An epitaph is a short text honoring a deceased person. Speaking, it refers to text, inscribed on a tombstone or plaque, but it may be used in a figurative sense; some epitaphs are specified by the person themselves before their death, while others are chosen by those responsible for the burial. An epitaph may be written in poem verse. Most epitaphs are brief records of the family, the career, of the deceased with a common expression of love or respect—for example, "beloved father of..."—but others are more ambitious. From the Renaissance to the 19th century in Western culture, epitaphs for notable people became lengthy and pompous descriptions of their family origins, career and immediate family in Latin. Notably, the Laudatio Turiae, the longest known Ancient Roman epitaph, exceeds all of these at 180 lines; some aphorisms. One approach of many epitaphs is to warn them about their own mortality. A wry trick of others is to request the reader to get off their resting place, inasmuch as the reader would have to be standing on the ground above the coffin to read the inscription.
Some record achievements. Nearly all note name, year or date of birth, date of death. Many list family members and the relationship of the deceased to them. Stock phrases or standard elements present in epitaphs on mediaeval church monuments and ledger stones in England include: Hic jacet..... cuius animae propitietur deus amen Memoriae sacrum... / MS Requiescat in pace / RIP Good frend for Iesvs sake forebeare, To digg the dvst encloased heare. Bleste be man spares thes stones, And cvrst be he moves my bones.: Good friend for Jesus' sake forbear, To dig the dust enclosed here. Blessed be the man that spares these stones. William ShakespeareHere lies One whose Name was writ in Water John KeatsCast a cold eyeOn life, on death. Horseman, pass by! W. B. YeatsHeroes and Kings your distance keep. Alexander PopeSleep after toyle, port after stormie seas, Ease after warre, death after life, does please. Joseph Conrad Homo sum! the adventurer D. H. LawrenceAgainst you I will fling myself and unyielding, O Death!
Virginia Woolf Looking into the portals of eternity teaches that The brotherhood of man is inspired by God's word. George WashingtonOh God Mahatma Gandhi I've stopped getting dumber. Paul ErdősWe must know. We will know. David Hilbert Go tell the Spartans, stranger passing by that here, obedient to their law, we lie. Simonides's epigram honoring the 300 at ThermopylaeHere sleeps at peace a Hampshire Grenadier Who caught his early death by drinking cold small beer. Soldiers, be wise at his untimely fall, And when you're hot, drink none at all. Thomas Thetcher tombstone epitaph in Winchester CathedralTo save your world you asked this man to die: Would this man, could he see you now, ask why? Epitaph for the Unknown Soldier, written by W. H. AudenThere is borne an empty hearse covered over for such as appear not. Heroes have the whole earth for their tomb. Unknown Soldier's epitaph, Athens. Sonny BonoThat's all folks! Mel BlancI told you. Spike Milligan He never killed a man. Gunfighter Clay Allison In a more figurative sense, the term may be used for music composed in memory of the deceased.
Igor Stravinsky composed in 1958 Epitaphium for flute and harp. In 1967 Krzysztof Meyer called his Symphony No. 2 for choir and orchestra Epitaphium Stanisław Wiechowicz in memoriam. Jeffrey Lewis composed Epitaphium – Children of the Sun for narrator, chamber choir, flute and percussion. In 1969, King Crimson released the song Epitaph. Bronius Kutavičius composed in 1998 Epitaphium temporum pereunti. Valentin Silvestrov composed in 1999 Epitaph L. B. for viola and piano. In 2007 Graham Waterhouse composed Epitaphium for string trio as a tribute to the memory of his father William Waterhouse; the South African poet Gert Vlok Nel wrote an untitled song, which appeared on his first music album'Beaufort-Wes se Beautiful Woorde' as'Epitaph', because his producer Eckard Potgieter told him that the song sounded like an epitaph. David Bowie's final album, released in 2016, is seen as his musical epitaph, with singles "Blackstar" and "Lazarus" singled out. In the late 1990s, a unique epitaph was flown to the moon along with the ashes of geologist and planetary scientist Eugene Shoemaker.
David Pieterse Schuyler was a Dutch-born member of the Schuyler family. He was a fur trader, Alderman of Albany and merchant. Schuyler was born in the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, in 1636 as the son of Pieter Tjercks and Geertruyt Philips Van Schuylder, his brother was Philip Pieterse Schuyler, the progenitor of the Schuyler family, the ancestor of the descendants of founding father Alexander Hamilton with his wife Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton. Schuyler was married to Catharina Verplanck in 1657 at the New Amsterdam Dutch Church, daughter of Dutch-born Abraham Isaacsen Verplanck and French-born Maria de la Vigne, they had 8 children between 1659 and 1678. David Pieterse Schuyler died before 29 Nov 1692, his wife Catharina died between 1699, when she petitioned for an addition of 14 feet to her lot, 1709, when the lot was occupied by her sons Their children included Myndert Schuyler, Mayor of Albany and David Davidse Schuyler, a fur trader as well as a Mayor of Albany. Judge Peter Schuyler was born April 18, 1659.
He married niece of Margaretta Schuyler, wife of Philip Pieterse Schuyler. They had 7 children, he died on March 7, 1696 at the young age of 36. Catylyn Schuyler was born in 1659, she married Johannes Abeel. She was the great-grandmother of Cornplanter. Geertruyt Schuyler grew up in Albany, she had 6 children. She was a regular baptism sponsor at the Albany Dutch Church. In 1688, she was named an heir in the will of her father. Abraham Davidse Schuyler was born August 16, 1663, he married Geertruy ten Broeck, the daughter of Major Dirck Wesselse ten Broeck, Mayor of Albany. Two of Geertruy's brothers married daughters of Hendrick van Rensselaer, he represented his fathers trading interests in the Indian Country. They had five children, he lived with the Seneca people for a while, but when his father died he returned to Albany to take care of the business. In 1709, he and his cousin Pieter Schuyler as well as 4 Mohawk chiefs went to see Queen Anne, he died on July 1726 after a brief illness in Seneca country.
Maria Schuyler was born September 1666 in Albany. She married Dr. Hendrick van Dyck and they had four children, she died on June 1742 in Kinderhook, New York. David Davidse Schuyler was born June 1669 at Schuyler Flatts, he married the great granddaughter of Albert Andriessen Bratt. They had six children. Myndert Schuyler was born January 16, 1672, he married Rachel Cuyler and they had one child named Anna, who married Johannes de Peyster III. He served the Albany government as a juror, constable and mayor. Jacob Davidtse Schuyler was born June 14, 1675, he was married to Catharina Wendell. She died, so he remarried Susanna Wendell and they had two children. Beginning in 1697, he served the community as a constable for the third and as a firemaster and juror. In 1702, his third ward property was taxed at a rate comparable to a moderately successful merchant, he died on March 27, 1707 at the young age of 31. His second great-granddaughter, Maria Helen Roosevelt was the second great grandmother of First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt.
His great-grandson Johannes Abeel was the father of the Seneca war chief Cornplanter. Some of his other descendants and relatives married into families such as the van Rensselear family and the Roosevelt family. Schuyler family
The Battle of Košare was fought during the Kosovo War between the FR Yugoslav Forces and the Kosovo Liberation Army, the latter supported by the NATO air forces and Albanian Army. The battle was fought around Košare on the border between FR Yugoslavia and Albania from 9 April until 10 June during the NATO bombing of FR Yugoslavia; the KLA sought to enter Kosovo from Albania and cut off of the communication routes of the Yugoslav Army, take over of the region of Metohija. After days of heavy fighting, the Yugoslav Army kept the KLA from advancing into Kosovo. KLA insurgents managed to take the Košare outpost following a massive artillery barrage by the Albanian Army and NATO airstrikes of Yugoslav strategic sites, but were unable to break the Yugoslav Army's second line of defense; the KLA was supported by the Albanian Army and NATO. The Albanian Army supported with NATO with air support. On 9 April 1999, at 03:00, an artillery barrage began from the Albanian side of the border, aimed in the direction of the Košare military outpost, occupied by the Yugoslav Army.
The Albanians attacked in three directions, the first was towards Rrasa e Koshares, the second was towards the well-defended Košare outpost and the third was towards Maja Glava. 136 KLA soldiers reached the border and attacked Yugoslav positions. At that time less than 200 members of the Yugoslav Army were stationed at the front line. Bloody fighting ensued and lasted the whole day with 4 dead and one wounded on the Albanian side and 23 dead on the Yugoslav side; the KLA seized the peak of Rrasa e Koshares and began entrenching themselves. Serbian reports claim that the KLA insurgents were assisted by British, French and Italian special forces; the battle continued all night until the next morning. With massive artillery support, the KLA took Maja Glava and continued to bombard the Košare Outpost, which resulted in the Yugoslav soldiers having to abandon their posts. At 19:00, members of the KLA entered the abandoned outpost and CNN and the British BBC broadcast images of a great number of KLA militants taking the outpost.
Members of the Yugoslav Forces retreated towards the second line of defense above the outpost. Those positions were much more easier to defend; the next day, Yugoslav reserve troops arrived to relieve the First Army. One batch of KLA soldiers managed to cut the Yugoslav line of communications, managed to disable one BOV armoured personnel carrier. During the night, the KLA attacked the Yugoslav Army at Opijaz, trying to shatter the resistance of the Yugoslav soldiers, but all of the attacks were unsuccessful and resulted in the Yugoslav Army inflicting heavy losses on the KLA insurgents; the next day, the KLA tried to break the resistance of the second defensive line of the Yugoslav Army, with little success. Meanwhile, the Yugoslavs managed to bring in their Special Forces and a few artillery pieces. On 13 April, the Yugoslav and Albanian armies clashed at the border near Krumë. Albanian Army and KLA artillery continued to shell the Yugoslav Army's positions from Maja Glava and Rrasa e Koshares.
The Yugoslav Army Headquarters decided to surprise the enemy. On April 14, Yugoslav troops attacked Maja Glava; the distance between the two enemy trenches wasn't longer than 50 meters. The Yugoslav Army was unable to take Maja Glava but it prevented the Albanians' artillery from engaging them from their positions; the Maja Glava front was stabilized without any changes on the lines. In April, there weren't any changes on the front lines at Rrasa e Koshares and both sides suffered heavy losses. Many Yugoslav soldiers were killed by the non-stop artillery bombardment, while many KLA soldiers were killed in numerous unsuccessful attempts to break the Yugoslav lines of defense. May began with several unsuccessful attacks by the Yugoslav Army to take back the Košare outpost; the attacks were made unsuccessful because of the constant artillery fire aimed at their positions. On the 6th of May, the Yugoslav Army counterattacked at Rrasa e Koshares, in an effort to halt the artillery bombardment. A bloody skirmish ensued.
On 10 May, the Yugoslav Army sent two T-55 tanks to help stabilize the offensive on Rrasa e Koshares. When the tanks penetrated the KLA's lines, they advanced over 100 meters into insurgent-held territory, but the KLA still managed to retain control of Rrasa e Koshares. During the night of 10/11 May, NATO bombers dropped dozens of bombs on the Yugoslav troops who had attacked KLA positions around Rrasa e Koshares. At least in two of these instances NATO dropped cluster bombs on Yugoslav army troops. In these attacks, NATO killed eight Yugoslav soldiers and one officer and managed to wound over 40; the KLA seized the opportunity to attack and fought the Yugoslav soldiers out of their positions and forced them back. During the middle of May, many bloody skirmishes were fought at Mrcaj, taken by the Yugoslav Army. After the Yugoslavs had inflicted some casualties on the insurgents, the KLA had to retreat from their positions giving the Yugoslavs the chance to take the now undefended position; this development allowed the Yugoslav Army to stabilize their position on the battlefield and to hold the attackers outside of their line of defense.
On 22 May, NATO aircraft mistakenly bombed KLA positions, killing 67. Throughout May, NATO conducted air operations against Serbian targets in Kosovo and Serbia, some which included collateral damage–death of civilians; the Kosovo War lasted until 10 June. The Kumanovo Agreement was signed and the Yugoslav Army and police-for