Emily Elizabeth Dickinson was an American poet. Dickinson was born in Amherst, Massachusetts into a prominent family with strong ties to its community. After studying at the Amherst Academy for seven years in her youth, she attended the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary before returning to her family's house in Amherst; some argue. Considered an eccentric by locals, she developed a noted penchant for white clothing and became known for her reluctance to greet guests or in life, to leave her bedroom. Dickinson never married, most friendships between her and others depended upon correspondence. While Dickinson was a prolific private poet, fewer than a dozen of her nearly 1,800 poems were published during her lifetime; the work, published during her lifetime was altered by the publishers to fit the conventional poetic rules of the time. Her poems are unique for the era. Many of her poems deal with themes of death and immortality, two recurring topics in letters to her friends. Although Dickinson's acquaintances were most aware of her writing, it was not until after her death in 1886—when Lavinia, Dickinson's younger sister, discovered her cache of poems—that the breadth of her work became apparent to the public.
Her first collection of poetry was published in 1890 by personal acquaintances Thomas Wentworth Higginson and Mabel Loomis Todd, though both edited the content. A 1998 New York Times article revealed that of the many edits made to Dickinson's work, the name "Susan" was deliberately removed. At least 11 of Dickinson's poems were dedicated to sister-in-law Susan Huntington Gilbert Dickinson, though all the dedications were obliterated by Todd. A complete, unaltered, collection of her poetry became available for the first time when scholar Thomas H. Johnson published The Poems of Emily Dickinson in 1955. Emily Elizabeth Dickinson was born at the family's homestead in Amherst, Massachusetts, on December 10, 1830, into a prominent, but not wealthy, family, her father, Edward Dickinson was a trustee of Amherst College. Two hundred years earlier, her patrilineal ancestors had arrived in the New World—in the Puritan Great Migration—where they prospered. Emily Dickinson's paternal grandfather, Samuel Dickinson, was one of the founders of Amherst College.
In 1813, he built the Homestead, a large mansion on the town's Main Street, that became the focus of Dickinson family life for the better part of a century. Samuel Dickinson's eldest son, was treasurer of Amherst College for nearly forty years, served numerous terms as a State Legislator, represented the Hampshire district in the United States Congress. On May 6, 1828, he married Emily Norcross from Monson, they had three children: William Austin, known as Austin, Aust or Awe Emily Elizabeth Lavinia Norcross, known as Lavinia or VinnieBy all accounts, young Emily was a well-behaved girl. On an extended visit to Monson when she was two, Emily's Aunt Lavinia described Emily as "perfectly well & contented—She is a good child & but little trouble." Emily's aunt noted the girl's affinity for music and her particular talent for the piano, which she called "the moosic". Dickinson attended primary school in a two-story building on Pleasant Street, her education was "ambitiously classical for a Victorian girl".
Her father wanted his children well-educated and he followed their progress while away on business. When Emily was seven, he wrote home, reminding his children to "keep school, learn, so as to tell me, when I come home, how many new things you have learned". While Emily described her father in a warm manner, her correspondence suggests that her mother was cold and aloof. In a letter to a confidante, Emily wrote she "always ran Home to Awe when a child, if anything befell me, he was an awful Mother, but I liked him better than none."On September 7, 1840, Dickinson and her sister Lavinia started together at Amherst Academy, a former boys' school that had opened to female students just two years earlier. At about the same time, her father purchased a house on North Pleasant Street. Emily's brother Austin described this large new home as the "mansion" over which he and Emily presided as "lord and lady" while their parents were absent; the house overlooked Amherst's burial ground, described by one local minister as treeless and "forbidding".
Dickinson spent seven years at the Academy, taking classes in English and classical literature, botany, history, "mental philosophy," and arithmetic. Daniel Taggart Fiske, the school's principal at the time, would recall that Dickinson was "very bright" and "an excellent scholar, of exemplary deportment, faithful in all school duties". Although she had a few terms off due to illness—the longest of, in 1845–1846, when she was enrolled for only eleven weeks—she enjoyed her strenuous studies, writing to a friend that the Academy was "a fine school". Dickinson was troubled from a young age by the "deepening menace" of death the deaths of those who were close to her; when Sophia Holland, her second cousin and a close friend, grew ill from typhus and died in April 1844, Emily was traumatized. Recalling the incident two years Emily wrote that "it seemed to me I should die too if I could not be permitted to watch over her or look at her face." She became so melancholic. With her health and spirits restored, she soon returned to Amherst A
In English literature, an elegy is a poem of serious reflection a lament for the dead. The Oxford Handbook of the Elegy notes: For all of its pervasiveness, the ‘elegy’ remains remarkably ill-defined: sometimes used as a catch-all to denominate texts of a somber or pessimistic tone, sometimes as a marker for textual monumentalizing, sometimes as a sign of a lament for the dead; the Greek term elegeia referred to any verse written in elegiac couplets and covering a wide range of subject matter. The term included epitaphs and mournful songs, commemorative verses; the Latin elegy of ancient Roman literature was most erotic or mythological in nature. Because of its structural potential for rhetorical effects, the elegiac couplet was used by both Greek and Roman poets for witty and satiric subject matter. Other than epitaphs, examples of ancient elegy as a poem of mourning include Catullus' Carmen 101, on his dead brother, elegies by Propertius on his dead mistress Cynthia and a matriarch of the prominent Cornelian family.
Ovid wrote elegies bemoaning his exile. In English literature, the more modern and restricted meaning, of a lament for a departed beloved or tragic event, has been current only since the sixteenth century; this looser concept is evident in the Old English Exeter Book which contains "serious meditative" and well-known poems such as "The Wanderer", "The Seafarer", "The Wife's Lament". In these elegies, the narrators use the lyrical "I" to describe their own personal and mournful experiences, they tell the story of the individual rather than the collective lore of his or her people as epic poetry seeks to tell. For Samuel Taylor Coleridge and others, the term had come to mean "serious meditative poem": Elegy is a form of poetry natural to the reflective mind, it may treat of any subject. As he will feel regret for the past or desire for the future, so sorrow and love became the principal themes of the elegy. Elegy presents every thing as lost and gone or absent and future. A famous example of elegy is Thomas Gray's Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard.
In French the most famous elegy is Le Lac by Alphonse de Lamartine."Elegy" may denote a type of musical work of a sad or somber nature. A well-known example is Op. 10, by Jules Massenet. This was written for piano, as a student work. Dirge Elegiac Funeral march Keening Kommós Lament Marsiya Noha Obituary poetry Pastoral elegy history Poetry Rithā' Soaz Threnody Ağıt Casey, Brian. "Genres and Styles," in Funeral Music Genres: With a Stylistic/Topical Lexicon and Transcriptions for a Variety of Instrumental Ensembles. University Press, Inc. Cavitch, Max. American Elegy: The Poetry of Mourning from the Puritans to Whitman. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-4893-X. Ramazani, Jahan. Poetry of Mourning: The Modern Elegy from Hardy to Heaney. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-70340-1. Sacks, Peter M.. The English Elegy: Studies in the Genre from Spenser to Yeats. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-3471-6. Media related to Elegies at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of elegy at Wiktionary Elegy Explained at Literary Devices
Robert Hayman was a poet and Proprietary Governor of Bristol's Hope colony in Newfoundland. Hayman was born in Wolborough near Newton Abbot, the eldest of nine children, his mother was Alice Gaverocke and his father, Nicholas Hayman, a prosperous citizen and mayor and MP of both Totnes and Dartmouth. By 1579 the family was living in Totnes, where in the high street Hayman as a small boy met Sir Francis Drake, who presented him with an orange. According to the 17th-century historian Anthony Wood Hayman was educated at Exeter College and the college register shows him matriculating on 15 October 1590, he according to Wood, "retired to Lincolns-inn, without the honour of a degree": but here Wood is incorrect, as Hayman commenced B. A. on 8 July 1596. He was admitted as a law student to Lincoln's Inn on 16 October 1596, again according to Wood, he "studied for a time the municipal law", though modern researches find no evidence of this or of any intention to qualify as a lawyer. In his supplication for B.
A. Hayman had mentioned a plan to travel and study in Europe, this happened, as in a letter his father wrote to Robert Cecil in 1600 he states that he hoped for a career for his son in some government office, that towards this end he had educated him at both Oxford University and at Poitiers. Wood explains that "his geny being well known to be poetical, fell into acquaintance with" a literary circle which included Ben Jonson, Michael Drayton, John Donne, George Wither, John Owen and others; these encouraged his literary efforts with the result, according to Wood, that Hayman had "the general vogue of a poet". Because of these distractions Hayman seems not to have achieved any significant public office in England. Although Edward Sharpham dedicated a play to him in 1607 there is nothing further known about his activities for twenty years until he emerges as a venturer and colonist to the new world. Hayman was married on 21 May 1604 at St Petroc's Church, Exeter, to Grace Spicer, daughter of a prominent merchant of Exeter.
Several of the poems published in the book'Quodlibets' however are dedicated to other members of the Spicer family, so he remained on friendly terms with them. Hayman was appointed the Newfoundland colony's first and only governor in 1618 when Bristol's Society of Merchant Venturers received a charter from King James I of England to establish the settlement. Hayman's brother-in-law John Barker was the society's master. Hayman lived in the colony for fifteen months before returning to England and visited again over several summers until his tenure as governor ended in 1628. Much of his work was in England raising money for the settlement, publicizing it and encouraging more colonisation efforts. In 1628 he petitioned the king's favourite the Duke of Buckingham to forward a "Proposition of profitt and honor" to the king which set out the need to encourage continued colonization of Newfoundland, which mentioned a plan to build a settlement to be called'Carolinople'; as Newfoundland's first poet in English, Hayman is remembered for his writings extolling the island, its climate and its early English pioneers.
In his leisure hours as governor in Harbour Grace he composed a work published in England as Quodlibets. Quodlibets was the first book in the English language written in; some of it consisted of original short poems by Hayman, some of translations, both of Latin poems by John Owen and of French prose by Rabelais. It was published in London in 1628 as part of Hayman's attempts to raise interest in the colony. Although Hayman remained committed to Newfoundland he was interested in other colonial ventures, including one to Guyana under the direction of Robert Harcourt. Having arranged his financial affairs he made his will late in the fall of 1628 and left in the Little Hopewell for the Amazon. By February 1629 he was in Guiana looking into using the river'Wiapoco' as a trading route, it was while travelling up the Oyapock by canoe that Hayman died of a sudden fever and was hastily buried by his companions near the banks of the river, on or about 17 October 1629. His will and sealed on 17 November 1628 but not proved until 1633, leaves his estate to "my loving Cosin and Nephew Thomas Muchell of Longaston in the Countie of Somersett...".
His will mentions two "policies of insurance" taken out with the diocesan chancellor of London, Arthur Duck. Of the value of £100 each, one related to the safe arrival of Hayman's ship in Guiana and the other was "of one hundred pounds assured by the said Doctor Arthur Ducke on my life". List of Newfoundland and Labrador lieutenant-governors Proprietary Governor Government House The Governorship of Newfoundland and Labrador Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online The complete text of Qvodlibets
Graffiti is writing or drawings made on a wall or other surface without permission and within public view. Graffiti ranges from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings, it has existed since ancient times, with examples dating back to ancient Egypt, ancient Greece, the Roman Empire. In modern times and marker pens have become the most used graffiti materials. In most countries, marking or painting property without the property owner's permission is considered defacement and vandalism, a punishable crime. Unrelated to hip-hop graffiti, gangs use their own form of graffiti to mark territory or to serve as an indicator of gang-related activities. Controversies that surround graffiti continue to create disagreement amongst city officials, law enforcement, writers who wish to display and appreciate work in public locations. There are many different styles of graffiti. Both "graffiti" and its occasional singular form "graffito" are from the Italian word graffiato. "Graffiti" is applied in art history to works of art produced by scratching a design into a surface.
A related term is "sgraffito", which involves scratching through one layer of pigment to reveal another beneath it. This technique was used by potters who would glaze their wares and scratch a design into it. In ancient times graffiti were carved on walls with a sharp object, although sometimes chalk or coal were used; the word originates from Greek γράφειν—graphein—meaning "to write". The term graffiti referred to the inscriptions, figure drawings, such, found on the walls of ancient sepulchres or ruins, as in the Catacombs of Rome or at Pompeii. Use of the word has evolved to include any graphics applied to surfaces in a manner that constitutes vandalism; the only known source of the Safaitic language, a form of proto-Arabic, is from graffiti: inscriptions scratched on to the surface of rocks and boulders in the predominantly basalt desert of southern Syria, eastern Jordan and northern Saudi Arabia. Safaitic dates from the first century BC to the fourth century AD; the first known example of "modern style" graffiti survives in the ancient Greek city of Ephesus.
Local guides say. Located near a mosaic and stone walkway, the graffiti shows a handprint that vaguely resembles a heart, along with a footprint, a number, a carved image of a woman's head; the ancient Romans carved graffiti on walls and monuments, examples of which survive in Egypt. Graffiti in the classical world had different connotations than they carry in today's society concerning content. Ancient graffiti displayed phrases of love declarations, political rhetoric, simple words of thought, compared to today's popular messages of social and political ideals The eruption of Vesuvius preserved graffiti in Pompeii, which includes Latin curses, magic spells, declarations of love, political slogans, famous literary quotes, providing insight into ancient Roman street life. One inscription gives the address of a woman named Novellia Primigenia of Nuceria, a prostitute of great beauty, whose services were much in demand. Another shows a phallus accompanied by mansueta tene. Disappointed love found its way onto walls in antiquity: Ancient tourists visiting the 5th-century citadel at Sigiriya in Sri Lanka scribbled over 1800 individual graffiti there between the 6th and 18th centuries.
Etched on the surface of the Mirror Wall, they contain pieces of prose and commentary. The majority of these visitors appear to have been from the elite of society: royalty, officials and clergy. There were soldiers and some metalworkers; the topics range from love to satire, curses and lament. Many demonstrate a high level of literacy and a deep appreciation of art and poetry. Most of the graffiti refer to the frescoes of semi-nude females found there. One reads: Among the ancient political graffiti examples were Arab satirist poems. Yazid al-Himyari, an Umayyad Arab and Persian poet, was most known for writing his political poetry on the walls between Sajistan and Basra, manifesting a strong hatred towards the Umayyad regime and its walis, people used to read and circulate them widely. Historic forms of graffiti have helped gain understanding into the lifestyles and languages of past cultures. Errors in spelling and grammar in these graffiti offer insight into the degree of literacy in Roman times and provide clues on the pronunciation of spoken Latin.
Examples are 7838: Vettium Firmum / aed quactiliar rog. Here, "qu" is pronounced "co"; the 83 pieces of graffiti found at CIL IV, 4706-85 are evidence of the ability to read and write at levels of society where literacy might not be expected. The graffiti appear on a peristyle, being remodeled at the time of the eruption of Vesuvius by the architect Crescens; the graffiti were left by his workers. The brothel at CIL VII, 12, 18–20 contains more than 120 pieces of graffiti, some of which were the work of the prostitutes and their clients; the gladiatorial academy at CIL IV, 4397 was scrawled with graffiti left by the gladiator Celadus Crescens Another piece from Pompeii, written on a tavern wall about the owner of the establishment and his questionable wine: It was not only the Greeks and Romans who produced graffiti: the Maya s
Marcus Valerius Martialis was a Roman poet from Hispania best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian and Trajan. In these short, witty poems he cheerfully satirises city life and the scandalous activities of his acquaintances, romanticises his provincial upbringing, he wrote a total of 1,561 epigrams. Martial has been called the greatest Latin epigrammatist, is considered the creator of the modern epigram. Knowledge of his origins and early life are derived entirely from his works, which can be more or less dated according to the well-known events to which they refer. In Book X of his Epigrams, composed between 95 and 98, he mentions celebrating his fifty-seventh birthday, his place of birth was Augusta Bilbilis in Hispania Tarraconensis. His parents and Flaccilla, appear to have died in his youth, his name seems to imply that he was born a Roman citizen, but he speaks of himself as "sprung from the Celts and Iberians, a countryman of the Tagus".
His home was evidently one of rude comfort and plenty, sufficiently in the country to afford him the amusements of hunting and fishing, which he recalls with keen pleasure, sufficiently near the town to afford him the companionship of many comrades, the few survivors of whom he looks forward to meeting again after his thirty-four years' absence. The memories of this old home, of other spots, the rough names and local associations which he delights to introduce into his verse, attest to the simple pleasures of his early life and were among the influences which kept his spirit alive in the stultifying routines of upper-crust social life in Rome, he was educated in Hispania, a part of the Roman Empire which in the 1st century produced several notable Latin writers, including Seneca the Elder and Seneca the Younger and Quintilian, Martial's contemporaries Licinianus of Bilbilis, Decianus of Emerita and Canius of Gades. Martial professes to be of the school of Catullus and Marsus; the epigram bears to this day the form impressed upon it by his unrivalled skill in wordsmithing.
The success of his countrymen may have been what motivated Martial to move to Rome, from Hispania, once he had completed his education. This move occurred in AD 64. Seneca the Younger and Lucan may have served as his first patrons. Not much is known of the details of his life for the first twenty years or so, he published some juvenile poems of which he thought little in his years, he chuckles at a foolish bookseller who would not allow them to die a natural death. His faculty ripened with experience and with the knowledge of that social life, both his theme and his inspiration. From many answers which he makes to the remonstrances of friends—among others to those of Quintilian—it may be inferred that he was urged to practice at the bar, but that he preferred his own lazy, some would say Bohemian kind of life, he secured the favor of both Titus and Domitian. From them he obtained various privileges, among others the semestris tribunatus, which conferred on him equestrian rank. Martial failed, however, in his application to Domitian for more substantial advantages, although he commemorates the glory of having been invited to dinner by him, the fact that he procured the privilege of citizenship for many persons on whose behalf he appealed to him.
The earliest of his extant works, known as Liber spectaculorum, was first published at the opening of the Colosseum in the reign of Titus. It relates to the theatrical performances given by him, but the book as it now stands was published about the first year of Domitian, i.e. about the year 81. The favour of the emperor procured him the countenance of some of the worst creatures at the imperial court—among them of the notorious Crispinus, of Paris, the supposed author of Juvenal's exile, for whose monument Martial afterwards wrote a eulogistic epitaph; the two books, numbered by editors XIII and XIV, known by the names of Xenia and Apophoreta—inscriptions in two lines each for presents—were published at the Saturnalia of 84. In 86 he produced the first two of the twelve books. From that time till his return to Hispania in 98 he published a volume every year; the first nine books and the first edition of Book X appeared in the reign of Domitian. A revised edition of book X, that which we now possess, appeared in 98, about the time of Trajan's entrance into Rome.
The last book was written after three years' absence in Hispania, shortly before his death about the year 102 or 103. These twelve books bring Martial's ordinary mode of life between the age of forty-five and sixty before us, his regular home for thirty-five years was the bustle of metropolitan Rome. He lived at first up three flights of stairs, his "garret" overlooked the laurels in front of the portico of Agrippa, he had a small villa and unproductive farm near Nomentum, in the Sabine territory, to which he retired from the pestilence and noises of the city. In his years he had a small house on the Quirinal, near the temple of Quirinus. At the t
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, the Near East. The popularization of this periodization in English has been accredited to historian Peter Brown, after the publication of his seminal work The World of Late Antiquity. Precise boundaries for the period are a continuing matter of debate, but Brown proposes a period between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century to, in the East, the early Muslim conquests in the mid-7th century. In the West the end was earlier, with the start of the Early Middle Ages placed in the 6th century, or earlier on the edges of the Western Roman Empire; the Roman Empire underwent considerable social and organizational changes starting with the reign of Diocletian, who began the custom of splitting the Empire into Eastern and Western halves ruled by multiple emperors.
Beginning with Constantine the Great, Christianity was made legal in the Empire, a new capital was founded at Constantinople. Migrations of Germanic tribes disrupted Roman rule from the late 4th century onwards, culminating in the eventual collapse of the Empire in the West in 476, replaced by the so-called barbarian kingdoms; the resultant cultural fusion of Greco-Roman and Christian traditions formed the foundations of the subsequent culture of Europe. The term Spätantike "late antiquity", has been used by German-speaking historians since its popularization by Alois Riegl in the early 20th century, it was given currency in English by the writings of Peter Brown, whose survey The World of Late Antiquity revised the post-Gibbon view of a stale and ossified Classical culture, in favour of a vibrant time of renewals and beginnings, whose The Making of Late Antiquity offered a new paradigm of understanding the changes in Western culture of the time in order to confront Sir Richard Southern's The Making of the Middle Ages.
The continuities between the Roman Empire, as it was reorganized by Diocletian, the Early Middle Ages are stressed by writers who wish to emphasize that the seeds of medieval culture were developing in the Christianized empire, that they continued to do so in the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantine Empire at least until the coming of Islam. Concurrently, some migrating Germanic tribes such as the Ostrogoths and Visigoths saw themselves as perpetuating the "Roman" tradition. While the usage "Late Antiquity" suggests that the social and cultural priorities of Classical Antiquity endured throughout Europe into the Middle Ages, the usage of "Early Middle Ages" or "Early Byzantine" emphasizes a break with the classical past, the term "Migration Period" tends to de-emphasize the disruptions in the former Western Roman Empire caused by the creation of Germanic kingdoms within her borders beginning with the foedus with the Goths in Aquitania in 418; the general decline of population, technological knowledge and standards of living in Europe during this period became the archetypal example of societal collapse for writers from the Renaissance.
As a result of this decline, the relative scarcity of historical records from Europe in particular, the period from the early fifth century until the Carolingian Renaissance was referred to as the "Dark Ages". This term has been abandoned as a name for a historiographical epoch, being replaced by "Late Antiquity" in the periodization of the late West Roman Empire, the early Byzantine empire and the Early Middle Ages. One of the most important transformations in Late Antiquity was the formation and evolution of the Abrahamic religions: Christianity, Rabbinic Judaism and Islam. A milestone in the rise of Christianity was the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great in 312, as claimed by his Christian panegyrist Eusebius of Caesarea, although the sincerity of his conversion is debated. Constantine confirmed the legalization of the religion through the so-called Edict of Milan in 313, jointly issued with his rival in the East, Licinius. By the late 4th century, Emperor Theodosius the Great had made Christianity the State religion, thereby transforming the Classical Roman world, which Peter Brown characterized as "rustling with the presence of many divine spirits."Constantine I was a key figure in many important events in Christian history, as he convened and attended the first ecumenical council of bishops at Nicaea in 325, subsidized the building of churches and sanctuaries such as the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, involved himself in questions such as the timing of Christ's resurrection and its relation to the Passover.
The birth of Christian monasticism in the deserts of Egypt in the 3rd century, which operated outside the episcopal authority of the Church, would become so successful that by the 8th century it penetrated the Church and became the primary Christian practice. Monasticism was not the only new Christian movement to appear in late antiquity, although it had the greatest influence. Other movements notable for their unconventional practices include the Grazers, holy men who ate only grass and chained themselves up. Late Antiquity marks the decline of Roman state religion, circumscribed in degrees by edicts inspired by Christian advisors such as Eusebius to 4th century emperors, a period of dynamic religious experimentation and spirituality with many syncretic sects, some formed centuries earl
The Byzantine Empire referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic and military force in Europe. Both the terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed.
Under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin. Thus, although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity; the borders of the empire evolved over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I, the empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries; the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 exhausted the empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, when it lost its richest provinces and Syria, to the Arab caliphate. During the Macedonian dynasty, the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia. The empire recovered during the Komnenian restoration, by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence, its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 ended the Byzantine Empire; the last of the imperial Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Trebizond, would be conquered by the Ottomans eight years in the 1461 Siege of Trebizond. The first use of the term "Byzantine" to label the years of the Roman Empire was in 1557, when the German historian Hieronymus Wolf published his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ, a collection of historical sources.
The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts; the publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, in 1680 of Du Cange's Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of "Byzantine" among French authors, such as Montesquieu. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world; the Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the "Roman Empire", the "Empire of the Romans", "Romania", the "Roman Republic", as "Rhōmais". The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and as late as the 19th century Greeks referred to Modern Greek as Romaiika "Romaic." After 1204 when the Byzantine Empire was confined to its purely Greek provinces the term'Hellenes' was used instead. While the Byzantine Empire had a multi-ethnic character during most of its history and preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions, it became identified by its western and northern contemporaries with its predominant Greek element.
The occasional use of the term "Empire of the Greeks" in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum were used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more straightforwardly seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known as Rûm; the name millet-i Rûm, or "Roman nation," was used by the Ottomans through the 20th century to refer to the former subjects of the Byzantine Empire