The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church. These events were, in part, associated with the wider European Protestant Reformation, a religious and political movement that affected the practice of Christianity across western and central Europe. Causes included the invention of the printing press and increased circulation of the Bible, the transmission of new knowledge and ideas among scholars, the upper and middle classes and readers in general. However, the various phases of the English Reformation, which covered Wales and Ireland, were driven by changes in government policy, to which public opinion accommodated itself. Based on Henry VIII's desire for an annulment of his marriage, the English Reformation was at the outset more of a political affair than a theological dispute; the reality of political differences between Rome and England allowed growing theological disputes to come to the fore.
Until the break with Rome, it was general councils of the church that decided doctrine. Church law was governed by canon law with final jurisdiction in Rome. Church taxes were paid straight to Rome, the Pope had the final word in the appointment of bishops; the break with Rome was effected by a series of acts of Parliament passed between 1532 and 1534, among them the 1534 Act of Supremacy, which declared that Henry was the "Supreme Head on earth of the Church of England". Final authority in doctrinal and legal disputes now rested with the monarch, the papacy was deprived of revenue and the final say on the appointment of bishops; the theology and liturgy of the Church of England became markedly Protestant during the reign of Henry's son Edward VI along lines laid down by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer. Under Mary, the whole process was reversed and the Church of England was again placed under papal jurisdiction. Soon after, Elizabeth reintroduced the Protestant faith but in a more moderate manner.
The structure and theology of the church was a matter of fierce dispute for generations. The violent aspect of these disputes, manifested in the English Civil Wars, ended when the last Roman Catholic monarch, James II, was deposed, Parliament asked William III and Mary II to rule jointly in conjunction with the English Bill of Rights in 1688, from which emerged a church polity with an established church and a number of non-conformist churches whose members at first suffered various civil disabilities that were removed over time; the legacy of the previous Roman Catholic heritage and establishment as the state church remained an issue for some time and still exists today. A substantial but dwindling minority from the late 16th to early 19th centuries remained Roman Catholic in England, their church organisation remained illegal until the Relief Act of 1829. The Reformation was a clash of two opposed schemes of salvation; the Catholic Church taught that the contrite person could cooperate with God towards their salvation by performing good works.
Medieval Catholic worship was centred on the Mass, the church's offering of the sacrifice of Christ's body and blood. The Mass was an offering of prayer by which the living could help souls in purgatory. Protestants taught that fallen humanity was helpless and under condemnation until given the grace of God through faith, they believed the Catholic emphasis on purgatory was an obstacle to true faith in God and the identification of the Mass with Christ's sacrifice a blasphemous perversion of the Eucharist. In place of the Mass, Protestant worship was centred on the Bible–to them the only road to faith in Christ–either read or presented in sermons. Lollardy anticipated some Protestant teachings. Derived from the writings of John Wycliffe, a 14th-century theologian and Bible translator, Lollardy stressed the primacy of scripture and emphasised preaching over the sacrament of the altar, holding the latter to be but a memorial. Unlike Protestants, the early Lollards lacked access to the printing press and failed to gain a foothold among the church's most popular communicators, the friars.
Unable to gain access to the levers of power, the Lollards were much reduced in numbers and influence by the 15th century. They sometimes faced investigation and persecution and produced new literature after 1450. Lollards could still be found—especially in London and the Thames Valley, in Essex and Kent, Bristol and in the North—and many would be receptive to Protestant ideas. More respectable and orthodox calls for reform came from Renaissance humanists, such as Erasmus, John Colet, Dean of St Paul's, Thomas More. Humanists downplayed the role of rites and ceremonies in achieving salvation and criticised the superstitious veneration of relics. Erasmus and Colet emphasised a simple, personal piety and a return ad fontes of Christian faith—the scriptures as understood through textual and linguistic scholarship. Colet's commentaries on the Pauline epistles emphasized double predestination and the worthlessness of human works. Anne Boleyn's own religious views were shaped by French humanists such as Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples, whose 1512 commentaries on Paul's epistles stated that human works were irrelevant to salvation five years before Luther published the same views.
Humanist scholarship provided arguments against papal primacy and support for the claim that popes had usurped powers that rightfully belonged to kings. In 1534, Lorenzo Valla's On the Donation of
For the 2007/08 season, AEK Athens F. C. competed in its 49th consecutive season in the Greek topflight. AEK bolstered the strength of their squad with the signings of Brazilian legend Rivaldo, following up with several other strong signings in Arruabarrena and Ismael Blanco; the club sold 25,495 season tickets. After finishing 2nd in Superleague Greece previous season, AEK entered the UEFA Champions League in the 3rd Qualifying round. On 3 August, AEK were drawn against Sevilla FC, the first leg was played in Seville on 15 August, while the second leg was held at the Athens Olympic Stadium. After being eliminated from the UEFA Champions League, AEK were drawn to play with FC Salzburg in the UEFA Cup. After defeating Salzburg 3–1 on aggregate, AEK were on 9 October drawn in Group C in the UEFA Cup group stage along with Villarreal, Mladá Boleslav, Elfsborg. On 20 December, AEK booked their place in the knockout stage finishing third in the group. AEK were drawn to play Getafe CF in the next round of the UEFA Cup where they were knocked out 4–1 on aggregate.
On 12 February AEK parted company with Llorenç after a poor run of form and un-successful signings. The team finished in the first place in the league, but after the court case between Apollon Kalamarias and Olympiacos for the illegal line-up of a player in the 1–0 Apollon Kalamaria win earlier in the season, Olympiacos were awarded the 3 points thus finishing 2 points ahead of AEK. AEK finished 2nd in the national playoffs which saw them qualify for the UEFA Cup. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. In: Total spending: €2,71M Out: Total income: €640K Last updated: 2010-01-06 Out: Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Out: Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Players in italics have left during the season. Source: aekfc.gr Key * Served as Caretaker-manager. Only competitive matches are counted.
Wins and draws are results at the final whistle. This is the classification for the regular season: Correct as of 27 May 2008 Last updated: 2008-05-14Source:1AEK Athens goals come first. National flags for Ground and Opponent columns are only shown. M = Match.
Red Love is a 1982 German documentary film directed by Rosa von Praunheim. The film, divided in two interspersing different segments, deals with two women deprived of independence for many years because of either their family obligations or an authoritarian spouse. One segment is a documentary interview; the fictional narrative, made in the style of an early 20th century morality play, is based on Red Love, a novel by Alexandra Kollontai, a feminist writer, the first Soviet ambassador to Norway. It tells the story of a young woman Vassilissa who breaks with her early ideals to enter into a conventional bourgeois marriage and learns how to stand up to her womanizing husband; the second part is a documentary about Helga Goetze, a West German woman in her fifties, who after thirty years of a sexually boring marriage, left her husband and their seven children to join the Otto Muehl Commune in Vienna in order to live a life of sexual freedom. She oversexed claiming that all she wants to do is to have sex.
While advocating for sexual liberation, she holds outrageous sexual ideas. Murray, Raymond. Images in the Dark: An Encyclopedia of Gay and Lesbian Film and Video Guide. TLA Publications, 1994, ISBN 978-1-880707-01-2 Red Love on IMDb