with a right-wing led by the lieutenant-general and left by the commissary general, its main aim was to rout the opponents' cavalry turn and overpower their infantry.

The Royalist cavaliers' skill and speed on horseback led to many early victories. Prince Rupert, commanding the king's cavalry, used a tactic learned while fighting in the Dutch army, where cavalry would charge at full speed into the opponent's infantry, firing their pistols just before impact. However, with Oliver Cromwell and the introduction of the more disciplined New Model Army, a group of disciplined pike men would stand its ground, which could have a devastating effect; the Royalist cavalry had a tendency to chase down individual targets after the initial charge, leaving their forces scattered and tired, whereas Cromwell's cavalry was slower but better disciplined. Trained to operate as a single unit, it went on to win many decisive victories; the English Civil War broke out in 1642, less than 40 years after the death of Queen Elizabeth I. Elizabeth had been succeeded by her first cousin twice-removed, King James VI of Scotland, as James I of England, creating the first personal union of the Scottish and English kingdoms.

As King of Scots, James had become accustomed to Scotland's weak parliamentary tradition since assuming control of the Scottish government in 1583, so that upon assuming power south of the border, the new King of England was affronted by the constraints the English Parliament attempted to place on him in exchange for money. In spite of this, James's personal extravagance meant he was perennially short of money and had to resort to extra-parliamentary sources of income; this extravagance was tempered by James's peaceful disposition, so that by the succession of his son Charles I in 1625 the two kingdoms had both experienced relative peace, internally and in their relations with each other, for as long as anyone could remember. Charles followed his father's dream in hoping to unite the kingdoms of England and Ireland into a single kingdom. Many English Parliamentarians were suspicious of such a move, fearing that such a new kingdom might destroy old English traditions that had bound the English monarchy.

As Charles shared his father's position on the power of the crown (Ja

City of Hobart

Hobart City Council is a local government body in Tasmania, covering the central metropolitan area of the state capital, Hobart. The Hobart local government area has a population of 53,684 and includes the suburbs of West Hobart, Mount Stuart, South Hobart, New Town, Sandy Bay and most of Fern Tree, North Hobart and Mount Nelson; the present city council was created in 1852 by act of parliament, the city mayor raised to Lord Mayor in 1934. Mount Wellington and the River Derwent are major features of the natural environment of the City of Hobart. 61% of the area is bushland. Yaizu, Japan L'Aquila, l’Aquila, Italy The City of Hobart is governed by the Hobart City Council, consisting of twelve aldermen headed by the Lord Mayor of Hobart; the current Lord Mayor is Anna Reynolds, after winning the 2018 Council Election. Aldermen are elected every four years; the Hobart City Council estimates that on weekdays "close to 50% of the population of Greater Hobart would be in the City for working, education, personal business or leisure purposes".

Major industries by employment: Health and Community Services 17% Retail Trade 13% Property and Business Services 12% Government Administration 12% Education 9%The City has five major hospitals and fire and emergency service headquarters. Hobart is classified as an urban capital city under the Australian Classification of Local Governments. List of local government areas of Tasmania Hobart City Council official website Local Government Association Tasmania Tasmanian Electoral Commission - local government

West Virginia Central and Pittsburg Railway

The West Virginia Central and Pittsburg Railway was a railroad in West Virginia and Maryland operating in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It had main lines radiating from Elkins, West Virginia in four principal directions: north to Cumberland, Maryland; some of the routes were constructed through subsidiary companies, the Piedmont and Cumberland Railway and the Coal and Iron Railway. West Virginia businessman Henry G. Davis founded the Potomac and Piedmont Coal and Railroad Company in 1866. In 1880 the company began to construct a rail line from a junction on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad near Bloomington, south along the North Branch Potomac River. In 1881 the line reached coal fields near Elk Garden, WV, Davis obtained new charters from the states of West Virginia and Maryland, renaming the company as WVC&P. By 1884 the line reached Fairfax, WV and the location of the future town of Davis, WV. Davis became a center for logging and leather tanning, in the 1890s it was the starting point for the growing Davis Coal and Coke Company.

In 1886 the WVC&P began construction north from the Bloomington junction toward Westernport and Cumberland, using a newly created subsidiary, the Piedmont and Cumberland. The P&C reached Cumberland in July 1887. Connections with the B&O were established at Rawlings, Maryland. Southward construction on the WVC&P continued, the line reached Parsons in 1888 and Elkins in 1889. Elkins became a major hub for the railroad. A branch out of Elkins west and north along the Tygart Valley River was constructed and reached Belington in 1891. Another branch followed the river south, reaching Beverly in 1891 and Huttonsville in 1899. In 1899 the WVC&P established the Iron Railway to build a line from Elkins to Durbin. By 1903 the line to Durbin was complete and a connection was made there with the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad; the WVC&P and subsidiaries were sold to the Fuller Syndicate, led by George Gould, in 1902 and merged into the Western Maryland Railway in 1905. The newly built WM connected to the WVC&P in Ridgeley, WV.

The WM was taken over by the Chessie System in 1973, the Chessie System in turn was merged out of existence and into CSX Transportation in 1980. Portions of the original WVC&P lines are used by CSX for freight operations. Other portions are owned by the West Virginia State Rail Authority, which contracts with the Durbin and Greenbrier Valley Railroad to operate a tourist railroad from Elkins and Durbin. Durbin and Greenbrier Valley Railroad List of defunct Maryland railroads List of defunct West Virginia railroads Mountain State Railroad and Logging Historical Association West Virginia Railroad Museum – Elkins, WV Durbin and Greenbrier Valley Railroad