The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Cleomenes III was one of the two kings of Sparta from 235 to 222 BC. He was a member of the Agiad dynasty and succeeded his father and he is known for his attempts to reform the Spartan state. From 229 BC to 222 BC, Cleomenes waged war against the Achaean League under Aratus of Sicyon, after being defeated by the Acheans in the Battle of Sellasia in 222 BC, he fled to Ptolemaic Egypt. After a failed revolt in 219 BC, he committed suicide, Cleomenes was born in Sparta to the future Agiad king Leonidas II and his wife Cratesicleia. The exact year of Cleomenes birth is unknown but historian Peter Green puts it between 265 BC and 260 BC, around 242 BC, Leonidas was exiled from Sparta and forced to seek refuge in the temple of Athena after opposing the reforms of the Eurypontid King, Agis IV. Cleomenes brother-in-law, who was a supporter of Agis, having started his reforms Agis went on a campaign near the Isthmus of Corinth, which presented Leonidas with an opportunity to regain his throne. He quickly disposed of Cleombrotus, and when Agis returned to Sparta he had him arrested and executed, following the execution of Agis, Cleomenes—-who was around eighteen at the time—-was forced by his father to marry Agis widow, who was a wealthy heiress.
According to legend, Cleomenes was hunting when his father sent him a message telling him to immediately to Sparta. When he returned to the city, he saw that it was being decorated for a wedding and it was reported that Cleomenes was doubtful about the marriage because his father had had Agiatis husband executed. The marriage worked out and Agiatis told Cleomenes about Agis and his reform plans, Cleomenes ascended the throne of Sparta in 235 BC, on the death of his father. Cleomenes had been inspired by Agis and began reforms, the Achaean League under the command of Aratus of Sicyon was trying to unite all of the Peloponnese. Upon hearing of Leonidas death, Aratus began attacking the cities of Arcadia, Plutarch says that Aratus made these moves to discover Spartas inclinations. In 229 BC, the cities of Tegea, Mantinea and Orchomenus, historians Polybius and Sir William Smith claim that Cleomenes seized these cities by treachery, however the translator of Plutarch on Sparta, Richard Talbert, claims he did so at their own request.
Later that year, the ephors sent Cleomenes to seize Athenaeum, Cleomenes seized the fort and fortified it. Meanwhile, the Achaean League summoned a meeting of its assembly, in retaliation for fortifying the fort, Aratus made a night attack on Tegea and Orchomenus but when his supporters on the inside failed to help, he retreated, hoping to remain unnoticed. Cleomenes discovered the night attack and sent a message to Aratus asking the purpose of the expedition. Aratus replied that he had come to stop Cleomenes from fortifying Athenaeum, Cleomenes response was, if its all the same to you and tell me why you brought along those torches and ladders. Cleomenes advanced into Arcadia before being called back by the ephors, when Aratus captured Caphyae, the ephors sent him out again
Lycurgus of Sparta
Lycurgus was the legendary lawgiver of Sparta who established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi. All his reforms were directed towards the three Spartan virtues, military fitness, and austerity and he is referred to by ancient historians and philosophers Herodotus, Plato, Polybius and Epictetus. The following account comes almost exclusively from Plutarchs Life of Lycurgus and it is said that Lycurgus had risen to power when his older brother, the king, had died. With his father deceased, he was offered the throne, Lycurgus brother, had died with a pregnant wife. When this child was born, Lycurgus named the child, however, the young kings mother and her relatives envied and hated Lycurgus. Among other slanders, they accused Lycurgus of plotting the death of Charilaus, Lycurgus gave up all of his authority and went to the island of Crete. In Crete, Lycurgus met Thaletas the poet, Thaletas made his living as a musician at banquets, but in reality Thaletas was a teacher of civilization.
Eventually, Lycurgus persuaded Thaletas to go to Sparta with his songs to prepare the people for the new way of life that he intended to introduce later, Lycurgus carefully studied the forms of government in Crete and picked out what might be useful for Sparta. He travelled to Ionia to study the difference between the pleasure-loving Ionians and the sober Cretans, as study the difference between the sick and the healthy. Apparently he took this comparison to the Spartans, training one puppy in a manner and leaving the other to eat. The Spartans were taken by the discipline of Crete and liberties of Ionians at the same time, in Ionia, Lycurgus discovered the works of Homer. Lycurgus compiled the scattered fragments of Homer and made sure that the lessons of statecraft, after Lycurgus had been absent for a while, the Spartans wrote and begged Lycurgus to come back. As they admitted, only Lycurgus was really a king in their heart, although others wore a crown and he had the true foundation of sovereignty, a nature born to rule, and a talent for inspiring obedience.
Even the Spartan kings wanted Lycurgus to return because they saw him as one who could protect them from the people, Lycurgus had already decided that some fundamental changes would have to be made in Sparta. When he returned, he did not merely tinker with the laws, however, Lycurgus went to the Oracle at Delphi to ask for guidance. The Oracle told Lycurgus that his prayers had been heard and that the state which observed the laws of Lycurgus would become the most famous in the world, with such an endorsement, Lycurgus went to the leading men of Sparta and enlisted their support. He began with his closest friends, these friends widened the conspiracy by bringing in their own friends, when things were ripe for action, thirty of them appeared at dawn in the marketplace, fully armed for battle. According to the found in Plutarchs Lives and other sources
Sparta was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece. In antiquity the city-state was known as Lacedaemon, while the name Sparta referred to its settlement on the banks of the Eurotas River in Laconia. Around 650 BC, it rose to become the dominant military land-power in ancient Greece, given its military pre-eminence, Sparta was recognized as the overall leader of the combined Greek forces during the Greco-Persian Wars. Between 431 and 404 BC, Sparta was the enemy of Athens during the Peloponnesian War, from which it emerged victorious. Spartas defeat by Thebes in the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC ended Spartas prominent role in Greece, however, it maintained its political independence until the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BC. It underwent a period of decline, especially in the Middle Ages. Modern Sparta is the capital of the Greek regional unit of Laconia, Sparta was unique in ancient Greece for its social system and constitution, which completely focused on military training and excellence.
Its inhabitants were classified as Spartiates, perioikoi, Spartiates underwent the rigorous agoge training and education regimen, and Spartan phalanges were widely considered to be among the best in battle. Spartan women enjoyed more rights and equality to men than elsewhere in the classical world. Sparta was the subject of fascination in its own day, as well as in the West following the revival of classical learning and this love or admiration of Sparta is known as Laconism or Laconophilia. At its peak around 500 BC the size of the city would have been some 20,000 –35,000 free residents, plus numerous helots, olliers theory of the Spartan mirage has been widely accepted by scholars. The ancient Greeks used one of three words to refer to the location of the Spartans. The first refers primarily to the cluster of settlements in the valley of the Eurotas River. The second word was Lacedaemon, this was used sometimes as an adjective and is the name commonly used in the works of Homer. Herodotus seems to denote by it the Mycenaean Greek citadel at Therapne and it could be used synonymously with Sparta, but typically it was not.
It denoted the terrain on which Sparta was situated, in Homer it is typically combined with epithets of the countryside, lovely and most often hollow and broken. The hollow suggests the Eurotas Valley, Sparta on the other hand is the country of lovely women, a people epithet. The name of the population was used for the state of Lacedaemon
Antigonus III Doson
Antigonus III Doson was king of Macedon from 229 BC to 221 BC. He was a member of the Antigonid dynasty, Antigonus III Doson was a half-cousin of his predecessor, Demetrius II Aetolicus. Dosons father was Demetrius the Fair, the son of Demetrius Poliorcetes and his wife, Ptolemaïs, daughter of Ptolemy I Soter and Eurydice. According to Eusebius, Dosons own mother was a Thessalian noblewoman, Antigonus had a brother named Echecrates, whose son, named Antigonus after Doson himself, was put to death by Perseus on the latters accession to the throne of Macedon. Rather than contenting himself with his bride, Demetrius openly became the lover of her powerful mother. So the jealous bride took her revenge by having him assassinated and it is unclear whether Dosons mother had died before this time. The meaning of Antigonus by-name is uncertain, according to Plutarch it implied that he was given to promising but did not perform his engagements, though even the exact meaning of this is unclear. When Demetrius II died in battle in 229 BC, his son and would-be successor, according to Plutarch, both the Macedonian army and nobility thought the political situation too volatile to wait for Philip V to mature enough to assume command.
As a consequence, the Macedonian nobility turned to Doson, who was made regent of the kingdom and married to his predecessors widow. Unlike his Antigonid ancestors, he had no rivals to challenge his right to rule. Yet, even as king he apparently envisioned himself as caretaker for his cousins son, as king, Antigonus III proved to be as much a master of tactical diplomacy as of military strategy. In less than a decade of rule he not only secured the borders of his nation, unlike previous Macedonian rulers who attempted direct dominion over their fiercely independent neighbors to the West and South, he formed alliances with Epirus and the Achaean League. Establishing his base on the heights above Corinth, Antigonus reconstituted a broad-based Hellenic league under his leadership before launching his attack on Sparta. However, in a gesture, Antigonus restrained his soldiers from plundering Sparta, saying it was Cleomenes, not Sparta. Antigonus did not long survive this victory, while his forces were campaigning in the southern Peloponnese, Illyrians invaded Macedonia from the north.
Antigonus had to rush north to repel this new threat and his death occurred soon after, when he returned to Macedon and engaged the Illyian army, for though Macedonian forces were once again victorious, the commander became sick during the battle and died. Antigonus III Doson entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
The Spartan army stood at the center of the Spartan state, whose citizens were trained in the discipline and honor of the warrior society. Subject to military drill from early manhood, the Spartans were one of the most feared military forces in the Greek world. At the height of Spartas power – between the 6th and 4th centuries BC – it was accepted that one Spartan was worth several men of any other state. According to Thucydides, the moment of Spartan surrender on the island of Sphacteria. He said that it was the perception at the time that Spartans would never lay down their weapons for any reason, be it hunger. The iconic army was first developed by the semi-mythical Spartan legislator Lycurgus, a Spartan mans involvement with the army began in infancy when he was inspected by the Gerousia. If the baby was found to be weak or deformed he was left at Mount Taygetus to die and it should be noted, that the practice of discarding children at birth took place in Athens as well. Those deemed strong were put in the regime at the age of seven.
Under the agoge the young boys or Spartiates were kept under intense and their education focused primarily on cunning and war tactics, but included poetry, music and sometimes politics. Those who passed the agoge by the age of 30 were given full Spartan citizenship, the term spartan became synonymous with fearlessness and cruel life, endurance or simplicity by design. The first reference to the Spartans at war is in the Iliad, like the rest of the Mycenaean-era armies, it was depicted as composed largely of infantry, equipped with short swords and Dipylon-type. This was the Golden Age of Warfare, each opposing army tried to fight through the other line on the right side and turn left, wherefore they would be able to attack the vulnerable flank. When this happened, it as a rule caused the army to be routed, the fleeing enemy were put to the sword only as far as the field of battle extended. The outcome of one battle would determine the outcome of a particular issue. In the Golden Age of War defeated armies were not massacred, they fled back to their city and it wasnt until after the Peloponnesus War that indiscriminate slaughter and depredations were countenanced among the Greeks.
Mycenaean Sparta, like much of Greece, was engulfed in the Dorian invasions, during this time, Sparta was merely a Doric village on the banks of the river Eurotas in Laconia. However, in the early 8th century BC, Spartan society was transformed, the reforms, which were ascribed by tradition to the possibly mythical figure of Lycurgus, created new institutions and established the military nature of the Spartan state. This constitution of Lycurgus remained essentially unchanged for five centuries, by the beginning of the 7th century BC, Sparta was, along with Argos, the dominant power in the Peloponnese
Plato was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. He is widely considered the most pivotal figure in the development of philosophy, unlike nearly all of his philosophical contemporaries, Platos entire work is believed to have survived intact for over 2,400 years. Along with his teacher and his most famous student, Plato laid the foundations of Western philosophy. Alfred North Whitehead once noted, the safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato. In addition to being a figure for Western science, philosophy. Friedrich Nietzsche, amongst other scholars, called Christianity, Platonism for the people, Plato was the innovator of the written dialogue and dialectic forms in philosophy, which originate with him. He was not the first thinker or writer to whom the word “philosopher” should be applied, few other authors in the history of Western philosophy approximate him in depth and range, perhaps only Aristotle and Kant would be generally agreed to be of the same rank.
Due to a lack of surviving accounts, little is known about Platos early life, the philosopher came from one of the wealthiest and most politically active families in Athens. Ancient sources describe him as a bright though modest boy who excelled in his studies, the exact time and place of Platos birth are unknown, but it is certain that he belonged to an aristocratic and influential family. Based on ancient sources, most modern scholars believe that he was born in Athens or Aegina between 429 and 423 BCE. According to a tradition, reported by Diogenes Laertius, Ariston traced his descent from the king of Athens, Codrus. Platos mother was Perictione, whose family boasted of a relationship with the famous Athenian lawmaker, besides Plato himself and Perictione had three other children, these were two sons and Glaucon, and a daughter Potone, the mother of Speusippus. The brothers Adeimantus and Glaucon are mentioned in the Republic as sons of Ariston, and presumably brothers of Plato, but in a scenario in the Memorabilia, Xenophon confused the issue by presenting a Glaucon much younger than Plato.
Then, at twenty-eight, Hermodorus says, went to Euclides in Megara, as Debra Nails argues, The text itself gives no reason to infer that Plato left immediately for Megara and implies the very opposite. Thus, Nails dates Platos birth to 424/423, another legend related that, when Plato was an infant, bees settled on his lips while he was sleeping, an augury of the sweetness of style in which he would discourse about philosophy. Ariston appears to have died in Platos childhood, although the dating of his death is difficult. Perictione married Pyrilampes, her mothers brother, who had served many times as an ambassador to the Persian court and was a friend of Pericles, Pyrilampes had a son from a previous marriage, who was famous for his beauty. Perictione gave birth to Pyrilampes second son, the half-brother of Plato and these and other references suggest a considerable amount of family pride and enable us to reconstruct Platos family tree
The agōgē was the rigorous education and training program mandated for all male Spartan citizens, except for the firstborn son in the ruling houses and Agiad. The training involved learning stealth, cultivating loyalty to the Spartan group, military training, dancing, the word agoge meant rearing in ancient Greek, but in this context generally meant leading, guidance, or training. The aim of the system was to produce a strong and capable warriors to serve in the Spartan army and it encouraged conformity and the importance of the Spartan state over ones personal interest and generated the future elites of Sparta. The men would become the walls of Sparta because Sparta was the only Greek city with no defensive walls after they had been demolished at the order of Lycurgus, discipline was strict and the males were encouraged to fight amongst themselves to determine the strongest member of the group. The agoge was prestigious throughout the Greek world, and many families from other cities vied to send their sons to Sparta to participate in the agoge for varying periods of time.
The Spartans were very selective in which young men they would permit to enroll, such honors were usually awarded to the próxenoi of Sparta in other cities and to a few other families of supreme ancestry and importance. When a boy was born, he was washed with wine in the belief that this would make him strong, every infant was examined by members of the Gerousia from the childs tribe to see whether he was fit and healthy enough to be allowed to live. In the event that the baby did not pass the test, at the age of seven, the male child was enrolled in the agoge under the authority of the paidonómos, or boy-herder, a magistrate charged with supervising education. This began the first of the three stages of the agoge, the paídes, the paidískoi, and the hēbōntes, some classical sources indicate that there were further subdivisions by year within these classes. The boys lived in groups under an older man and they were encouraged to give their loyalty to their communal mess hall known as the Syssitia, rather than to their families.
Beginning at the age of 12 boys would be only one item of clothing per year — a red cloak known as a Phoinikis. They created out of reeds pulled by hand, with no knife. Boys were intentionally underfed to encourage them to food for themselves, however. This was meant to produce well-built soldiers rather than fat ones and this let the boys become accustomed to hunger, and this prevented hunger from being a problem during battle. Only the heirs apparent of the two Spartan royal households were exempt from the process, at around age 12 the boys would enter into an institutionalized relationship with a young adult male Spartan. Plutarch described this form of Spartan pederasty wherein somewhat older warriors would engage promising youths in a relationship with an instructive motive. The boys were expected to request the relationship, which was seen as a method to pass on knowledge, at the stage of paidiskoi, around the age of 18, the students became reserve members of the Spartan army. Also, some youths were allowed to become part of the Crypteia, a type of Secret Police and they would kill Helot slaves who were out at night or spoke about rebelling against the Government, to help keep the population submissive
Despotism is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power. That entity may be an individual, as in an autocracy, or it may be a group, the English dictionary defines despotism as the rule of a despot, the exercise of absolute authority. The root despot comes from the Greek word despotes, which means master or one with power, the term has been used to describe many rulers and governments throughout history. Due to its reflexive connotation throughout history, the word despot cannot be objectively defined, the word despot applies pejoratively to those who abuse their power and authority to oppress their populace, subjects, or subordinates. More specifically, the term applies to a head of state or government. In this sense, it is similar to the connotations that are associated with the terms tyrant. Of all the ancient Greeks, Aristotle was perhaps the most influential promoter of the concept of oriental despotism. He passed this ideology to his student, Alexander the Great, who conquered Persia, which at the time was ruled by the despotic Darius III, Aristotle asserted that oriental despotism was not based on force, but on consent.
Hence, fear could not be said to be its motivating force, but rather the nature of those enslaved. Within ancient Greek society, every Greek man was free and capable of holding office, in contrast, among the barbarians, all were slaves by nature. Another difference Aristotle espoused was based on climates, possessing both spirit and intelligence, the Greeks were free to govern all other peoples. The story of Croesus of Lydia exemplifies this, leading up to Alexanders expansion into Asia, most Greeks were repelled by the Oriental notion of a sun-king, and the divine law that Oriental societies accepted. Herodotuss version of history advocated a society where men became free when they consented lawfully to the contract of their respective city-state. His eyebrows were tinged with black, and his cheeks painted with an artificial red, in its classical form, despotism is a state in which a single individual holds all the power and authority embodying the state, and everyone else is a subsidiary person.
This form of despotism was common in the first forms of statehood and civilization, the word itself seems to have been coined by the opponents of Louis XIV of France in the 1690s, who applied the term despotisme to describe their monarchs somewhat free exercise of power. The word is ultimately Greek in origin, and in ancient Greek usage, the term now implies tyrannical rule. This movement was probably triggered by the ideas of the Age of Enlightenment. The Enlightenment philosopher Montesquieu believed that despotism was a government for large states
The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period. The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history, often when a given Roman is described as becoming emperor in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus or Caesar. Another title often used was imperator, originally a military honorific, early Emperors used the title princeps. Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably Princeps Senatus, the first emperors reigned alone, emperors would sometimes rule with co-Emperors and divide administration of the Empire between them. The Romans considered the office of emperor to be distinct from that of a king, the first emperor, resolutely refused recognition as a monarch. Although Augustus could claim that his power was authentically republican, his successor, nonetheless, for the first three hundred years of Roman Emperors, from Augustus until Diocletian, a great effort was made to emphasize that the Emperors were the leaders of a Republic.
Elements of the Republican institutional framework were preserved until the end of the Western Empire. The Eastern emperors ultimately adopted the title of Basileus, which had meant king in Greek, but became a title reserved solely for the Roman emperor, other kings were referred to as rēgas. In addition to their office, some emperors were given divine status after death. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in the late 5th century, Romulus Augustulus is often considered to be the last emperor of the west after his forced abdication in 476, although Julius Nepos maintained a claim to the title until his death in 480. Constantine XI was the last Byzantine Roman emperor in Constantinople, dying in the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453, a Byzantine group of claimant Roman Emperors existed in the Empire of Trebizond until its conquest by the Ottomans in 1461. In western Europe the title of Roman Emperor was revived by Germanic rulers, the Holy Roman Emperors, in 800, at the end of the Roman Republic no new, and certainly no single, title indicated the individual who held supreme power.
Insofar as emperor could be seen as the English translation of imperator, Julius Caesar had been an emperor, Julius Caesar, unlike those after him, did so without the Senates vote and approval. Julius Caesar held the Republican offices of four times and dictator five times, was appointed dictator in perpetuity in 45 BC and had been pontifex maximus for a long period. He gained these positions by senatorial consent, by the time of his assassination, he was the most powerful man in the Roman world. In his will, Caesar appointed his adopted son Octavian as his heir, a decade after Caesars death, Octavians victory over his erstwhile ally Mark Antony at Actium put an end to any effective opposition and confirmed Octavians supremacy. His restoration of powers to the Senate and the people of Rome was a demonstration of his auctoritas, some historians such as Tacitus would say that even at Augustus death, the true restoration of the Republic might have been possible. Instead, Augustus actively prepared his adopted son Tiberius to be his successor, the Senate disputed the issue but eventually confirmed Tiberius as princeps
Attica is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of Greece. The historical region is centered on the Attic peninsula, which projects into the Aegean Sea, the modern administrative region of Attica is more extensive than the historical region and includes the Saronic Islands and the municipality of Troizinia on the Peloponnesian mainland. The history of Attica is tightly linked with that of Athens, Attica is a triangular peninsula jutting into the Aegean Sea. It is naturally divided to the north from Boeotia by the 10 mi long Cithaeron mountain range, to the west, it is bordered by the sea and the canal of Corinth. The Saronic Gulf lies to the south, and the island of Euboea lies off the north, mountains separate the peninsula into the plains of Pedias and Thriasion. The mountains of Attica are the Hymettus, the portion of the Geraneia, the Parnitha, the Aigaleo. Four mountains—Aigaleo, Parnitha and Hymettus —delineate the hilly plain on which the Athens-Piraeus metroplex now spreads, Athens water reservoir, Lake Marathon, is an artificial lake created by damming in 1920.
Pine and fir forests cover the area around Parnitha, Penteli and Laurium are forested with pine trees, whereas the rest are covered by shrubbery. The Kifisos is the longest river of Attica, according to Plato, Atticas ancient boundaries were fixed by the Isthmus, toward the continent, they extended as far as the heights of Cithaeron and Parnes. The boundary line came down toward the sea, bounded by the district of Oropus on the right, during antiquity, the Athenians boasted about being autochthonic, which is to say that they were the original inhabitants of the area and had not moved to Attica from another place. The traditions current in the classical period recounted that, during the Greek Dark Ages, Attica had become the refuge of the Ionians, who belonged to a tribe from the northern Peloponnese. Supposedly, the Ionians had been forced out of their homeland by the Achaeans, the Ionians integrated with the ancient Atticans, afterward, considered themselves part of the Ionian tribe and spoke the Ionian dialect.
Many Ionians left Attica to colonize the Aegean coast of Asia Minor, during the Mycenaean period, the Atticans lived in autonomous agricultural societies. The main places where prehistoric remains were found are Marathon, Nea Makri, Thorikos, Agios Kosmas, Menidi, Spata, all of these settlements flourished during the Mycenaean period. According to tradition, Attica comprised twelve small communities during the reign of Cecrops, strabo assigns these the names of Cecropia, Epacria, Eleusis, Thoricus, Cytherus, Sphettus and possibly Phaleron. These were said to have been incorporated in an Athenian state during the reign of Theseus. Modern historians consider it likely that the communities were progressively incorporated into an Athenian state during the 8th. Until the 6th century BC, aristocratic families lived independent lives in the suburbs, only after Peisistratoss tyranny and the reforms implemented by Cleisthenes did the local communities lose their independence and succumb to the central government in Athens