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Epic of Gilgamesh

The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia, regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature and the second oldest religious text, after the Pyramid Texts. The literary history of Gilgamesh begins with five Sumerian poems about Bilgamesh, king of Uruk, dating from the Third Dynasty of Ur; these independent stories were used as source material for a combined epic in Akkadian. The first surviving version of this combined epic, known as the "Old Babylonian" version dates to the 18th century BC and is titled after its incipit, Shūtur eli sharrī. Only a few tablets of it have survived; the "standard" version compiled by Sîn-lēqi-unninni dates from the 13th to the 10th centuries BC and bears the incipit Sha naqba īmuru. Two thirds of this longer, twelve-tablet version have been recovered; some of the best copies were discovered in the library ruins of the 7th-century BC Assyrian king Ashurbanipal. The first half of the story discusses Gilgamesh, king of Uruk, Enkidu, a wild man created by the gods to stop Gilgamesh from oppressing the people of Uruk.

After Enkidu becomes civilized through sexual initiation with a prostitute, he travels to Uruk, where he challenges Gilgamesh to a test of strength. Gilgamesh wins the contest. Together, they make a six-day journey to the legendary Cedar Forest, where they plan to slay the Guardian, Humbaba the Terrible, cut down the sacred Cedar; the goddess Ishtar sends the Bull of Heaven to punish Gilgamesh for spurning her advances. Gilgamesh and Enkidu kill the Bull of Heaven after which the gods decide to sentence Enkidu to death and kill him. In the second half of the epic, distress over Enkidu's death causes Gilgamesh to undertake a long and perilous journey to discover the secret of eternal life, he learns that "Life, which you look for, you will never find. For when the gods created man, they let death be his share, life withheld in their own hands". However, because of his great building projects, his account of Siduri's advice, what the immortal man Utnapishtim told him about the Great Flood, Gilgamesh's fame survived well after his death with expanding interest in the Gilgamesh story, translated into many languages and is featured in works of popular fiction.

Distinct sources exist from over a 2000-year timeframe. The earliest Sumerian poems are now considered to be distinct stories, rather than parts of a single epic, they date from as early as the Third Dynasty of Ur. The Old Babylonian tablets, are the earliest surviving tablets for a single Epic of Gilgamesh narrative; the older Old Babylonian tablets and Akkadian version are important sources for modern translations, with the earlier texts used to fill in gaps in the texts. Although several revised versions based on new discoveries have been published, the epic remains incomplete. Analysis of the Old Babylonian text has been used to reconstruct possible earlier forms of the Epic of Gilgamesh; the most recent Akkadian version referred to as the standard version, consisting of twelve tablets, was edited by Sin-liqe-unninni and was found in the Library of Ashurbanipal in Nineveh. The Epic of Gilgamesh was discovered by Austen Henry Layard, Hormuzd Rassam, W. K. Loftus in 1853; the central character of Gilgamesh was reintroduced to the world as "Izdubar", before the cuneiform logographs in his name could be pronounced accurately.

The first modern translation was published in the early 1870s by George Smith. Smith made further discoveries of texts on his expeditions, which culminated in his final translation, given in his book The Chaldaean Account of Genesis; the definitive modern translation is a two-volume critical work by Andrew George, published by Oxford University Press in 2003. A book review by the Cambridge scholar, Eleanor Robson, claims that George's is the most significant critical work on Gilgamesh in the last 70 years. George discusses the state of the surviving material, provides a tablet-by-tablet exegesis, with a dual language side-by-side translation. In 2004, Stephen Mitchell supplied a controversial version that takes many liberties with the text and includes modernized allusions and commentary relating to the Iraq War of 2003; the first direct Arabic translation from the original tablets was made in the 1960s by the Iraqi archaeologist Taha Baqir. The discovery of artifacts associated with Enmebaragesi of Kish, mentioned in the legends as the father of one of Gilgamesh's adversaries, has lent credibility to the historical existence of Gilgamesh.

In 1998, American historian Theodore Kwasman discovered a piece believed to have contained the first lines of the epic in the storeroom of the British Museum, the fragment, found in 1878 and dated to between 600BC and 100BC, had remained unexamined by experts for more than a century since its recovery. The fragment read "He who saw all, the foundation of the land, who knew, was wise in all matters: Gilgamesh." From the diverse sources found, two main versions of the epic have been reconstructed: the standard Akkadian version, or He who saw the deep, the Old Babylonian version, or Surpassing all other kings. Five earlier Sumerian poems about Gilgamesh have been recovered, some with primitive versions of specific episodes in the Akkadian version, others with unrelated stories; the standard version was discovered by Hormuzd Rassam in the library of Ashurbanipal in Nineveh in 1853. It was written in a dialect of Akkadian, used for literary purposes; this version was co

Erroll Chunder Sen

Erroll Suvo Chunder Sen was an Indian pilot who served in the Royal Flying Corps and Royal Air Force during the First World War, and, among the first Indian military aviators. Sen was born in Calcutta to English mother, his grandfather was the philosopher and social reformer Keshab Chandra Sen. At an early age, he moved with his mother and sister to England, he was educated at Rossall School in Fleetwood, where he joined its unit of the Officers' Training Corps. Sen applied for a commission in the Royal Flying Corps in November 1916, but his application was rejected as he was under age. After a period working in a bank, having now turned 18, he made a second attempt in early 1917; this time he was successful, he was awarded a temporary honorary commission in the RFC as a second lieutenant, with effect from 24 April 1917. He was ordered to report to the No. 1 School of Military Aeronautics at Reading from the same date. After two months at Reading, followed by 25 hours of elementary flying training and 35 hours in front line aircraft, Sen was posted to the Western Front.

He was assigned to No. 70 Squadron RFC, based at Poperinge in West Flanders and equipped with the Sopwith Camel. On 7 August 1917, he was appointed a Flying Officer in the RFC with the temporary rank of second lieutenant. A month on 14 September, while taking part in an offensive patrol, Sen experienced engine failure and dropped behind the rest of his patrol; as he stated in a deposition for the War Office, "...in attempting to catch up was lost in a cloud. Coming out was attacked by 4 enemy machines. Both tanks hit. Unwounded."He was interned in Holzminden prisoner-of-war camp for the remainder of the war. He was a participant in the attempted mass escape from the camp on 23/24 July 1918, but was in the escape tunnel when it collapsed, resulting in the abandonment of the enterprise, he was repatriated to the UK on 14 December 1918. Following his repatriation, Sen was promoted lieutenant on 17 April 1919, was transferred to the unemployed list of the RAF on 23 May, he returned to India and joined the Indian Imperial Police as an assistant superintendent with effect from 20 September 1921.

By 1925, he was serving in eastern Bengal in the Comilla District. Sen and his brother subsequently relocated to Rangoon, where they found work. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, Sen re-enlisted in the RAF, but was unable to find a means to leave Burma, he tried to walk out of the country, is believed to have died in the attempt

Dish drying cabinet

A dish drying cabinet is a piece of kitchen shelving placed above the sink, with an open bottom and shelves made of steel wire or dowels to allow washed dishes set within to drip into the sink and air dry. While recorded history of the idea goes back as far as 1894 with a patent application by a British inventor Robina Wood, the concept was popularised in Finland in the 1940s by Maiju Gebhard, the head of the household department at the Finnish Work Efficiency Institute. Though Gebhard had introduced a doorless, wall-mounted dish drying rack in her 1930 book Pienviljelijäemännän kotitalousopas, her 1940s cabinet was inspired by a countertop dish drying rack used in Sweden. Gebhard's motivation was to save the effort of women. Gebhard developed the dish drying cabinet in 1944 and 1945, the Institute started manufacturing the cabinets and selling the design in 1945; these cabinets were wholly made of wood, made only in two sizes. Enso-Gutzeit began industrial production of the cabinets in 1948, in 1954 a rack made from plastic-coated steel wire was introduced.

The measurements of the cabinets were standardised in 1982. Dish drying cabinets have become a standard accessory in every Finnish home. List of home appliances Media related to Dish drainers at Wikimedia Commons