Sir David Frederick Attenborough is an English broadcaster and natural historian. He is best known for writing and presenting, in conjunction with the BBC Natural History Unit, the nine natural history documentary series forming the Life collection that together constitute a comprehensive survey of animal and plant life on Earth, he is a former senior manager at the BBC, having served as controller of BBC Two and director of programming for BBC Television in the 1960s and 1970s. He is the only person to have won BAFTAs for programmes in each of black and white, colour, HD, 3D and 4K. Attenborough is considered a national treasure in Britain, although he himself does not like the term. In 2002 he was named among the 100 Greatest Britons following a UK-wide poll for the BBC, he is the younger brother of the director and actor Richard Attenborough, older brother of the motor executive John Attenborough. Attenborough was born in Isleworth, but grew up in College House on the campus of the University College, where his father, was principal.
He is the middle of three long-lived sons. During the Second World War, through a British volunteer network known as the Refugee Children's Movement, his parents fostered two Jewish refugee girls from Europe. Attenborough spent his childhood collecting fossils and natural specimens, he received encouragement in this pursuit aged seven, when a young Jacquetta Hawkes admired his "museum". He spent much time in the grounds of the university, aged 11, he heard that the zoology department needed a large supply of newts, which he offered through his father to supply for 3d each; the source, which he did not reveal at the time, was a pond less than five metres from the department. A few years one of his adoptive sisters gave him a piece of amber containing prehistoric creatures. In 1936, Attenborough and his brother Richard attended a lecture by Grey Owl at De Montfort Hall and were influenced by his advocacy of conservation. According to Richard, David was "bowled over by the man's determination to save the beaver, by his profound knowledge of the flora and fauna of the Canadian wilderness and by his warnings of ecological disaster should the delicate balance between them be destroyed.
The idea that mankind was endangering nature by recklessly despoiling and plundering its riches was unheard of at the time, but it is one that has remained part of Dave's own credo to this day." In 1999, Richard directed a biopic of Belaney entitled Grey Owl. Attenborough was educated at Wyggeston Grammar School for Boys in Leicester and won a scholarship to Clare College, Cambridge in 1945, where he studied geology and zoology and obtained a degree in natural sciences. In 1947, he was called up for national service in the Royal Navy and spent two years stationed in North Wales and the Firth of Forth. In 1950, Attenborough married Jane Elizabeth Ebsworth Oriel; the couple had two children and Susan. Robert is a senior lecturer in bioanthropology for the School of Archaeology and Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra. Susan is a former primary school headmistress. After leaving the Navy, Attenborough took a position editing children's science textbooks for a publishing company.
He soon became disillusioned with the work and in 1950 applied for a job as a radio talk producer with the BBC. Although he was rejected for this job, his CV attracted the interest of Mary Adams, head of the Talks department of the BBC's fledgling television service. Attenborough, like most Britons at that time, did not own a television, he had seen only one programme in his life. However, he accepted Adams' offer of a three-month training course, in 1952 he joined the BBC full-time. Discouraged from appearing on camera because Adams thought his teeth were too big, he became a producer for the Talks department, which handled all non-fiction broadcasts, his early projects included the quiz show Animal, Mineral? and Song Hunter, a series about folk music presented by Alan Lomax. Attenborough's association with natural history programmes began when he produced and presented the three-part series Animal Patterns; the studio-bound programme featured animals from London Zoo, with the naturalist Julian Huxley discussing their use of camouflage and courtship displays.
Through this programme, Attenborough met Jack Lester, the curator of the zoo's reptile house, they decided to make a series about an animal-collecting expedition. The result was Zoo Quest, first broadcast in 1954, where Attenborough became the presenter at short notice due to Lester being taken ill. In 1957, the BBC Natural History Unit was formally established in Bristol. Attenborough was asked to join it, but declined, not wishing to move from London where he and his young family were settled. Instead, he formed his own department, the Travel and Exploration Unit, which allowed him to continue to front Zoo Quest as well as produce other documentaries, notably the Travellers' Tales and Adventure series. In the early 1960s, Attenborough resigned from the permanent staff of the BBC to study for a postgraduate degree in social anthropology at the London School of Economics, interweaving his study with further filming. However, he accepted an invitation to return to the BBC as controller of BBC Two before he could finish the degree.
Attenborough became the controller of BBC Two in March 1965, but had a clause
Vice President of the United States
The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest officer in the executive branch of the U. S. federal government, after the President of the United States, ranks first in the presidential line of succession. The Vice President is an officer in the legislative branch, as President of the Senate. In this capacity, the Vice President presides over Senate deliberations, but may not vote except to cast a tie-breaking vote; the Vice President presides over joint sessions of Congress. The Vice President is indirectly elected together with the President to a four-year term of office by the people of the United States through the Electoral College. Section 2 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, ratified in 1967, created a mechanism for intra-term vice presidential succession, establishing that vice presidential vacancies will be filled by the president and confirmed by both houses of Congress. Whenever a vice president had succeeded to the presidency or had died or resigned from office, the vice presidency remained vacant until the next presidential and vice presidential terms began.
The Vice President is a statutory member of the National Security Council, the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. The Office of the Vice President organises the vice president's official functions; the role of the vice presidency has changed since the office was created during the 1787 constitutional Convention. Over the past 100 years, the vice presidency has evolved into a position of domestic and foreign policy political power, is now seen as an integral part of a president's administration; as the Vice President's role within the executive branch has expanded, his role within the legislative branch has contracted. The Constitution does not expressly assign the vice presidency to any one branch, causing a dispute among scholars about which branch of government the office belongs to: 1) the executive branch; the modern view of the vice president as an officer of the executive branch is due in large part to the assignment of executive authority to the vice president by either the president or Congress.
Mike Pence of Indiana is the current Vice President of the United States. He assumed office on January 20, 2017. No mention of an office of vice president was made at the 1787 Constitutional Convention until near the end, when an 11-member committee on "Leftover Business" proposed a method of electing the chief executive. Delegates had considered the selection of the Senate's presiding officer, deciding that, "The Senate shall choose its own President," and had agreed that this official would be designated the executive's immediate successor, they had considered the mode of election of the executive but had not reached consensus. This all changed on September 4, when the committee recommended that the nation's chief executive be elected by an Electoral College, with each state having a number of presidential electors equal to the sum of that state's allocation of representatives and senators; the proposed presidential election process called for each state to choose members of the electoral college, who would use their discretion to select the candidates they individually viewed as best qualified.
Recognizing that loyalty to one's individual state outweighed loyalty to the new federation, the Constitution's framers assumed that individual electors would be inclined to choose a candidate from their own state over one from another. So they created the office of vice president and required that electors vote for two candidates, requiring that at least one of their votes must be for a candidate from outside the elector's state, believing that this second vote could be cast for a candidate of national character. Additionally, to guard against the possibility that some electors might strategically throw away their second vote in order to bolster their favorite son's chance of winning, it was specified that the first runner-up presidential candidate would become vice president. Creating this new office imposed a political cost on strategically discarded electoral votes, incentivizing electors to make their choices for president without resort to electoral gamesmanship and to cast their second ballot accordingly.
The resultant method of electing the president and vice president, spelled out in Article II, Section 1, Clause 3, allocated to each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of its Senate and House of Representatives membership. Each elector was allowed to vote for two people for president, but could not differentiate between their first and second choice for the presidency; the person receiving the greatest number of votes would be president, while the individual who received the next largest number of votes became vice president. If there were a tie for first or for second place, or if no one won a majority of votes, the president and vice president would be selected by means of contingent elections protocols stated in the clause; the emergence of political parties and nationally coordinated election campaigns during the 1790s soon frustrated this original plan. In the election of 1796, Federalist John Adams won the presidency, but his bitter rival, Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson came second and became vice president.
Thus, the president and vice president were from opposing parties.
Stewart Brand is an American writer, best known as editor of the Whole Earth Catalog. He founded a number of organizations, including The WELL, the Global Business Network, the Long Now Foundation, he is the author of several books, most Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto. Brand attended Phillips Exeter Academy, he studied biology at Stanford University, graduating in 1960. In 1966, he married an Ottawa Native American; as a soldier in the U. S. Army, he taught infantry skills. A civilian again in 1962, he studied design at San Francisco Art Institute, photography at San Francisco State College, participated in a legitimate scientific study of then-legal LSD, in Menlo Park, California. Brand has lived in California since the 1960s, he and his second wife live on a 64-foot - long working tugboat. Built in 1912, the boat is moored in a former shipyard in California, he works in a grounded fishing boat about 100 yards away. A favorite item of his is a table on which Otis Redding is said to have written " The Dock of the Bay".
By the mid-1960s, Brand became associated with author Ken Kesey and the "Merry Pranksters". With his partner Ramón Sender Barayón, he produced the Trips Festival in San Francisco, an early effort involving rock music and light shows; this was one of the first venues. About 10,000 hippies attended, Haight-Ashbury soon emerged as a community. Tom Wolfe describes Brand in the beginning of The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. In 1966, Brand campaigned to have NASA release the then-rumored satellite image of the entire Earth as seen from space, he sold and distributed buttons for 25 cents each asking, "Why haven't we seen a photograph of the whole Earth yet?". During this campaign, Brand met Richard Buckminster Fuller, who offered to help Brand with his projects. In 1967, a satellite, ATS-3, took the photo. Brand thought, it adorned the first edition of the Whole Earth Catalog. In 1968, a NASA astronaut took an Earth photo, from Moon orbit, which became the front image of the spring 1969 edition of the Catalog.
1970 saw the first celebration of Earth Day. During a 2003 interview, Brand explained that the image "gave the sense that Earth's an island, surrounded by a lot of inhospitable space, and it's so graphic, this little blue, white and brown jewel-like icon amongst a quite featureless black vacuum." In late 1968, Brand assisted electrical engineer Douglas Engelbart with The Mother of All Demos, a famous presentation of many revolutionary computer technologies to the Fall Joint Computer Conference in San Francisco. Brand surmised that given the necessary consciousness and tools, human beings could reshape the world they had made for themselves into something environmentally and sustainable. During the late 1960s and early 1970s about 10 million Americans were involved in living communally. In 1968, using the most basic approaches to typesetting and page-layout and his colleagues created issue number one of The Whole Earth Catalog, employing the significant subtitle, "access to tools". Brand and his wife Lois travelled to communes in a 1963 Dodge truck known as the Whole Earth Truck Store, which moved to a storefront in Menlo Park, California.
That first oversize Catalog, its successors in the 1970s and reckoned a wide assortment of things could serve as useful "tools": books, garden implements, specialized clothing, carpenters' and masons' tools, forestry gear, welding equipment, professional journals, early synthesizers, personal computers. Brand invited "reviews" of the best of these items from experts in specific fields; the information described where these things could be located or purchased. The Catalog's publication coincided with the great wave of social and cultural experimentation, convention-breaking, "do it yourself" attitude associated with the "counterculture"; the influence of these Whole Earth Catalogs on the rural back-to-the-land movement of the 1970s, the communities movement within many cities, was widespread throughout the United States and Australia. A 1972 edition sold 1.5 million copies, winning the first U. S. National Book Award in category Contemporary Affairs. To continue this work and to publish full-length articles on specific topics in the natural sciences and invention, in numerous areas of the arts and the social sciences, on the contemporary scene in general, Brand founded the CoEvolution Quarterly during 1974, aimed at educated laypersons.
Brand never better revealed his opinions and reason for hope than when he ran, in CoEvolution Quarterly #4, a transcription of technology historian Lewis Mumford's talk "The Next Transformation of Man", in which he stated that "man has still within him sufficient resources to alter the direction of modern civilization, for we need no longer regard man as the passive victim of his own irreversible technological development." The content of CoEvolution Quarterly included futurism or risqué topics. Besides giving space to unknown writers with something valuable to say, Brand presented articles by many respected authors and thinkers, including Lewis Mumford, Howard T. Odum, Witold Rybczynski, Karl Hess, Orville Schell, Ivan Illich, Wendell Berry, Ursula K. Le Guin, Gregory Bateson, Amory Lovins
Whole Earth Catalog
The Whole Earth Catalog was an American counterculture magazine and product catalog published by Stewart Brand several times a year between 1968 and 1972, thereafter, until 1998. The magazine featured essays and articles, but was focused on product reviews; the editorial focus was on self-sufficiency, alternative education, "do it yourself", holism, featured the slogan "access to tools". While WEC listed and reviewed a wide range of products, it did not sell any of the products directly. Instead, the vendor's contact information was listed alongside its review; this is why, while not a published periodical, numerous editions and updates were required to keep price and availability information up to date. The title Whole Earth Catalog came from a previous project by Stewart Brand. In 1966, he initiated a public campaign to have NASA release the then-rumored satellite photo of the sphere of Earth as seen from space, the first image of the "Whole Earth." He thought the image might be a powerful symbol, evoking a sense of shared destiny and adaptive strategies from people.
The Stanford-educated Brand, a biologist with strong artistic and social interests, believed that there was a groundswell of commitment to renovating American industrial society along ecologically and just lines, whatever they might prove to be. Andrew Kirk in Counterculture Green notes that the Whole Earth Catalog was preceded by the "Whole Earth Truck Store"; the WETS was a 1963 Dodge truck: In 1968, 29, his wife Lois embarked "on a commune road trip" with the truck, hoping to tour the country doing educational fairs. The truck was not only a store, but an alternative lending library and a mobile microeducation service. Kevin Kelly, who would edit editions of the catalog, summarizes the early history this way:'Here's a tool that will make drilling a well, or grinding flour, easier,' Brand would tell pointing it out in his catalog of recommended tools, but his best selling tool was the catalog itself, annotated by him, featuring tools that didn't fit into his truck. The "Truck Store" settled into its permanent location in Menlo Park, California.
Instead of bringing the store to the people, Brand decided to create "accumulatively larger versions of his tool catalog" and sell it by mail so the people could contact the vendors directly. Using the most basic typesetting and page-layout tools and his colleagues created the first issue of The Whole Earth Catalog in 1968. In subsequent issues, its production values improved, its outsize pages measured 11×14 inches. Editions were more than an inch thick; the early editions were published by the Portola Institute, headed by Richard Raymond. The so-called Last Whole Earth Catalogue won the first U. S. National Book Award in category Contemporary Affairs, it was the first time a catalog had won such an award. Brand's intent with the catalog was to provide education and "access to tools" so a reader could "find his own inspiration, shape his own environment, share his adventure with whoever is interested."J. Baldwin was a young designer and instructor of design at colleges around the San Francisco Bay.
As he recalled in the film Ecological Design, "Stewart Brand came to me because he heard that I read catalogs. He said,'I want to make this thing called a "whole Earth" catalog so that anyone on Earth can pick up a telephone and find out the complete information on anything.... That's my goal.'" Baldwin served as the chief editor of subjects in the areas of technology and design, both in the catalog itself and in other publications which arose from it. True to his 1966 vision, Brand's publishing efforts were suffused with an awareness of the importance of ecology, both as a field of study and as an influence upon the future of humankind and emerging human awareness. From the opening page of the 1969 Catalog: FunctionThe WHOLE EARTH CATALOG functions as an evaluation and access device. With it, the user should know better where and how to do the getting. An item is listed in the CATALOG if it is deemed: Useful as a tool, Relevant to independent education, High quality or low cost, Not common knowledge, Easily available by mail.
CATALOG listings are continually revised according to the experience and suggestions of CATALOG users and staff. PurposeWe might as well get good at it. So far, remotely done power and glory—as via government, big business, formal education, church—has succeeded to the point where gross defects obscure actual gains. In response to this dilemma and to these gains a realm of intimate, personal power is developing—power of the individual to conduct his own education, find his own inspiration, shape his own environment, share his adventure with whoever is interested. Tools that aid this process are sought and promoted by the WHOLE EARTH CATALOG; the 1968 catalog divided itself into seven broad sections: Understanding Whole Systems Shelter and Land Use Industry and Craft Communications Community Nomadics LearningWithin each section, the best tools and books the editors could find were collected and listed, along with images and uses, suppliers. The reader was able to order some items directly through the catalog.
Editions changed a few of the headings, but kept the same overall framework. The Catalog used a broad definition of "tools." There were informative tools, such as books, professional jou
Philip David Radford is an American environmental, clean energy and democracy leader who served as the youngest executive director of Greenpeace USA. He is the founder and President of Progressive Power Lab, an organization that incubates companies and non-profits that build capacity for progressive organizations, including the Progressive Multiplier Fund and Membership Drive. Radford is a co-founder of the Democracy Initiative, was founder and executive director of Power Shift, is a board member of the Mertz Gilmore Foundation, he has a background in grassroots organizing, corporate social responsibility, climate change, clean energy. Radford lives in Washington, D. C. with his wife Eileen. Radford's theory of change shifted from viewing governments as arbitrators between public and private interests on environmental issues, to finding that most governments are captured by industry. Rather than fighting first for new laws, which could be blocked by industries, he has focused on pressuring large companies to change their practices and enlisted them as allies in pushing for strong environmental protections.
Examples include Greenpeace campaigns that convinced Apple, Inc. and similar companies to shift to 100% clean energy and lobby utilities and regulators to make that possible, as well as work to protect both the Indonesian rainforest and the Bering Sea Canyons. Radford argues that the combination of creating industry champions and "outside pressure" focused on the government are the keys to passing new laws to protect the environment. However, Radford has been a vocal leader calling for the United States to pass campaign finance reform and respect all Americans' voting rights to shift power in politics from corporations towards people and fulfill "the promise of American democracy." Radford is considered by many to be a modern-day transcendentalist, in that he is focused on nature and the environment, he is an advocate of democracy. Radford received his B. A. from Washington University in St. Louis in 1998. Radford began his environmental activism as a high school student at Oak Park and River Forest High School in Oak Park, a Chicago suburb, volunteering for an environmental justice campaign to stop the building of trash incinerators in the West Side of Chicago near his family's Oak Park home.
His first job as a grassroots organizer came as a canvasser for Illinois PIRG. While studying political science and business at Washington University in St. Louis, he directed campaign and canvass offices during summers for the Fund for Public Interest Research for clients including the Human Rights Campaign, PIRGIM, Ohio PIRG and worked part-time during school for the Sierra Club. After graduating college in 1998, Radford became a lead organizer at Green Corps, the field school for environmental organizing. From 1999 to 2001 Radford was field director for Ozone Action, an organization dedicated to working on the atmospheric threats of global warming and ozone depletion; as field director, Radford planned and executed a number of grassroots campaigns, including a campaign during the 2000 presidential primaries, the initial impetus for Senator John McCain sponsoring the Climate Stewardship Act. Radford managed the grassroots mobilization for the Global Warming Divestiture Campaign, which resulted in Ford, General Motors and other companies ending their funding the Global Climate Coalition, which spread misinformation about global warming.
According to the New York Times, the result of the campaign was "the latest sign of divisions within heavy industry over how to respond to global warming." In 2001, Radford founded Power Shift, a non-governmental organization dedicated to driving clean energy market breakthroughs and building the grassroots base to stop global warming. As executive director of Power Shift, Radford worked with the cities of San Diego, Chula Vista, Berkeley, California, as well as nine other municipalities, to secure investments for installation of solar energy systems and implementation of energy efficiency measures in municipal buildings. Radford helped to convince Citigroup to adopt innovative new means of financing clean energy infrastructure for wind and solar installations that made them affordable to average Americans. In 2009, at the age of 33, Radford was selected as the youngest executive director of Greenpeace. Radford's tenure at Greenpeace USA is best known for convincing over 100 corporations to change their environmental practices.
In September 2013, Radford announced that he would step down on April 30, 2014, once he had completed five years of service as executive director. New York Times reporter Andrew Revkin referred to a Greenpeace campaign during Radford's tenure as "Activism at Its Best."Ben Jealous, former president and chief executive officer of the NAACP as well as co-founder of the Democracy Initiative with Radford, described Radford at the helm of Greenpeace as "a modern movement building giant. He has built powerful diverse coalitions to bolster the fights for the environment and voting rights. In the process he has shown himself to be unmatched in mobilizing everyday people to fund their movements directly." Environmental leader Bill McKibben stated: "During Radford's tenure, Greenpeace has been helping the whole environmental movement shift back towards its roots: loca
Edward Paul Abbey was an American author and essayist noted for his advocacy of environmental issues, criticism of public land policies, anarchist political views. His best-known works include the novel The Monkey Wrench Gang, cited as an inspiration by environmental and eco-terrorist groups, the non-fiction work Desert Solitaire. Abbey was born in Indiana, Pennsylvania, on January 29, 1927 to Mildred Postlewait and Paul Revere Abbey. Mildred was a schoolteacher and a church organist, gave Abbey an appreciation for classical music and literature. Paul was a socialist and atheist whose views influenced Abbey. Abbey graduated from high school in Indiana, Pennsylvania, in 1945. Eight months before his 18th birthday, when he would be faced with being drafted into the United States military, Abbey decided to explore the American southwest, he traveled by foot, bus and freight train hopping. During this trip he fell in love with the desert country of the Four Corners region. Abbey wrote: "crags and pinnacles of naked rock, the dark cores of ancient volcanoes, a vast and silent emptiness smoldering with heat and indecipherable significance, above which floated a small number of pure, hard-edged clouds.
For the first time, I felt I was getting close to the West of my deepest imaginings, the place where the tangible and the mythical became the same."In the military Abbey had applied for a clerk typist position but instead served two years as a military police officer in Italy. Abbey was promoted in the military twice but, due to his knack for opposing authority, was twice demoted and was honorably discharged as a private, his experience with the military left him with a distrust for large institutions and regulations which influenced his writing throughout his career, strengthened his anarchist beliefs. When he returned to the United States, Abbey took advantage of the G. I. Bill to attend the University of New Mexico, where he received a B. A. in philosophy and English in 1951, a master's degree in philosophy in 1956. During his time in college, Abbey supported himself by working at a variety of odd jobs, including being a newspaper reporter and bartending in Taos, New Mexico. During this time he had intimate relationships with a number of women.
Shortly before getting his bachelor's degree, Abbey married Jean Schmechal. While an undergraduate, Abbey was the editor of a student newspaper in which he published an article titled "Some Implications of Anarchy". A cover quotation (from Voltaire of the article, "ironically attributed to Louisa May Alcott", stated: "Man will never be free until the last king is strangled with the entrails of the last priest." University officials seized all of the copies of the issue and removed Abbey from the editorship of the paper. Upon receiving his honorable discharge papers, Abbey sent them back to the department with the words "Return to Sender"; the FBI took note and added a note to his file, opened in 1947 when Edward Abbey committed an act of civil disobedience. Abbey was on the FBI's watch-list since and was watched throughout his life. In 1952 Abbey wrote a letter against the draft in times of peace, again the FBI took notice writing, "Edward Abbey is against war and military." Throughout Abbey's life the FBI took notes building a profile on Abbey, observing his movements, interviewing many people who knew him.
Towards the part of his life Abbey learned of the FBI's interest in him and said, "I'd be insulted if they weren't watching me."After graduating and Abbey traveled together to Edinburgh, where Abbey spent a year at Edinburgh University as a Fulbright scholar. During this time and Schmechal separated and ended their marriage. In 1951, Abbey began an affair with Rita Deanin, who in 1952 would become his second wife after he and Schmechal divorced. Deanin and Abbey had Joshua N. Abbey and Aaron Paul Abbey. Abbey's master's thesis explored anarchism and the morality of violence, asking the two questions: "To what extent is the current association between anarchism and violence warranted?" and "In so far as the association is a valid one, what arguments have the anarchists presented, explicitly or implicitly, to justify the use of violence?" After receiving his master's degree, Abbey spent 1957 at Stanford University on a Wallace Stegner Creative Writing Fellowship. In 1956 and 1957, Abbey worked as a seasonal ranger for the United States National Park Service at Arches National Monument, near the town of Moab, Utah.
Abbey held the position from April to September each year, during which time he maintained trails, greeted visitors, collected campground fees. He lived in a house trailer, provided to him by the Park Service, as well as in a ramada that he built himself. During his stay at Arches, Abbey accumulated a large volume of notes and sketches which formed the basis of his first non-fiction work, Desert Solitaire. Abbey's second son Aaron was born in Albuquerque, New Mexico. In the 1960s Abbey worked as a seasonal park ranger at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, on the border of Arizona and Mexico. In 1961, the movie version of his second novel, The Brave Cowboy, with screenplay by Dalton Trumbo, was being shot on location in New Mexico by Kirk Douglas who had purchased the novel's screen rights and was producing and starring in the film, released in 1962 as Lonely Are the Brave. Douglas once said that when Abbey visited the film set, he looked and talked so much like Douglas' friend Gary Cooper that Douglas was disconcerted.
Nonetheless, over 25 years
Environmental protection is the practice of protecting the natural environment by individuals and governments. Its objectives are to conserve natural resources and the existing natural environment and, where possible, to repair damage and reverse trends. Due to the pressures of overconsumption, population growth and technology, the biophysical environment is being degraded, sometimes permanently; this has been recognized, governments have begun placing restraints on activities that cause environmental degradation. Since the 1960s, environmental movements have created more awareness of the various environmental problems. There is disagreement on the extent of the environmental impact of human activity and scientific dishonesty occurs, so protection measures are debated. In the industrial countries, voluntary environmental agreements provide a platform for companies to be recognized for moving beyond the minimum regulatory standards and thus support the development of best environmental practice.
For instance, in India, Environment Improvement Trust has been working for environmental and forest protection since 1998. A group of Green Volunteers get a goal of Green India Clean India concept. CA Gajendra Kumar Jain a Chartered Accountant, is the founder of Environment Improvement Trust in Sojat city a small village of State of Rajasthan in India In developing countries, such as Latin America, these agreements are more used to remedy significant levels of non-compliance with mandatory regulation; the challenges that exist with these agreements lie in establishing baseline data, targets and reporting. Due to the difficulties inherent in evaluating effectiveness, their use is questioned and, the whole environment may well be adversely affected as a result; the key advantage of their use in developing countries is that their use helps to build environmental management capacity. An ecosystems approach to resource management and environmental protection aims to consider the complex interrelationships of an entire ecosystem in decision making rather than responding to specific issues and challenges.
Ideally the decision-making processes under such an approach would be a collaborative approach to planning and decision making that involves a broad range of stakeholders across all relevant governmental departments, as well as representatives of industry, environmental groups and community. This approach ideally supports a better exchange of information, development of conflict-resolution strategies and improved regional conservation. Religions play an important role in the conservation of the environment. Many of the earth's resources are vulnerable because they are influenced by human impacts across many countries; as a result of this, many attempts are made by countries to develop agreements that are signed by multiple governments to prevent damage or manage the impacts of human activity on natural resources. This can include agreements that impact factors such as climate, oceans and air pollution; these international environmental agreements are sometimes binding documents that have legal implications when they are not followed and, at other times, are more agreements in principle or are for use as codes of conduct.
These agreements have a long history with some multinational agreements being in place from as early as 1910 in Europe and Africa. Some of the most well-known international agreements include the Kyoto Protocol. Discussion concerning environmental protection focuses on the role of government and law enforcement. However, in its broadest sense, environmental protection may be seen to be the responsibility of all the people and not that of government. Decisions that impact the environment will ideally involve a broad range of stakeholders including industry, indigenous groups, environmental group and community representatives. Environmental decision-making processes are evolving to reflect this broad base of stakeholders and are becoming more collaborative in many countries. Many constitutions acknowledge the fundamental right to environmental protection and many international treaties acknowledge the right to live in a healthy environment. Many countries have organizations and agencies devoted to environmental protection.
There are international environmental protection organizations, such as the United Nations Environment Programme. Although environmental protection is not the responsibility of government protection acts, most people view these agencies as being of prime importance in establishing and maintaining basic standards that protect both the environment and the people interacting with it. Tanzania is recognised as having some of the greatest biodiversity of any African country. 40% of the land has been established into a network of protected areas, including several national parks. The concerns for the natural environment include damage to ecosystems and loss of habitat resulting from population growth, expansion of subsistence agriculture, timber extraction and significant use of timber as fuel. Environmental protection in Tanzania began during the German occupation of East Africa — colonial conservation laws for the protection of game and forests were enacted, whereby restrictions were placed upon traditional indigenous activities such as hunting, firewood collecting and cattle grazing.
In year 1948, Serengeti was established the first national park for wild cats in East Africa. Since 1983, there has been a more broad-reaching effort to manage environmental issues at a national level, through the establishment of the National Environment Management Council and the development of an environmental act. In 1998 Environment Improvement Trust start