Reformed Political Party
The Reformed Political Party is an orthodox Calvinist political party in the Netherlands. The term Reformed is not a reference to political reform but is a synonym for Calvinism—a major branch of Protestantism; the SGP is the oldest political party in the Netherlands in its current form, has for its entire existence been in opposition. The party has, owing to its orthodox political ideals and its traditional role in the opposition, been called a testimonial party. Since the general election of 2017, it has held 3 of the 150 seats of the House of Representatives; the party has traditionally opposed universal suffrage, seeking to replace this with a form of "organic suffrage" restricted to male heads of households. It advocates the reestablishment of capital punishment in the Netherlands, abolished by a House of Representatives vote in 1870; the SGP was founded on 24 April 1918, by several conservative members of the Protestant Anti-Revolutionary Party. They did not support female suffrage. Furthermore, they were against the alliance the ARP had formed with the General League of Roman Catholic Caucuses.
The leading figure in the party's foundation was Yerseke pastor Gerrit Hendrik Kersten, who envisioned a Netherlands "without cinema, sports and social security". The party was unable to win any seats. In the 1922 election the party entered Parliament when Kersten won a seat in the House of Representatives. In this period the SGP became most noted for proposing, during the annual parliamentary debate on the budget of the Foreign Affairs Ministry, to abolish Dutch representation to the Holy See; each year the Protestant Christian Historical Union voted in favour of this motion. The CHU was in cabinet with the Catholic General League, but many of its members and supporters still had strong feelings against the Catholic Church. In 1925, the left-wing opposition voted in favour of the motion, they were indifferent to the representation at the Holy See, but saw the issue as an opportunity to divide the confessional cabinet. The cabinet fell in what is known as the Nacht van Kersten; the party gained another seat in the 1925 election, a third seat in the 1929 election.
It retained three seats in the 1933 election, but lost a seat in the 1937 election, in which the ARP led by prime minister Hendrikus Colijn performed well. During World War II, Kersten cooperated with the German occupiers to allow his paper, the Banier, to be printed, he condemned the Dutch Resistance, saying the German invasion was divine retribution for desecrating the Lord's Day. After the war, he was branded a collaborator and permanently stripped of his seat in the House of Representatives. Kersten was succeeded by Pieter Zandt, under whose leadership the SGP was stable, continually getting 2% of votes. In the 1956 election, the SGP profited from the enlargement of Parliament, entered the Senate for the first time, it lost that seat in 1960, but regained it in 1971. In 1961 Zandt was succeeded by Cor van Dis sr.. A chemist. After ten years he stood down in favour of Reverend Hette Abma, who stepped down after ten years, in favour of Henk van Rossum, a civil engineer. In the 1984 European Parliament election, the SGP joined the two other orthodox Protestant parties.
They won one seat in the European Parliament, taken by SGP member Leen van der Waal, a mechanical engineer. In 1986, Van Rossum was succeeded by Bas van der Vlies, who led the party till March 2010, when he was succeeded by Kees van der Staaij. In the 1994 election the party lost one seat in the House, regained it in 1998, lost it again in 2002. After the general election of 2003, the Christian Democratic Appeal and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy held talks with the SGP — the first time in memory that the SGP was considered as a possible coalition partner; the Democrats 66 joined the second Balkenende cabinet instead of the SGP because of the ideological differences between VVD and SGP. On 7 September 2005, the district court of The Hague judged that the party could no longer receive subsidies from the government, because women were not allowed to hold positions in the party; this was found to be a violation of the 1981 UN Treaty on Women in which the Netherlands committed to fighting discrimination.
It was a violation of the first article of the Dutch constitution, the principle of non-discrimination. The Dutch Council of State overturned the decision maintaining that a party's political philosophy takes precedence, that women have the opportunity to join other political parties where they can obtain a leadership role. Female members of the Reformed Political Party Youth, which did allow female membership, said however that they did not feel discriminated or repressed. During a party congress on 24 June 2006, the SGP lifted the ban on female membership. Political positions inside and outside the party are open to women. On 19 March 2014, the first female SGP delegate was elected to the municipal council in Vlissingen; as a Protestant fundamentalist party, the SGP draws much from its ideology from the reformed tradition the ecclesiastical doctrinal standards known as the Three Forms of Unity, including an unamended version of the Belgic Confession. The latter text is explicitly mentioned in the first principle of the party, where it is stated that the
Medemblik is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland and the region of West-Frisia. It lies south of the polder and former municipality of Wieringermeer. Medemblik was a prosperous trading town, when in 1282, Floris V, Count of Holland invaded West Friesland, he built several fortresses to control the region, one of, Kasteel Radboud in Medemblik, awarded Medemblik city rights in 1289. After Floris V had been murdered in 1296, the local Frisian besieged the castle, but in 1297 an army from Holland thwarted their efforts to starve out the inhabitants, which included Medemblik citizens. Several more attacks took place in the following centuries; the most notorious of these happened in June 1517, when Medemblik was attacked from mainland Frisia by about 4000 pirates known as the Arumer Zwarte Hoop, led by Pier Gerlofs Donia and Wijard Jelckama. Many citizens fled to the castle, they took out their fury on the town, which burned to the ground. After this the band continued their marauding path on land throughout present day North Holland.
Medemblik obtained town walls in 1572, so that the castle lost its roll as a refuge for the citizens, which led to its dismantling in 1578. Over the centuries the castle fell into decay, but in 1889 it became property of the crown and was restored to be used as a courthouse, which function it served until 1934. Anticipating the German invasion, the Rijksmuseum in September 1939 chose the castle as the initial hiding place of Rembrandt's Night Watch. On January 1, 2007, Medemblik merged with the municipalities of Noorder-Koggenland and Wognum, yet retained its own name in the surviving municipality though it was the smallest of the three in population. Again on January 1, 2011, Medemblik merged with Andijk and Wervershoof into the municipality Medemblik; the new city hall is the former office building of the DSB Bank in Wognum. Medemblik is best known in Europe for its sailing events. Medemblik further has a picturesque small innercity with many houses from the 17th and 18th century, two big churches, an old orphanage, a town hall and, of course, castle Radboud, just at the border of the innercity.
The municipal council of Medemblik consists of 27 seats, which are divided as follows: VVD - 8 seats CDA - 6 seats PvdA - 3 seats Gemeentebelangen - 3 seats Progressief West Friesland - 2 seats ChristenUnie - 1 seat D66 - 1 seat Andijker Belang - 1 seat PW2010 - 1 seat Onafhankelijke Westfriese Partij - 1 seat Jan Albertsz Rotius Painter Willem Vogelsang Media related to Medemblik at Wikimedia Commons "Medemblik". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. 1911. Official website Official tourist website
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects. Plasticity is the general property of all materials which can deform irreversibly without breaking but, in the class of moldable polymers, this occurs to such a degree that their actual name derives from this specific ability. Plastics are organic polymers of high molecular mass and contain other substances, they are synthetic, most derived from petrochemicals, however, an array of variants are made from renewable materials such as polylactic acid from corn or cellulosics from cotton linters. Due to their low cost, ease of manufacture and imperviousness to water, plastics are used in a multitude of products of different scale, including paper clips and spacecraft, they have prevailed over traditional materials, such as wood, stone and bone, metal and ceramic, in some products left to natural materials. In developed economies, about a third of plastic is used in packaging and the same in buildings in applications such as piping, plumbing or vinyl siding.
Other uses include automobiles and toys. In the developing world, the applications of plastic may differ—42% of India's consumption is used in packaging. Plastics have many uses in the medical field as well, with the introduction of polymer implants and other medical devices derived at least from plastic; the field of plastic surgery is not named for use of plastic materials, but rather the meaning of the word plasticity, with regard to the reshaping of flesh. The world's first synthetic plastic was bakelite, invented in New York in 1907 by Leo Baekeland who coined the term'plastics'. Many chemists have contributed to the materials science of plastics, including Nobel laureate Hermann Staudinger, called "the father of polymer chemistry" and Herman Mark, known as "the father of polymer physics"; the success and dominance of plastics starting in the early 20th century led to environmental concerns regarding its slow decomposition rate after being discarded as trash due to its composition of large molecules.
Toward the end of the century, one approach to this problem was met with wide efforts toward recycling. The word plastic derives from the Greek πλαστικός meaning "capable of being shaped or molded" and, in turn, from πλαστός meaning "molded"; the plasticity, or malleability, of the material during manufacture allows it to be cast, pressed, or extruded into a variety of shapes, such as: films, plates, bottles, amongst many others. The common noun plastic should not be confused with the technical adjective plastic; the adjective is applicable to any material which undergoes a plastic deformation, or permanent change of shape, when strained beyond a certain point. For example, aluminum, stamped or forged exhibits plasticity in this sense, but is not plastic in the common sense. By contrast, some plastics will, in their finished forms, break before deforming and therefore are not plastic in the technical sense. Most plastics contain organic polymers; the vast majority of these polymers are formed from chains of carbon atoms,'pure' or with the addition of: oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur.
The chains comprise many repeat units, formed from monomers. Each polymer chain will have several thousand repeating units; the backbone is the part of the chain, on the "main path", linking together a large number of repeat units. To customize the properties of a plastic, different molecular groups "hang" from this backbone; these pendant units are "hung" on the monomers, before the monomers themselves are linked together to form the polymer chain. It is the structure of these side chains; the molecular structure of the repeating unit can be fine tuned to influence specific properties in the polymer. Plastics are classified by: the chemical structure of the polymer's backbone and side chains. Plastics can be classified by: the chemical process used in their synthesis, such as: condensation and cross-linking. Plastics can be classified by: their various physical properties, such as: hardness, tensile strength, resistance to heat and glass transition temperature, by their chemical properties, such as the organic chemistry of the polymer and its resistance and reaction to various chemical products and processes, such as: organic solvents and ionizing radiation.
In particular, most plastics will melt upon heating to a few hundred degrees celsius. Other classifications are based on qualities that are relevant for product design. Examples of such qualities and classes are: thermoplastics and thermosets, conductive polymers, biodegradable plastics and engineering plastics and other plastics with particular structures, such as elastomers. One important classification of plastics is by the permanence or impermanence of their form, or whether they are: thermoplastics or thermosetting polymers. Thermoplastics are the plastics that, when heated, do not undergo chemical change in their composition and so can be molded again and again. Examples include: polyethylene, polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Common thermoplastics range from 20,000 to 500,000 amu, while thermosets are assumed to have infinite molecular weight. Thermosets, or thermosetting polymers, can melt and take shape only once: after they have solidified, they stay solid. In the thermosetting process, a chemical reaction occurs, irreversible.
Democrats 66 is a social-liberal political party in the Netherlands. Its name originates from the year in which it was founded. D66 was formed in 1966 by a group of politically unaligned young intellectuals, led by journalist Hans van Mierlo; the party's main objective was to democratise the political system. In the 1967 general election, the party won 7 of the 150 seats in the House of Representatives; the electoral history of the party is characterised by large fluctuations. They won a maximum of 24 seats and following the 2017 Dutch general election they have 19; the party was in government from 1973 to 1977, 1981 to 1982, 1994 to 2002 and 2003 to 2006 and is again since 2017. Over time the party began to emphasise other issues in addition to democratic reform, creating a social liberal programme. In addition to its seats in the House of Representatives, D66 holds 10 in the Senate and 4 in the European Parliament; the parliamentary leader is Rob Jetten. The party has a growing number of elected local and provincial politicians and supplies a large proportion of mayors, who are appointed.
The party's voters are concentrated in larger cities among people who hold a university degree and in towns with an above-average number of wealthy citizens. D66 is a member of the Liberal International and the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe. Democrats 66 was founded on 14 October 1966 by 44 people, its founders were described as homines novi, although 25 of the 44 had been members of a political party. The initiators were Hans van Mierlo, a journalist for the Algemeen Handelsblad and Hans Gruijters, a municipal councillor in Amsterdam. Van Mierlo became the party's political leader and Gruijters the party's chair; the foundation of the party was preceded by the Appeal 1966 on October 10, in which the founders appealed to the people of the Netherlands to re-take their democratic institutions. The party renounced the 19th-century political ideologies, which dominated the political system and wanted to end pillarisation, it called for radical democratisation of the Dutch society and its political system and it called for pragmatic and scientific policy-making.
The party entered in the 1967 general election with Hans van Mierlo as their top candidate. The party won an unprecedented seven seats in parliament. In the 1971 general election the party won an additional four seats and it formed a Shadow Cabinet with the Labour Party and the Christian left Political Party of Radicals. In the 1972 general election, the three parties formed a political alliance called the "Progressive Accord" and presented a common electoral program. In the elections D66 lost nearly half its seats, leaving only six; the alliance became the largest political force in the country, but it did not gain a majority. After long cabinet formation talks the three PAK-parties formed an extra-parliamentary cabinet joined by progressive members of the Protestant Anti-Revolutionary Party and the Catholic People's Party; the cabinet was led by the Labour politician Joop den Uyl. After the formation talks, Van Mierlo left politics, feeling that his political position within the parliamentary party was untenable.
The other party-founder Hans Gruijters became Minister of Housing and Spatial Planning. Van Mierlo was replaced by Jan Terlouw, he became the Parliamentary leader. In the period 1972–1974 the party lost a dramatic number of members and polled poorly in the provincial elections of 1974; the party lost half of its senators in the 1974 indirect election to the Senate. On one of the party congresses, a motion was put forth to abolish the party. A majority of the members voted in favour, but the two-thirds majority was not reached. In reaction Terlouw started a campaign to revitalise the party, involving a membership drive and a petition to the electorate, he emphasised issues other than democratic reform and gave the party a more liberal orientation. The party doubled its membership in 1975 and in the 1977 general election D66 won two additional seats, although that same year the party lost all its seats in the Senate. In the election of 1981 D66 more than doubled its seats, to seventeen, they entered government with the Christian Democratic Appeal and the Labour Party.
Terlouw became Minister of the Economy. The cabinet was riddled by the personal and ideological conflicts between the Christian Democratic Prime Minister Dries van Agt and the Labour minister of Social Affairs Joop den Uyl; the cabinet fell nine months after it was formed when Labour left the cabinet. D66 and the CDA continued to govern in a caretaker government. In the subsequent 1982 general election, D66 lost two-thirds of its support, was left with only six seats. After the elections Terlouw left politics, he was replaced by Maarten Engwirda; the party was confined to opposition. In 1986 Van Mierlo returned to politics, he emphasised democratic reform as the core issue of the party and wanted to end the polarisation between the Labour Party and People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, in order to form a government without the Christian Democratic Appeal. He led the party in the 1986 general election and gained three seats. In the 1989 election the party won another three seats, making a total of twelve, it was asked to join the formation talks of a CDA-PvdA-D66 governing coalition.
Although the PvdA preferred a government with D66, the CDA did not. In the end, D66 was numerically not necessary for the coalition, they were e
A ferry is a merchant vessel used to carry passengers, sometimes vehicles and cargo, across a body of water. A passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice, Italy, is sometimes called a water bus or water taxi. Ferries form a part of the public transport systems of many waterside cities and islands, allowing direct transit between points at a capital cost much lower than bridges or tunnels. Ship connections of much larger distances may be called ferry services if they carry vehicles; the profession of the ferryman is embodied in Greek mythology in Charon, the boatman who transported souls across the River Styx to the Underworld. Speculation that a pair of oxen propelled a ship having a water wheel can be found in 4th century Roman literature "Anonymus De Rebus Bellicis". Though impractical, there is no reason why it could not work and such a ferry, modified by using horses, was used in Lake Champlain in 19th-century America. See "When Horses Walked on Water: Horse-Powered Ferries in Nineteenth-Century America".
See Experiment. The Marine Services Company of Tanzania offers passenger and cargo services in Lakes Victoria and Malawi, it operates one of the oldest ferries in the region, the MV Liemba, built in 1913 during the German colonial rule. The busiest seaway in the world, the English Channel, connects Great Britain and mainland Europe, with ships sailing to French ports, such as Calais, Dieppe, Cherbourg-Octeville, Caen, St Malo and Le Havre. Ferries from Great Britain sail to Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway and Ireland; some ferries carry tourist traffic, but most carry freight, some are for the use of freight lorries. In Britain, car-carrying ferries are sometimes referred to as RORO for the ease by which vehicles can board and leave; the busiest single ferry route is across the northern part of Øresund, between Helsingborg, Scania and Elsinore, Denmark. Before the Øresund bridge was opened in July 2000, car and "car & train" ferries departed up to seven times every hour. In 2013, this has been reduced, but a car ferry still departs from each harbor every 15 minutes during daytime.
The route is around 2.2 nautical miles and the crossing takes 22 minutes. Today, all ferries on this route are constructed so that they do not need to turn around in the harbors; this means that the ferries lack stems and sterns, since the vessels sail in both directions. Starboard and port-side are dynamic, depending on the direction the ferry sails. Despite the short crossing, the ferries are equipped with restaurants and kiosks. Passengers without cars make a "double or triple return" journey in the restaurants. Passenger and bicycle passenger tickets are inexpensive compared with longer routes. Large cruiseferries sail in the Baltic Sea between Finland, Åland, Estonia and Saint Petersburg and from Italy to Sardinia, Corsica and Greece. In many ways, these ferries are like cruise ships, but they can carry hundreds of cars on car decks. Besides providing passenger and car transport across the sea, Baltic Sea cruise-ferries are a popular tourist destination unto themselves, with multiple restaurants, bars and entertainment on board.
Many smaller ferries operate on domestic routes in Finland and Estonia. The south-west and southern parts of the Baltic Sea has several routes for heavy traffic and cars; the ferry routes of Trelleborg-Rostock, Trelleborg-Travemünde, Trelleborg-Świnoujście, Gedser-Rostock, Gdynia-Karlskrona, Ystad-Świnoujście are all typical transports ferries. On the longer of these routes, simple cabins are available; the Rødby-Puttgarden route transports day passenger trains between Copenhagen and Hamburg, on the Trelleborg-Sassnitz route, it has capacities for the daily night trains between Berlin and Malmö. In Istanbul, ferries connect the European and Asian shores of Bosphorus, as well as Princes Islands and nearby coastal towns. In 2014 İDO transported the largest ferry system in the world. Due to the numbers of large freshwater lakes and length of shoreline in Canada, various provinces and territories have ferry services. BC Ferries operates the third largest ferry service in the world which carries travellers between Vancouver Island and the British Columbia mainland on the country's west coast.
This ferry service operates to other islands including the Gulf Islands and Haida Gwaii. In 2015, BC Ferries carried 20 million passengers. Canada's east coast has been home to numerous inter- and intra-provincial ferry and coastal services, including a large network operated by the federal government under CN Marine and Marine Atlantic. Private and publicly owned ferry operations in eastern Canada include Marine Atlantic, serving the island of Newfoundland, as well as Bay, NFL, CTMA, Coastal Transport, STQ. Canadian waters in the Great Lakes once hosted numerous ferry services, but these have been reduced to those offered by Owen Sound Transportation and several smaller operations. There are several commuter passenger ferry services operated in major cities, such as Metro Transit in Halifax, Toronto Island ferries in Toronto and SeaBus in Vancouver. Washington State Ferries operates the most extensive ferry system in the continental United States and the second largest in t
Syngenta AG is a Swiss-based global company that produces agrochemicals and seeds. As a biotechnology company, it conducts genomic research, it was formed in 2000 by the merger of Zeneca Agrochemicals. As of 2014 Syngenta is the world’s largest crop chemical producer As of 2009 it ranked third in seeds and biotechnology sales. Sales in 2015 were US$13.4 billion, over half of which were in emerging markets. It is owned by a Chinese state-owned enterprise. Based in Basel, Syngenta was formed in 2000 by the merger of Novartis Agribusiness and Zeneca Agrochemicals, its roots are older. Novartis was formed of the 1996 merger of the three Swiss companies: Geigy, which has roots back to 1758. Ciba and Geigy had merged in 1971 and had concentrated on crop protection in its agro division, Sandoz more on seeds. Zeneca Agrochemicals was part of AstraZeneca, of Imperial Chemical Industries. ICI was formed in the UK in 1926. Two years work began at the Agricultural Research Station at Jealotts Hill near Bracknell.
In 2004, Syngenta Seeds purchased Garst, the North American corn and soybean business of Advanta, as well as Golden Harvest Seeds. On 5 December 2004, the European Union ended a six-year moratorium when it approved imports of two varieties of genetically modified corn sold by Monsanto and its Swiss rival, Syngenta. In 2005, Syngenta opposed a Swiss ban on genetically engineered organisms. On 28 November 2005, Switzerland enacted a five-year ban on the farming of genetically modified crops, underscoring the problems facing the European Commission and biotech companies like Syngenta and Monsanto as they try to overcome consumer doubts about safety; as of 2014 Syngenta's main competitors were Monsanto Company, BASF, Dow AgroSciences, Bayer CropScience and DuPont Pioneer. In 2014, Monsanto sought to acquire Syngenta for a reported $40 billion, but Syngenta rejected the offer. Since April 2015 Monsanto and Syngenta had been working with their investment banks Morgan Stanley and Goldman Sachs on a deal.
The U. S. Treasury tried to stop the deal for tax inversion. Syngenta's Board of Directors rejected an better offer by Monsanto during August 2015, Monsanto withdrew from the negotiations on 26 August. According to the Swiss business weekly, Finanz und Wirtschaft, many Syngenta shareholders were enraged, both by the company's refusal to enter into takeover negotiations with Monsanto, with the subsequent offer withdrawal; this resulted in a group of investors responding by creating the Alliance of Critical Syngenta Shareholders, which urged the Board to "evaluate all options for value creation without prejudice". In a 2015 interview, Chairman Michel Demaré was asked, he responded, "If you have the patience to wait for cycles to materialize it would be possible. But in these circumstances, where our shareholders have a kind of a benchmark share price, what they think this company is worth, it is difficult to say that we can deliver this in the next twelve months." He thereby acknowledged that the company needs to be sold given industry consolidation, creating larger competitors.
The failed Monsanto buyout caused Syngenta shares to increase by nearly 40%. In February 2016, ChemChina, a Chinese state-owned enterprise, offered to purchase Syngenta for $43 billion, a deal which the company "unanimously recommended to shareholders”. In April 2017, the Federal Trade Commission, the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States, the European Commissioner for Competition approved of the acquisition, allowing the largest foreign takeover in Chinese history to proceed. To secure approval, ChemChina agreed to divest from pesticide production of paraquat and chlorothalonil; as an additional condition for the acquisition, 67 percent of the shareholders of Syngenta had to offer their shares to ChemChina. According to a press release, over 80 percent of shareholders agreed to the takeover by May 4, 2017; the transaction was planned to close on June 7, 2017 and the transaction closed on June 26, 2017. The following is an illustration of the company's mergers, spin-offs and historical predecessors: Syngenta has eight primary product lines which it develops and sells worldwide.
Three product lines for seed products include other field crops and vegetables. In 2014, sales from crop protection products accounted for US $11.381 billion, i.e. 75% of total sales. Field crop seeds include both hybrid seeds and genetically engineered seeds, some of which enter the food chain and become part of genetically modified food. According to Syngenta, in the US their "proprietary triple stack corn seeds expanded to represent around 25 percent of units sold." In 2010, the US EPA approved insecticidal trait stacks including Syngenta's AGRISURE VIPTERA™ gene, which offers resistance to certain corn pests. Syngenta cross-licenses its proprietary genes with Dow AgroSciences and thus is able to include Dow's Herculex I and Herculex RW insect resistance traits in its seeds, it sells a VMAX soybean, resistant to glyphosate herbicide. Key Syngenta brands include Actara, Alto, Avicta, Bicep II, Callisto, Cruiser, Dual, Elatus, Force, Golden Harvest, Hilleshoeg, Northrup-King, Revus, Rogers, Seguris, S&G, Topik, Touchdown, Ve
Socialist Party (Netherlands)
The Socialist Party is a left-wing, democratic socialist political party in the Netherlands. After the 2006 general election, the Socialist Party became one of the major parties of the Netherlands with 25 seats of 150, an increase of 16 seats. In the 2010 general election the party obtained 15 seats. In the 2012 general election they maintained those 15 seats, but in the 2017 general election the party lost one and went to 14 seats; the party has been in opposition. The Socialist Party was founded in October 1971 as a Maoist party named the Communist Party of the Netherlands/Marxist–Leninist; this KPN/ML was formed following a split from the Communist Unity Movement of the Netherlands. The issue that provoked the split from KEN was an intense debate on the role of intellectuals in the class struggle; the founders of KPN/ML, with Daan Monjé in a prominent role, belonged to the'Proletarian' wing of the KEN, who did not want an organisation dominated by students and intellectuals. In 1972 KPN/ML changed its name to Socialistiese Partij.
In its early years, while adhering to Maoist principles such as organising the masses, the SP was critical of the Communist Party of China condemning, for example, the support of the Chinese party for Unita in Angola. The SP started to build a network of local parties, with strong local roots; the SP had its own General Practitioners' offices, provided advice to citizens and set up local action groups. This developed within front organisations, for instance separate trade unions, environmental organisations and tenant associations; this work resulted in a strong representation in several municipal legislatures, notably in Oss. In some States-Provincial the SP gained a foothhold in the province of North Brabant. Since 1977 SP attempted to enter the House of Representatives; the party failed in 1977, 1981, 1982, 1986 and 1989. In 1991, the party scrapped the term Marxism–Leninism, because the party had evolved to the point that the term was no longer considered appropriate. In 1994 general election the party's first members of parliament, Remi Poppe and Jan Marijnissen were elected.
Its slogan was'Vote Against'. In the 1990s, the major party of the Dutch left, the Labour Party, moved to the centre, thus making the SP and GreenLeft viable alternatives for some left-wing voters. In the 1998 general election, the party was rewarded for its opposition to the Purple government of the first Kok cabinet, more than doubled its seats to five. In the 1999 European elections, Erik Meijer was elected into the European Parliament for the SP. In the 2002 general election the SP ran with the slogan was'Vote in Favor'; the party nearly doubled to nine seats. This result was kept in the 2003 general election. Leading up to the 2003 elections, the SP was predicted to win as many as 24 seats in the polls; these gains failed to materialise, however, as many potential SP voters chose to cast strategic votes for the Labour Party, who stood a good chance of winning the elections. In the 2004 European elections its one seat was doubled to two. In the 2005 referendum on the European Constitution, the SP was the only left-wing party in parliament to oppose it.
Support for the party grew in opinion polls but fell after the referendum. The municipal elections of 2006 were a success for the SP, more than doubling its total number of seats; this can in part be explained by the party standing in many more municipalities, but it can be seen as a reaction to the so-called'right-wing winter' in national politics, as the welfare reforms of the right-wing second Balkenende cabinet were called by its centre-left and left-wing opponents. In a reaction to these results, Marijnissen declared on election night that the "SP has grown up". After the untimely end of the second Balkenende cabinet and the minority government of the third Balkenende cabinet, the SP gained 16 seats in the parliament after the 2006 general election, nearly tripling its parliamentary representation. With 25 seats, the SP became the third largest party of the Dutch parliament. In the 2006-2007 cabinet formation the SP was unable to work out its policy differences with the Christian Democratic Appeal, the largest party and SP remained in opposition against the fourth Balkenende cabinet, which comprised the CDA, PvdA and ChristianUnion parties.
In the provincial elections of 2007 the SP gained 54 provincial legislators more than in the provincial elections of 2003 and made it to a total of 83 provincial legislators. As a result of the provincial elections the SP has increased its representatives in the Senate of the Netherlands to 11 from the 4 it had previously. In the 2010 general election, SP fared worse than in the previous election, gaining only 15 seats, a loss of 10, only 9.9% of the overall vote. According to an opinion poll of January 2012, the SP would have won 32 seats and become, for the first time in its history, the biggest party of the country if elections were held. However, in the final weeks of the election, the SP's main rival, the PvdA, surged ahead in the polls as the biggest party on the left; the PvdA won 38 seats in parliament in the 2012 Dutch election, the SP took only 15 seats, remaining at its 2010 level. The party was founded as the Communist Party of the Netherlands/Marxist–Leninist in 1971. In 1972 it adopted the name Socialistiese Partij, with an unofficial spelling using -iese instead of -ische.
In 1993 the party changed its name to the spelled Socialistische Partij. The party labels