A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. Steam engines are combustion engines, where the working fluid is separate from the combustion products. Non-combustion heat sources such as power, nuclear power or geothermal energy may be used. The ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle, in the cycle, water is heated and transforms into steam within a boiler operating at a high pressure. When expanded through pistons or turbines, mechanical work is done, the reduced-pressure steam is exhausted to the atmosphere, or condensed and pumped back into the boiler. Specialized devices such as hammers and steam pile drivers are dependent on the steam pressure supplied from a separate boiler. The use of boiling water to mechanical motion goes back over 2000 years. The Spanish inventor Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont obtained the first patent for an engine in 1606. In 1698 Thomas Savery patented a steam pump that used steam in direct contact with the water being pumped, Saverys steam pump used condensing steam to create a vacuum and draw water into a chamber, and applied pressurized steam to further pump the water.
Thomas Newcomens atmospheric engine was the first commercial steam engine using a piston. In 1781 James Watt patented an engine that produced continuous rotary motion. Watts ten-horsepower engines enabled a range of manufacturing machinery to be powered. The engines could be sited anywhere that water and coal or wood fuel could be obtained, by 1883, engines that could provide 10,000 hp had become feasible. The stationary steam engine was a key component of the Industrial Revolution, the aeolipile described by Hero of Alexandria in the 1st century AD is considered to be the first recorded steam engine. Torque was produced by steam jets exiting the turbine, in the Spanish Empire, the great inventor Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont obtained a patent for the first steam engine in history in 1603. Thomas Savery, in 1698, patented the first practical, atmospheric pressure and it had no piston or moving parts, only taps. It was an engine, a kind of thermic syphon, in which steam was admitted to an empty container.
The vacuum thus created was used to water from the sump at the bottom of the mine
Flight dynamics is the study of the performance and control of vehicles flying through the air or in outer space. It is concerned with how forces acting on the vehicle influence its speed, in fixed-wing aircraft, the changing orientation of the vehicle with respect to the local air flow is represented by two critical parameters, angle of attack and angle of sideslip. These angles describe the direction of airspeed, important because they are the principal source of modulations in the aerodynamic forces. Spacecraft flight dynamics involve three forces, propulsive and lift and drag, because aerodynamic forces involved with spacecraft flight are very small, this leaves gravity as the dominant force. These angles are the product of the equations of motion. For all flight vehicles, these two sets of dynamics and translational, operate simultaneously and in a fashion to evolve the vehicles state trajectory. This section focuses on fixed-wing aircraft, flight dynamics is the science of air-vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions.
The three critical flight dynamics parameters are the angles of rotation in three dimensions about the center of mass, known as roll and yaw. Aircraft engineers develop control systems for a vehicles orientation about its center of mass, for example, a pitching moment is a vertical force applied at a distance forward or aft from the center of gravity of the aircraft, causing the aircraft to pitch up or down. Roll and yaw refer, in context, to rotations about the respective axes starting from a defined equilibrium state. The equilibrium roll angle is known as wings level or zero bank angle, a fixed-wing aircraft increases or decreases the lift generated by the wings when it pitches nose up or down by increasing or decreasing the angle of attack. The roll angle is known as bank angle on a fixed-wing aircraft. The forces acting on spacecraft are of three types, propulsive force, gravitational force exerted by the Earth and other celestial bodies, the vehicles attitude must be taken into account because of its effect on the aerodynamic and propulsive forces.
There are other reasons, unrelated to flight dynamics, for controlling the attitude in non-powered flight. Also, most of a flight time is usually unpowered
Milan Linate Airport is the secondary international airport of Milan, the second-largest city of Italy, behind Malpensa Airport. It served 9,689,635 passengers in 2015 and is used as a base by Alitalia and Alitalia CityLiner. The airport was built next to Idroscalo of Milan in the 1930s when Taliedo Airport, Linate was completely rebuilt in the 1950s and again in the 1980s. Its name comes from the village where it is located in the town of Peschiera Borromeo. Its official name is Airport Enrico Forlanini, after the Italian inventor, Linate airport buildings are located in the Segrate Municipality, and the field is located for a large part in the Peschiera Borromeo Municipality. That year,2001, saw an accident at Linate with many illegal and non-ICAO-regulation practices. Linate Airport features one passenger terminal building. The ground level contains the check-in and separate baggage reclaim facilities as well as service counters, the first floor features the main departure area with several shops and service facilities.
The second floor is used for office space, the terminal building features five aircraft stands, all of which are equipped with jet-bridges. Several more parking positions are available on the apron which are reached from several bus-boarding gates, the following airlines operate scheduled services to and from Linate Airport, The airport is located at Viale Enrico Forlanini next to its intersection with autostrada A51. A51 is part of the citys highway ring, so the airport can be reached from any direction and car hire are available. Linate Airport can be reached by bus service 73 from Piazza San Babila in Milan city centre as well as by coach services from other places within the city. Coaches from and to Monza and Milan Malpensa Airport are run and this collision resulted in criminal legal proceedings against 11 staff including an air traffic controller, flight safety officials and management officials from the airport. All 114 people on aircraft were killed, as well as four people on the ground.
The Linate Airport disaster remains the deadliest air disaster ever in Italian history, on 15 June 2005, a light aircraft safely landed on taxiway T after its pilot had mistaken it for runway 36R. Following that incident, a safety recommendation was issued and it suggested the use of different numbers to help differentiate between runways. This change was enacted at the beginning of July 2007, when 18R/36L became 17/35, media related to Milan Linate Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website Accident history for LIN at Aviation Safety Network
Carlo Forlanini was an Italian physician. He was the brother of aviation pioneer Enrico Forlanini. In 1870 he earned his degree from the University of Pavia. Afterwards, he joined the staff of the Ospedale Maggiore in Milan, and served as a professor at the universities of Turin and Pavia and he was notably a teacher of Scipione Riva-Rocci, the inventor of an early sphygmomanometer. Forlanini specialized in research of tuberculosis and respiratory disorders, in the 1880s he constructed an apparatus for inducing artificial pneumothorax as a therapeutic treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. His apparatus introduced nitrogen into the cavity by way of a large hypodermic needle. This work led to numerous nominations for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine from 1912 to 1919, in 1906 Christian Saugman improved the device by adding a water manometer for measurement purposes. This technique is no longer in use to treat tuberculosis, today the Carlo Forlanini Institute in Rome, founded in 1934, is named in his honor.
La tecnica delle inalazioni medicamentose, Vallardi,1883 – The technique of medicinal inhalation, nuovi apparati pneumatici trasportabili, Dott. 1889 – A new transportable pneumatic apparatus, storia di un caso di tisi polmonare curato colle iniezioni parenchimatose, Milano, L. Vallardi,1889 – History of a case of pulmonary tuberculosis cured via parenchymatous injections. La cura della tisi polmonare col pneumotorace prodotto artificialmente, Successori Marelli,1907 – The cure of pulmonary tuberculosis using artificial pneumothorax
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forward and these attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft and many forms of VTOL aircraft cannot perform. English language nicknames for helicopter include chopper, helo, Helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight, with the Focke-Wulf Fw 61 being the first operational helicopter in 1936. Some helicopters reached limited production, but it was not until 1942 that a helicopter designed by Igor Sikorsky reached full-scale production, with 131 aircraft built. Though most earlier designs used more than one rotor, it is the single main rotor with anti-torque tail rotor configuration that has become the most common helicopter configuration. Tandem rotor helicopters are in use due to their greater payload capacity. Coaxial helicopters, tiltrotor aircraft, and compound helicopters are all flying today, quadcopter helicopters pioneered as early as 1907 in France, and other types of multicopter have been developed for specialized applications such as unmanned drones.
The earliest references for vertical flight came from China, since around 400 BC, Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys. This bamboo-copter is spun by rolling a stick attached to a rotor, the spinning creates lift, and the toy flies when released. The 4th-century AD Daoist book Baopuzi by Ge Hong reportedly describes some of the ideas inherent to rotary wing aircraft, designs similar to the Chinese helicopter toy appeared in Renaissance paintings and other works. In the 18th and early 19th centuries Western scientists developed flying machines based on the Chinese toy. It was not until the early 1480s, when Leonardo da Vinci created a design for a machine that could be described as an aerial screw, that any recorded advancement was made towards vertical flight. His notes suggested that he built flying models, but there were no indications for any provision to stop the rotor from making the craft rotate. As scientific knowledge increased and became accepted, people continued to pursue the idea of vertical flight.
In July 1754, Russian Mikhail Lomonosov had developed a small coaxial modeled after the Chinese top but powered by a spring device. It was powered by a spring, and was suggested as a method to lift meteorological instruments. Sir George Cayley, influenced by a fascination with the Chinese flying top, developed a model of feathers, similar to that of Launoy and Bienvenu. By the end of the century, he had progressed to using sheets of tin for rotor blades and his writings on his experiments and models would become influential on future aviation pioneers
Leonardo da Vinci
He has been variously called the father of palaeontology and architecture, and is widely considered one of the greatest painters of all time. Sometimes credited with the inventions of the parachute and tank, many historians and scholars regard Leonardo as the prime exemplar of the Universal Genius or Renaissance Man, an individual of unquenchable curiosity and feverishly inventive imagination. Much of his working life was spent in the service of Ludovico il Moro in Milan. He worked in Rome and Venice, and he spent his last years in France at the home awarded to him by Francis I of France, Leonardo was, and is, renowned primarily as a painter. Among his works, the Mona Lisa is the most famous and most parodied portrait, Leonardos drawing of the Vitruvian Man is regarded as a cultural icon, being reproduced on items as varied as the euro coin, and T-shirts. Perhaps fifteen of his paintings have survived, Leonardo is revered for his technological ingenuity. He conceptualised flying machines, a type of armoured fighting vehicle, concentrated power, an adding machine.
Some of his inventions, such as an automated bobbin winder. A number of Leonardos most practical inventions are nowadays displayed as working models at the Museum of Vinci. He made substantial discoveries in anatomy, civil engineering, geology and hydrodynamics, Leonardo is widely considered one of the most diversely talented individuals ever to have lived. Leonardo was born on 15 April 1452 at the hour of the night in the Tuscan hill town of Vinci. He was the son of the wealthy Messer Piero Fruosino di Antonio da Vinci, a Florentine legal notary, and Caterina. Leonardo had no surname in the modern sense – da Vinci simply meaning of Vinci, his birth name was Lionardo di ser Piero da Vinci, meaning Leonardo. The inclusion of the title ser indicated that Leonardos father was a gentleman, little is known about Leonardos early life. He spent his first five years in the hamlet of Anchiano in the home of his mother and his father had married a sixteen-year-old girl named Albiera Amadori, who loved Leonardo but died young in 1465 without children.
When Leonardo was sixteen, his father married again to twenty-year-old Francesca Lanfredini, pieros legitimate heirs were born from his third wife Margherita di Guglielmo and his fourth and final wife, Lucrezia Cortigiani. Leonardo received an education in Latin and mathematics. In life, Leonardo recorded only two childhood incidents, which he regarded as an omen, was when a kite dropped from the sky and hovered over his cradle, its tail feathers brushing his face
Milan is a city in Italy, capital of the Lombardy region, and the most populous metropolitan area and the second most populous comune in Italy. The population of the city proper is 1,351,000, Milan has a population of about 8,500,000 people. It is the industrial and financial centre of Italy and one of global significance. In terms of GDP, it has the largest economy among European non-capital cities, Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and lies at the heart of one of the Four Motors for Europe. Milan is an Alpha leading global city, with strengths in the arts, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism. Its business district hosts Italys Stock Exchange and the headquarters of the largest national and international banks, the city is a major world fashion and design capital, well known for several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair. The city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students, Milans museums and landmarks attract over 9 million visitors annually.
Milan – after Naples – is the second Italian city with the highest number of accredited stars from the Michelin Guide, the city hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015. Milan is home to two of Europes major football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, the etymology of Milan is uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum comes from the Latin words medio, some scholars believe lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence, Mediolanum could signify the central town or sanctuary of a Celtic tribe, the name Mediolanum is borne by about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France, e. g. Saintes and Évreux. Alciato credits Ambrose for his account, around 400 BC, the Celtic Insubres settled Milan and the surrounding region. In 222 BC, the Romans conquered the settlement, renaming it Mediolanum, Milan was eventually declared the capital of the Western Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian in 286 AD.
Diocletian chose to stay in the Eastern Roman Empire and his colleague Maximianus ruled the Western one, immediately Maximian built several monuments, such as a large circus 470 m ×85 m, the Thermae Herculeae, a large complex of imperial palaces and several other buildings. With the Edict of Milan of 313, Emperor Constantine I guaranteed freedom of religion for Christians, after the city was besieged by the Visigoths in 402, the imperial residence was moved to Ravenna. In 452, the Huns overran the city, in 539, the Ostrogoths conquered and destroyed Milan during the Gothic War against Byzantine Emperor Justinian I. In the summer of 569, a Teutonic tribe, the Lombards, conquered Milan, some Roman structures remained in use in Milan under Lombard rule. Milan surrendered to the Franks in 774 when Charlemagne took the title of King of the Lombards, the Iron Crown of Lombardy dates from this period
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the lift of an airfoil. The human activity that surrounds aircraft is called aviation, crewed aircraft are flown by an onboard pilot, but unmanned aerial vehicles may be remotely controlled or self-controlled by onboard computers. Aircraft may be classified by different criteria, such as type, aircraft propulsion, usage. Each of the two World Wars led to technical advances. Consequently, the history of aircraft can be divided into five eras, Pioneers of flight, first World War,1914 to 1918. Aviation between the World Wars,1918 to 1939, Second World War,1939 to 1945. Postwar era, called the jet age,1945 to the present day, aerostats use buoyancy to float in the air in much the same way that ships float on the water. They are characterized by one or more large gasbags or canopies, filled with a relatively low-density gas such as helium, hydrogen, or hot air, which is less dense than the surrounding air.
When the weight of this is added to the weight of the aircraft structure, a balloon was originally any aerostat, while the term airship was used for large, powered aircraft designs – usually fixed-wing. In 1919 Frederick Handley Page was reported as referring to ships of the air, in the 1930s, large intercontinental flying boats were sometimes referred to as ships of the air or flying-ships. – though none had yet been built, the advent of powered balloons, called dirigible balloons, and of rigid hulls allowing a great increase in size, began to change the way these words were used. Huge powered aerostats, characterized by an outer framework and separate aerodynamic skin surrounding the gas bags, were produced. There were still no fixed-wing aircraft or non-rigid balloons large enough to be called airships, several accidents, such as the Hindenburg disaster in 1937, led to the demise of these airships. Nowadays a balloon is an aerostat and an airship is a powered one. A powered, steerable aerostat is called a dirigible, sometimes this term is applied only to non-rigid balloons, and sometimes dirigible balloon is regarded as the definition of an airship.
Non-rigid dirigibles are characterized by a moderately aerodynamic gasbag with stabilizing fins at the back and these soon became known as blimps. During the Second World War, this shape was adopted for tethered balloons, in windy weather
An airship or dirigible balloon is a type of aerostat or lighter-than-air aircraft that can navigate through the air under its own power. Aerostats gain their lift from large gas bags filled with a gas that is less dense than the surrounding air. In early dirigibles, the gas used was hydrogen, due to its high lifting capacity. Helium gas has almost the same lifting capacity and is not flammable, unlike hydrogen, significant amounts were first discovered in the United States and for a while helium was only used for airships by the United States. Most airships built since the 1960s have used helium, though some have used hot air, the envelope of an airship may form a single gas bag, or may contain a number of internal gas-filled cells. An airship has engines and optionally payload accommodation, the main types of airship are non-rigid, semi-rigid, and rigid. Non-rigid airships, often called blimps, rely on internal pressure to maintain the shape of the airship, semi-rigid airships maintain the envelope shape by internal pressure, but have some form of supporting structure, such as a fixed keel, attached to it.
Rigid airships have a structural framework which maintains the shape and carries all structural loads. Rigid airships were first flown by Count Zeppelin and the vast majority of rigid airships built were manufactured by the firm he founded, as a result, rigid airships are called zeppelins. S. Navy helium-filled rigids, the USS Akron and USS Macon respectively, during the pioneer years of aeronautics, terms such as airship, air-ship, air ship and ship of the air meant any kind of navigable or dirigible flying machine. In 1919 Frederick Handley Page was reported as referring to ships of the air, in the 1930s, large intercontinental flying boats were sometimes referred to as ships of the air or flying-ships. Nowadays the term airship is used only for powered, dirigible balloons, semirigid architecture is the more recent and the late appearance is caused by both advancements about deformable structures and exigiency of reducing weight and volume of the airships. They have a structure that ensure to keep the shape jointly with overpressure of the gas envelope.
An aerostat is an aircraft which remain aloft using buoyancy or static lift, Airships are a type of aerostat. The term aerostat has used to indicate a tethered or moored balloon as opposed to a free-floating balloon. A blimp is a non-rigid aerostat, in American usage it refers specifically to a non-rigid type of dirigible balloon or airship. In British usage it refers to any non-rigid aerostat, including balloons and other kite balloons, having a streamlined shape. The initials LZ, for Luftschiff Zeppelin, usually prefixed their crafts serial identifiers, streamlined Parsifal-shaped rigid airships are usually referred to as Zeppelin, because of the fame that this company has acquired due to the number of airships it produced
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
A hydrofoil is a lifting surface, or foil, that operates in water. They are similar in appearance and purpose to aerofoils used by aeroplanes, boats that use hydrofoil technology are simply termed hydrofoils. As a hydrofoil craft gains speed, the lift the boats hull out of the water, decreasing drag. The hydrofoil usually consists of a wing like structure mounted on struts below the hull, as a hydrofoil equipped watercraft increases in speed, the hydrofoil elements below the hull develop enough lift to raise the hull out of the water, which greatly reduces hull drag. This provides an increase in speed and fuel efficiency. Wider adoption of hydrofoils is prevented by the complexity of building and maintaining them. Hydrofoils are generally more expensive than conventional watercraft. However, the design is simple enough that there are many human-powered hydrofoil designs, amateur experimentation and development of the concept is popular. Since air and water are governed by similar fluid equations—albeit with different levels of viscosity, the foil shape moves smoothly through the water, deflecting the flow downward, following the Euler equations, exerts an upward force on the foil.
This turning of the water creates higher pressure on the bottom of the foil and this pressure difference is accompanied by a velocity difference, via Bernoullis principle, so the resulting flowfield about the foil has a higher average velocity on one side than the other. When used as an element on a hydrofoil boat, this upward force lifts the body of the vessel, decreasing drag. The lifting force eventually balances with the weight of the craft, reaching a point where the no longer lifts out of the water. Hydrofoils of this type are known as surface-piercing since portions of the V-shape hydrofoils rise above the surface when foilborne. Some modern hydrofoils use fully submerged inverted T-shape foils, fully submerged hydrofoils are less subject to the effects of wave action, therefore, more stable at sea and more comfortable for crew and passengers. This type of configuration, however, is not self-stabilizing, the angle of attack on the hydrofoils must be adjusted continuously to changing conditions, a control process performed by sensors, a computer, and active surfaces.
Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini began work on hydrofoils in 1898 and used a ladder foil system, Forlanini obtained patents in Britain and the United States for his ideas and designs. Between 1899 and 1901, British boat designer John Thornycroft worked on a series of models with a stepped hull, in 1909 his company built the full scale 22-foot long boat, Miranda III. Driven by a 60 hp engine, it rode on a bowfoil, the subsequent Miranda IV was credited with a speed of 35 kn