An engraved gem referred to as an intaglio, is a small and semi-precious gemstone, carved, in the Western tradition with images or inscriptions only on one face. The engraving of gemstones was a major luxury art form in the Ancient world, an important one in some periods. Speaking, engraving means carving in intaglio, but relief carvings are covered by the term; this article uses cameo in its strict sense, to denote a carving exploiting layers of differently coloured stone. The activity is called gem carving and the artists gem-cutters. References to antique gems and intaglios in a jewellery context will always mean carved gems. Vessels like the Cup of the Ptolemies and heads or figures carved in the round are known as hardstone carvings. Glyptics or glyptic art covers the field of small carved stones, including cylinder seals and inscriptions in an archaeological context. Though they were keenly collected in antiquity, most carved gems functioned as seals mounted in a ring. A finely carved seal was practical, as it made forgery more difficult – the distinctive personal signature did not exist in antiquity.
Gems were cut by using abrasive powder from harder stones in conjunction with a hand-drill often set in a lathe. Emery has been mined for abrasive powder on Naxos since antiquity; some early types of seal were cut by hand, rather than a drill. There is no evidence. A medieval guide to gem-carving techniques survives from Theophilus Presbyter. Byzantine cutters used a flat-edged wheel on a drill for intaglio work, while Carolingian ones used round-tipped drills. In intaglio gems at least, the recessed cut surface is very well preserved, microscopic examination is revealing of the technique used; the colour of several gemstones can be enhanced by a number of artificial methods, using heat and dyes. Many of these can be shown to have been used since antiquity – since the 7th millennium BC in the case of heating; the technique has an ancient tradition in the Near East, is represented in all or most early cultures from the area, the Indus Valley civilization. The cylinder seal, whose design only appears when rolled over damp clay, from which the flat ring type developed, was the usual form in Mesopotamia and other cultures, spread to the Minoan world, including parts of Greece and Cyprus.
These were made in various types of stone, not all hardstone. The Greek tradition emerged in Ancient Greek art under Minoan influence on mainland Helladic culture, reached an apogee of subtlety and refinement in the Hellenistic period. Pre-Hellenic Ancient Egyptian seals tend to have inscriptions in hieroglyphs rather than images; the Biblical Book of Exodus describes the form of the hoshen, a ceremonial breastplate worn by the High Priest, bearing twelve gems engraved with the names of the Twelve tribes of Israel. Round or oval Greek gems are found from the 8th and 7th centuries BC with animals in energetic geometric poses with a border marked by dots or a rim. Early examples are in softer stones. Gems of the 6th century are more oval, with a scarab back, human or divine figures as well as animals; the forms are sophisticated for the period, despite the small size of the gems. In the 5th century gems became still only 2-3 centimetres tall. Despite this fine detail is shown, including the eyelashes on one male head a portrait.
Four gems signed by Dexamenos of Chios are the finest of two showing herons. Relief carving became common in 5th century BC Greece, most of the spectacular carved gems in the Western tradition were in relief, although the Sassanian and other traditions remained faithful to the intaglio form. A relief image is more impressive than an intaglio one; however inscriptions are still in reverse so they only read on impressions. This aspect partly explains the collecting of impressions in plaster or wax from gems, which may be easier to appreciate than the original; the cameo, rare in intaglio form, seems to have reached Greece around the 3rd century. The conquests of Alexander the Great had opened up new trade routes to the Greek world and increased the range of gemstones available. Roman gems continued Hellenistic styles, can be hard to date, until their quality declines at the end of the 2nd century AD. Philosophers are sometime
Black Youth Project 100 is an African American youth organization in the United States. Its activities include community organizing, voter mobilization, other social justice campaigns focused on black and queer issues. BYP100 was founded in 2013, was motivated by the response to the acquittal of George Zimmerman in his trial for the killing of Trayvon Martin. Founding members include Charlene Carruthers; as of 2019, the group has chapters in Chicago, New York City, the District of Columbia, New Orleans, Atlanta, Milwaukee and Jackson. The group's origins begin with the Black Youth Project, a project set up by black activist and feminist Cathy Cohen, a political scientist at the University of Chicago. Cohen created an online hub to study African American millennials with the goal of empowering them. In 2013, Cohen met Charlene Carruthers a youth activist in Chicago, the group was created that summer. BYP100's membership is limited to those between 18 and 35. In Chicago, many are students, while "others are artists, service workers, media makers, musicians."
Many of the organization's leaders and members are queer women. The organization's national co-director in 2019 described its focus on black and queer issues as “radically inclusive and vigilant about bringing folks from the margins to the center.” A profile in Chicago Magazine described the group as "decidedly radical," noting "In the short term, they want an elected group to replace the appointed Chicago Police Board, but in the long term, they advocate the outright abolition of the police department and the prison system. Among their other goals: reparations, universal childcare, a higher minimum wage, the decriminalization of marijuana, the repeal of other laws that disproportionately land black youths in the criminal justice system."Cohen, writing an op-ed in the Washington Post with political theorist Danielle Allen, described the group's goals as organizing "against state violence directed at black youth." Cohen and Allen write: BYP100 promotes a leadership model at odds with the male charismatic leader made famous by Malcolm X and King.
These activists look to black feminism and "queer" political analysis, again focusing on multiple forms of marginalization, to guide their organization and campaigns. They underscore that the civil rights movement, was built with the strength of women and queer activists, not charismatic, heterosexual men. In September 2014, BYP100 released Agenda to Keep Us Safe, a policy document called for the "demilitarization" of law enforcement, the creation of civilian review boards to address accusations of police misconduct, an end to the War on Drugs, requirements for police to wear body cameras, the increase in the enforcement of existing civil rights laws. In December 2014, BYP100 members were among the organizers of a series of traffic disruption protests in Washington, D. C. in support of protesters in Ferguson, Missouri. They worked with Chicago Black Lives Matter to defeat the reelection bid of Cook County State's Attorney Anita Alvarez, of whose response to the shooting of Laquan McDonald they disapproved.
In April 2015, BYP100 activists criticized D. C. Mayor Muriel E. Bowser for detailing 34 Metropolitan Police Department officers to Maryland to assist in responding to civil disturbances in Baltimore in accordance with the Emergency Management Assistance Compact; the group called upon Bowser to recall the officers. On Martin Luther King Jr. Day in January 2016, the organization launched their Black economic justice policy platform, the Agenda to Build Black Futures with a series of actions and events around the country under the banner of the hashtag #reclaimMLK; the group described the campaign as inspired by King's Poor People's Campaign. The group has overlapping membership with the Chicago-based black activist group Assata's Daughters, which credit BYP100 for "establishing the legitimacy of black only spaces."
The 2016–17 Women's CEV Cup was the 45th edition of the European CEV Cup volleyball club tournament, the former "Top Teams Cup". The tournament was played with 36 teams participating. 22 teams were allocated vacancies to enter the competition, with 8 of them directly qualified to the 16th Finals on the basis of the latest CEV European Ranking List. 14 teams came from the CEV Women's Champions League qualification entering the competition at different stages. On 30 June 2016, a drawing of lots in Varna, determined the team's pairing for each match; each team plays an away match with result points awarded for each leg. After two legs, the team with the most result points advances to the next round. In case the teams are tied after two legs, a Golden Set is played at the completion of the second leg; the Golden Set winner is the team that first obtains 15 points, provided that the points difference between the two teams is at least 2 points. Round composition32nd Final: 14 teams + 2 teams from Champions League 16th Final: 8 teams + 32nd Final winners + 8 teams from Champions League 8th Final: 16th Final winners + 4 teams from Champions League 4th Final onwards: winners A total of 36 teams participate in the competition.
Drawing of lots was held in Varna, Bulgaria on 30 June 2016. 1st leg 13–15 December 2016 2nd leg 21–22 December 2016 1st leg 11–12 January 2017 2nd leg 24–26 January 2017 1st leg 7–8 February 2017 2nd leg 21–23 February 2017*Note: A first leg scheduled on 7 February 2017, did not took place as Vizura did not turned up for the match. Serbian press reported the Vizura team flight from Istanbul to Odessa had two aborted landing attempts due to bad weather before returning to Istanbul; the CEV with both clubs consent, decided a single match in a neutral venue played behind closed doors as the way to determine the team advancing in the competition. 1st leg 7–8 March 2017 2nd leg 15–16 March 2017 1st leg 28 March 2017 2nd leg 1–2 April 2017 1st leg 11 April 2017 2nd leg 15 April 2017 CEV Cup 16-17