An epic poem, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe for their descendants, the poet and his audience, to understand themselves as a people or nation. Another type of epic poetry is epyllion, a brief narrative poem with a romantic or mythological theme; the term, which means "little epic", came into use in the nineteenth century. It refers to the erudite, shorter hexameter poems of the Hellenistic period and the similar works composed at Rome from the age of the neoterics; the most famous example of classical epyllion is Catullus 64. The English word epic comes from the Latin epicus, which itself comes from the Ancient Greek adjective ἐπικός, from ἔπος, "word, poem". Originating before the invention of writing, primary epics were composed by bards who used complex rhetorical and metrical schemes by which they could memorize the epic as received in tradition and add to the epic in their performances.
Hence aside from writers like Dante, Camões, Milton, Apollonius of Rhodes in his Argonautica and Virgil in Aeneid adopted and adapted Homer's style and subject matter, but used devices available only to those who write, in their works Nonnus' Dionysiaca and Tulsidas' Sri Ramacharit Manas used stylistic elements typical of epics. The oldest epic recognized is the Epic of Gilgamesh, recorded in ancient Sumer during the Neo-Sumerian Empire; the poem details the exploits of Gilgamesh, the king of Uruk. Although recognized as a historical figure, Gilgamesh, as represented in the epic, is a legendary or mythical figure; the longest epic written is the ancient Indian Mahabharata, which consists of 100,000 ślokas or over 200,000 verse lines, as well as long prose passages, so that at ~1.8 million words it is four times the length of the Rāmāyaṇa, ten times the length of the Iliad and the Odyssey combined. Famous examples of epic poetry include the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh, the ancient Indian Mahabharata and Rāmāyaṇa, the Tamil Silappatikaram, the Persian Shahnameh, the Ancient Greek Odyssey and Iliad, Virgil's Aeneid, the Old English Beowulf, Dante's Divine Comedy, the Finnish Kalevala, the German Nibelungenlied, the French Song of Roland, the Spanish Cantar de mio Cid, the Portuguese Os Lusíadas, the Armenian Daredevils of Sassoun, John Milton's Paradise Lost, Adam Mickiewicz's Pan Tadeusz.
The first epics were products of oral history poetic traditions. Oral tradition was used alongside written scriptures to communicate and facilitate the spread of culture. In these traditions, poetry is transmitted to the audience and from performer to performer by purely oral means. Early twentieth-century study of living oral epic traditions in the Balkans by Milman Parry and Albert Lord demonstrated the paratactic model used for composing these poems. What they demonstrated was that oral epics tend to be constructed in short episodes, each of equal status and importance; this facilitates memorization, as the poet is recalling each episode in turn and using the completed episodes to recreate the entire epic as he performs it. Parry and Lord contend that the most source for written texts of the epics of Homer was dictation from an oral performance. Milman Parry and Albert Lord have argued that the Homeric epics, the earliest works of Western literature, were fundamentally an oral poetic form.
These works form the basis of the epic genre in Western literature. Nearly all of Western epic self-consciously presents itself as a continuation of the tradition begun by these poems. Classical epic poetry employs a meter called dactylic hexameter and recounts a journey, either physical or mental or both. Epics tend to highlight cultural norms and to define or call into question cultural values as they pertain to heroism. In his work Poetics, Aristotle defines an epic as one of the forms of poetry, contrasted with lyric poetry and with drama in the form of tragedy and comedy. In A Handbook to Literature and Holman define an epic: Epic: a long narrative poem in elevated style presenting characters of high position in adventures forming an organic whole through their relation to a central heroic figure and through their development of episodes important to the history of a nation or race. An attempt to delineate ten main characteristics of an epic: Begins in medias res; the setting is vast, covering the world or the universe.
Begins with an invocation to a muse. Begins with a statement of the theme. Includes the use of epithets. Contains long called an epic catalogue. Features long and formal speeches. Shows divine intervention in human affairs. Features heroes that embody the values of the civilization. Features the tragic hero's descent into the underworld or hell; the hero participates in a cyclical journey or quest, faces adversaries that try to defeat him in his journey and returns home transformed by his journey. The epic hero illustrates traits, performs deeds, exemplifies certain morals that are valued by the society the epic originates from. Many epic heroes are recurring characters in the legends of their native cultures. Conventions of epics: Proposition: Opens by stating the cause of the epic. This
Many units of the United States Armed Forces have distinctive mottoes. Such mottoes are used in order to "reinforce" each unit's values and traditions. Mottoes are used by smaller units. While some mottoes are official, others are unofficial; some mottoes appear on unit patches, such as the U. S. Army's distinctive unit insignia; the use of mottoes is as old as the U. S. military itself. A general order issued by George Washington on February 20, 1776, when he was commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, directed that "it is necessary that every Regiment should be furnished with Colours" and the "Number of the Regiment is to be mark'd on the Colours, such a Motto, as the Colonel may choose, in fixing upon which, the General advises a Consultation amongst them." United States Air Force: Aut Vincere Aut Mors (Latin for “Conquer or Die Alaskan Air Command - Top Cover for America Strategic Air Command - Peace is Our Profession 1st Special Operations Wing - Any Time, Any Place 1st Tactical Fighter Wing - Aut Vincere Aut Mori 2d Bomb Wing - Libertatem Defendimus 4th Tactical Fighter Wing - Fourth But First 5th Bomb Wing - Kiai O Ka Lewa 6th Air Mobility Wing - Parati Defendere 7th Bomb Wing - Mors Ab Alto 8th Tactical Fighter Wing - Attaquez et Conquerez 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing - Semper Paratus 10th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing - Argus 11th Air Refueling Wing - Progresso Sine Timore Aut Praejudicio 12th Flying Training Wing - Spiritus Omnia Vincet 14th Flying Training Wing - Day and Night—Peace and War 15th Air Base Wing - None.
From 1942 to 1992, the motto was Prosequor Alis. In December 1992, the Air Force Historical Research Agency approved the wing commander's request to delete the motto since it was no longer applicable to the unit's mission. 17th Bombardment Wing - Toujours Au Danger 18th Tactical Fighter Wing - Unguibus et Rostro 19th Airlift Wing - In Alis Vincimus 20th Tactical Fighter Wing - Victory By Valor 21st Composite Wing - Fortitudo et Preparatio 22d Air Refueling Wing - Ducemus 23d Tactical Fighter Wing - Flying Tigers: Gentle Paws—Sharp Claws 24th Special Operations Wing - Los Profesionales 25th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing - Guard With Power 26th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing - Saber Es Poder 27th Special Operations Wing - Intelligent Strength 28th Bombardment Wing - Guardian of the North 31st Tactical Fighter Wing - Return With Honor 33rd Tactical Fighter Wing - Fire From the Clouds 35th Tactical Fighter Wing - Attack to Defend 36th Tactical Fighter Wing - Prepared to Prevail 37th Tactical Fighter Wing - Defender of the Crossroads 38th Flying Training Wing - Valor With Progress 42d Air Base Wing - Aethera Nobis 43d Strategic Wing - Willing, Ready 44th Missile Wing - Aggressor Beware 46th Test Wing - Support 48th Tactical Fighter Wing - Statute de La Liberte 49th Tactical Fighter Wing - Tutor et Ultor 50th Tactical Fighter Wing - Master of the Sky 51st Fighter Wing - Leading the Charge.
84th Combat Sustainment Wing - Cursum Perfico 86th Tactical Fighter Wing - Virtus Perdurat 89th Airlift Wing - Experto Crede 90th Missile Wing - Impavide 91st Missile Wing - Poised for Peace 92d Air Refueling Wing - Duplum Incolumitatis 94th Airlift Wing - Minuteman Wing 95th Strategic Wing - Justice with Victory 96th Test Wing - E Sempre L'ora 97th Air Mobility Wing (formerly 97th Bombardment Wing - Venit Hora 98th Strategic Wing - Force for Freedom 99th Bombardment Wing - Caveant Aggressores 100th Air Refueling Wing - Peace Through Strength 301st Air Refueling Wing - Who Fears? 302d Airlift Wing - Justem et Tenacem 303d Aeronautical Systems Wing - Might in Flight 305th Air Mobility Wing - Can Do 582d Air Resupply and Communications Wing - Libertas Per Veritatem 306t
Niclas Sahlgren, was a Swedish merchant and philanthropist. Born into a wealthy merchant family in Gothenburg, Sahlgren was sent at the age of 16 as an apprentice to the Tietzen & Schröder trading house in Amsterdam, where he learned languages and other aspects of trade. Several additional years of travels on the European continent, to England, in Sweden, gained him experience, knowledge of natural resources and important contacts, he settled in Gothenburg again on the death of his mother and became a burgess of Gothenburg in 1733. He was one of the founders of the Swedish East India Company and one of its directors from 1733 to 1768. A large part of his wealth, left for the creation of a benefactory institution of some kind, was used to found a hospital named after Sahlgren in Gothenburg, the present Sahlgrenska University Hospital. In 1773, Sahlgren was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Niklas Stenlås, "Sahlgren, Nicolaus", vol. 31, p. 241ff