The Wonder Years
The Wonder Years is an American coming-of-age comedy-drama television series created by Neal Marlens and Carol Black. It ran on ABC from March 15, 1988 until May 12, 1993; the pilot aired on January 31, 1988, following ABC's coverage of Super Bowl XXII. It stars Fred Savage as Kevin Arnold, an adolescent boy growing up in a suburban middle-class family, takes place from 1968 to 1973; the show earned a spot in the Nielsen Top 30 during its first four seasons. TV Guide named it one of the 20 best shows of the 1980s. After six episodes, The Wonder Years won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Comedy Series in 1988. In addition, at age 13, Fred Savage became the youngest actor nominated as Outstanding Lead Actor for a Comedy Series; the show was awarded a Peabody Award in 1989 for "pushing the boundaries of the sitcom format and using new modes of storytelling". In total, the series was nominated for 54 more. In 1997, "My Father's Office" was ranked #29 on TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time, in the 2009 revised list the pilot episode was ranked #43.
In 2016, Rolling Stone ranked The Wonder Years #63 on its list of 100 Greatest TV Shows of All Time. In 2017, James Charisma of Paste ranked the show's opening sequence #14 on a list of The 75 Best TV Title Sequences of All Time; as of recent years many critics and fans consider The Wonder Years to be a classic with tremendous impact on the industry over the years, inspiring many other shows and how they are structured. The series was conceived by writers Neal Carol Black, they set out to create a family show that would appeal to the baby-boomer generation by setting the series in the late'60s, a time of radical change in America's history. They wanted the series to tie this setting in to the life of a normal boy growing up during the period. After writing the script for the pilot episode and Black began pitching the series to television networks. None of them were interested, except for ABC, with whom Black reached an agreement. Marlens had wanted the setting to be his native Huntington, Long Island, where he grew up.
Elements were taken from Black's childhood from the White Oak section of Silver Spring, Maryland. ABC, insisted that the location remain nonspecific; when they started writing the series and Black took a script for a future film that they had been toying with, which featured an off-screen narrator. Black explained, "We liked the concept that you could play with what people think and what they're saying, or how they would like to see themselves as opposed to how the audience is seeing them." They based the show, on their own childhood growing up in the suburbs. Black recalled that "we elements of our experience and them into the pot; the basic setup, the neighborhood, the era – that's the time and place where we grew up." The search for the main lead of the show did not take long. Marlens and Black interviewed them for recommendations. All five of them recommended Fred Savage, who at the time was famous for his roles as the grandson in The Princess Bride and as Charlie/Marshall in Vice Versa. Marlens and Black, having never heard of Savage, decided to see the rough cut of Vice Versa.
Said Marlens, " a marvelous actor with a natural quality – which means he has no quality at all except being a kid. It sounds funny, but it's a rare thing to find in a child actor." Marlens and Black took this approach when casting the other kids for the show, looking for natural ability rather than professionalism. According to Marlens, they saw 300 to 400 kids before narrowing it down to 70, "My wife and I made the final choice... each of whom had to be approved by the network." For the choice of Savage's character's main love interest, the choice came down to actress Danica McKellar and her sister, Crystal McKellar. With just days to go before shooting, the producers selected Danica to play Winnie Cooper. However, Mary Buck, the head of casting, noted that, "it was a tossup". Crystal McKellar was liked so much by the producers that they created the character of Becky Slater so that they could have her on the show. Danica reflected on the experience, "I auditioned, like everyone else, they had read lots of girls but hadn't found their'Winnie' yet, I was thrilled to be chosen."
At the end of the first season and Black departed from the show. Although they never gave a reason for their sudden departure, it may have been due to Black's pregnancy, she hinted at it in an interview in April 1988, saying "We have secret plans to leave Los Angeles before our kids reach the age of cognizance." One challenge for the cast and crew was filming around a child actor, meaning that the show had to obey child labor laws. Savage at the time explained, "You have to get at least three hours of school in every day. So whenever I'm on a break, I go to school. It's intense because I have to get a lot done in short periods, and it's hard every twenty minutes. If you're writing an essay and get inspired, you've got to stop and go back to work." Many exterior shots were filmed in California. As the show was in the process of wrapping its sixth and final season, a costume designer on the show named Monique Long filed a sexual harassment charge against stars Fred Savage and Jason Hervey; the suit brought a lot of unwanted publicity to the show.
In the end, the case was settled out of court, with Savage stating that he was "completely exonerated", adding that it was a "terrible experience". The Wonder Years wrapped its sixth and final season in May 1993, its cancellation was blamed on conflict
Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. It is an ancient, Abrahamic religion with the Torah as its foundational text, it encompasses the religion and culture of the Jewish people. Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenant that God established with the Children of Israel. Judaism encompasses a wide body of texts, theological positions, forms of organization; the Torah is part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible, supplemental oral tradition represented by texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud. With between 14.5 and 17.4 million adherents worldwide, Judaism is the tenth largest religion in the world. Within Judaism there are a variety of movements, most of which emerged from Rabbinic Judaism, which holds that God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah; this assertion was challenged by various groups such as the Sadducees and Hellenistic Judaism during the Second Temple period.
Modern branches of Judaism such as Humanistic Judaism may be nontheistic. Today, the largest Jewish religious movements are Orthodox Judaism, Conservative Judaism, Reform Judaism. Major sources of difference between these groups are their approaches to Jewish law, the authority of the Rabbinic tradition, the significance of the State of Israel. Orthodox Judaism maintains that the Torah and Jewish law are divine in origin and unalterable, that they should be followed. Conservative and Reform Judaism are more liberal, with Conservative Judaism promoting a more traditionalist interpretation of Judaism's requirements than Reform Judaism. A typical Reform position is that Jewish law should be viewed as a set of general guidelines rather than as a set of restrictions and obligations whose observance is required of all Jews. Special courts enforced Jewish law. Authority on theological and legal matters is not vested in any one person or organization, but in the sacred texts and the rabbis and scholars who interpret them.
The history of Judaism spans more than 3,000 years. Judaism has its roots as an organized religion in the Middle East during the Bronze Age. Judaism is considered one of the oldest monotheistic religions; the Hebrews and Israelites were referred to as "Jews" in books of the Tanakh such as the Book of Esther, with the term Jews replacing the title "Children of Israel". Judaism's texts and values influenced Abrahamic religions, including Christianity and the Baha'i Faith. Many aspects of Judaism have directly or indirectly influenced secular Western ethics and civil law. Hebraism was just as important a factor in the ancient era development of Western civilization as Hellenism, Judaism, as the background of Christianity, has shaped Western ideals and morality since Early Christianity. Jews are an ethnoreligious group including those born Jewish, in addition to converts to Judaism. In 2015, the world Jewish population was estimated at about 14.3 million, or 0.2% of the total world population. About 43% of all Jews reside in Israel and another 43% reside in the United States and Canada, with most of the remainder living in Europe, other minority groups spread throughout Latin America, Asia and Australia.
Unlike other ancient Near Eastern gods, the Hebrew God is portrayed as solitary. Judaism thus begins with ethical monotheism: the belief that God is one and is concerned with the actions of mankind. According to the Tanakh, God promised Abraham to make of his offspring a great nation. Many generations he commanded the nation of Israel to love and worship only one God, he commanded the Jewish people to love one another. These commandments are but two of a large corpus of commandments and laws that constitute this covenant, the substance of Judaism. Thus, although there is an esoteric tradition in Judaism, Rabbinic scholar Max Kadushin has characterized normative Judaism as "normal mysticism", because it involves everyday personal experiences of God through ways or modes that are common to all Jews; this is played out through the observance of the Halakha and given verbal expression in the Birkat Ha-Mizvot, the short blessings that are spoken every time a positive commandment is to be fulfilled.
The ordinary, everyday things and occurrences we have, constitute occasions for the experience of God. Such things as one's daily sustenance, the day itself, are felt as manifestations of God's loving-kindness, calling for the Berakhot. Kedushah, nothing else than the imitation of God, is concerned with daily conduct, with being gracious and merciful, with keeping oneself from defilement by idolatry and the shedding of blood; the Birkat Ha-Mitzwot evokes the consciousness of holiness at a rabbinic rite, but the objects employed in the majority of these rites are non-holy and of general character, while the several holy objects are non-theurgic. And not only do ordinary things and occurrences bring with them the experience of God. Everything that happens to a man evokes that exp
Redwood City, California
Redwood City is a city on the San Francisco Peninsula in Northern California's Bay Area 27 miles south of San Francisco, 24 miles northwest of San Jose. Redwood City's history spans its earliest inhabitation by the Ohlone people to being a port for lumber and other goods; the county seat of San Mateo County in the heart of Silicon Valley, Redwood City is home to several global technology companies including Oracle, Electronic Arts, Evernote and Informatica. The city had an estimated population of 86,685 in 2017; the Port of Redwood City is the only deepwater port on San Francisco Bay south of San Francisco. Redwood City is the location of the San Mateo County Jail, for both men; the Hetch Hetchy water pipeline runs through Redwood City and supplies a vast majority of the surrounding area with low grain rated water. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 34.7 square miles, of which 19.4 square miles is land and 15.2 square miles is water. A major watercourse draining much of Redwood City is Redwood Creek, to which several significant river deltas connect, the largest of, Westpoint Slough.
Redwood City stretches from the San Francisco Bay towards the Santa Cruz Mountains between San Carlos to the northwest and Atherton to the southeast with Woodside to the southwest. It is divided by Highway 101 and further inland El Camino Real on the northwest/southeast axis and Woodside Road on the north-northeast/south-southwest axis. Locally, the former two are regarded as north/south and the latter east/west, as 101 and El Camino connects Redwood City to San Francisco and San Jose and Woodside Road runs from San Francisco Bay to the Santa Cruz Mountains. Neighborhoods include Bair Island to the northeast of Highway 101; the northern neighborhood of Redwood Shores to the northeast of Highway 101 is part of Redwood City, although it is not possible to travel by road from one to the other without passing through the neighboring city of San Carlos, or through Belmont via unincorporated San Mateo County. Stretching along Highway 101 to the southeast of Woodside Road is Friendly Acres, further inland and still to the southeast of Woodside Road are Redwood Village and Redwood Oaks.
Most neighborhoods are to the northwest of Woodside Ride and southwest of Highway 101. Centennial and Stambaugh Heller are adjacent to 101. Next inland are Edgewood, Mt. Carmel and Palm Canyon, Eagle Hill and Woodside Plaza. Furthest inland is Farm Hills. Neighborhoods associated with Redwood City but not part of the incorporated city include Emerald Lake Hills and Kensington Square inland and to the north and North Fair Oaks to the southeast. Palomar Park, just north of Emerald Hills and east of San Carlos' Crestview area, is another Redwood City neighborhood, formally part of unincorporated San Mateo County. Although Redwood City has a large middle class, the south eastern section of Redwood City resembles working class North Fair Oaks in demographic make-up and income level. Redwood City, along with most of the Bay Area, enjoys a mild Mediterranean climate, with warm, dry summers and cool wet winters; the National Weather Service, which maintains both a forecast center and a cooperative office in Redwood City, reports that December is the coolest month and July is the warmest month.
The record highest temperature of 110 °F was recorded on both July 14 and 15, 1972. The record lowest temperature of 16 °F was recorded on January 11, 1949. Annually, there are an average of 21.6 days with highs of 90 °F or higher and 2.8 days with highs of 100 °F or higher. The normal annual precipitation is 20.56 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 12.42 inches in February 1998. The record 24-hour rainfall of 4.88 inches was on October 13, 1962. There are an average of 62.1 days with measurable precipitation. Snow flurries have been observed on rare occasions. Redwood City incorporated in 1867, the first city to do so in San Mateo County, it has been the county seat since the county was formed in 1856; the land had been part of the Rancho de las Pulgas granted to the Arguello family in 1835 by the Mexican government. Their control was challenged after the Mexican–American War when California became part of the United States; the family lawyer, Simon M. Mezes, in 1854 defended the claim somewhat and was allowed to buy the part of the estate, now Redwood City.
Mezes sold some of the land to people squatting on it along the banks of Redwood Creek and named the settlement, Mezesville. Though the city did not keep that name, Mezes Park still exists on land Mezes had given for open space. In 1907 Eikichi and Sadakusi Enomoto, Japanese immigrant brothers, grew the first chrysanthemums commercially in the United States in Redwood City. In 1926 the chamber of commerce proclaimed the city the "Chrysanthemum Center of the World" though the internment of Japanese Americans in 1941 and other factors removed flower growing as a major industry in the city; the 2010 United States Census reported that Redwood City had a population of 76,815. The population density was 3,955.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Redwood City was 46,255 White, 1,881 African American, 511 Native American, 8,216 Asian, 795 Pacific Islander, 14,967 from other races, 4,190 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 29,810 persons. Non-Hispanic Whites n
X-Men: The Last Stand
X-Men: The Last Stand is a 2006 superhero film based on the X-Men superhero team introduced in Marvel Comics. It is the sequel to 2003's X2, as well as the third installment in the X-Men film series, was directed by Brett Ratner and written by Simon Kinberg and Zak Penn, it features an ensemble cast including Hugh Jackman, Halle Berry, Ian McKellen, Famke Janssen, Anna Paquin, Kelsey Grammer, James Marsden, Rebecca Romijn, Shawn Ashmore, Aaron Stanford, Vinnie Jones, Patrick Stewart. The film's script is loosely based on two X-Men comic book story arcs: "The Dark Phoenix Saga" by writer Chris Claremont and artist John Byrne, "Gifted" by writer Joss Whedon and artist John Cassaday, with a plot that revolves around a "mutant cure" that causes serious repercussions among mutants and humans, on the resurrection of Jean Grey. Bryan Singer, who had directed the two previous films, X-Men and X2, decided to leave to work on Superman Returns, as he had not defined the storyline for a third film. Matthew Vaughn, hired as the new director, left due to personal and professional issues, was replaced with Ratner.
Filming took place from August 2005 to January 2006 with a budget of $210 million, was the most expensive film at the time of its release. It had extensive visual effects created by 11 different companies. X-Men: The Last Stand was released on May 26, 2006, by 20th Century Fox, it grossed $459 million worldwide, becoming the seventh-highest-grossing film of 2006. Critical reception was mixed, with the acting and the action scenes receiving positive notice, criticism directed at the screenplay, overuse of characters, style. Twenty years in the past, Professor Charles Xavier and Erik Lehnsherr meet young Jean Grey at her parents' house to invite her to join their school, the X-Mansion. Ten years the industrialist father of Warren Worthington III discovers his son is a mutant as Warren tries to cut off his wings. In the present, Worthington Labs announces it has developed an inoculation to suppress the X-gene that gives mutants their abilities, offer the "cure" to any mutant who wants it; the cure is created from the genome of a young mutant named Jimmy, who lives at the Worthington facility on Alcatraz Island.
While some mutants are interested in the cure, including the X-Men's Rogue, many others are horrified by the announcement. Magneto re-establishes his Brotherhood of Mutants with those who oppose the cure, warning his followers that the cure will be forcefully used to exterminate the mutant race. With help from Pyro, Magneto recruits several other mutants, they attack the mobile prison holding Mystique to free her freeing Juggernaut and Multiple Man. Mystique, shielding Magneto from a cure dart, loses her mutant abilities. Magneto abandons her as a result. Meanwhile, Scott Summers, still distraught over the loss of his fiancée Jean Grey, drives to her resting location at Alkali Lake. Jean appears to Summers but, as the two kiss, Jean kills him. Sensing trouble, Xavier sends Storm to investigate; when they arrive, they find only telekinetically floating rocks, Summers' glasses, an unconscious Jean. When Logan and Storm return to the X-Mansion, Xavier explains to Logan that when Jean sacrificed herself to save them, she freed the "Phoenix", a dark and powerful alternate personality which Xavier had telepathically repressed, aware of the Phoenix's godlike destructive potential.
Logan is disgusted to learn of this psychic tampering with Jean's mind but, once she awakens, he discovers that she killed Summers and is not the Jean Grey he once knew. The Phoenix emerges, knocks out Logan, escapes to her childhood home. Magneto learns of Jean's resurrection through Callisto, the X-Men arrive at the Grey home at the same time as the Brotherhood. Magneto and Xavier go in, both vie for Jean's loyalty until the Phoenix resurfaces, she destroys the house and disintegrates Xavier before Logan can stop her. Jean leaves with Magneto. After interrogating Mystique, the FBI discover Magneto's base in the woods. However, the life forms in the camp are all decoy copies of Multiple Man. Magneto and the Brotherhood have gone to storm Alcatraz by telekinetically rerouting the Golden Gate Bridge; the remaining X-Men confront the Brotherhood, despite being outnumbered, arrive just as the military troops who thus far have been neutralizing the attacking mutants are overwhelmed by the Brotherhood.
During the fight, Kitty Pryde saves Jimmy from Juggernaut, sent to kill him. Logan has Colossus throw him at Magneto and distract him long enough for Hank McCoy to inject Magneto with the "cure" and thus nullify his powers. Army reinforcements shoot at Jean just as Logan had calmed her down; the Phoenix disintegrates the troops in retaliation. The Phoenix begins to destroy Alcatraz and anyone within range of her powers. Logan realizes that only he can stop the Phoenix due to his healing adamantium skeleton; when Logan approaches her, Jean begs him to save her. Logan fatally mourns her death; some time mutant rights are obtained and Xavier's school is still operating with Storm as headmistress. The President of the United States appoints Hank McCoy as ambassador to the United Nations. Rogue reveals to Bobby Drake. Meanwhile, Magneto sits at a chessboard in San Francisco and weak; as he gestures toward a metal chess piece, it moves suggesting that the cure is not permanent after all
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Homemaking is a American term for the management of a home, otherwise known as housework, housekeeping, or household management. It is the act of overseeing the organizational, day-to-day operations of a house or estate, the managing of other domestic concerns. A person in charge of the homemaking, not employed outside the home, is in the U. S. called a term for a housewife or a househusband. The term "homemaker", may refer to a social worker who manages a household during the incapacity of the housewife or househusband. Housework is not always a lifetime commitment. In previous decades, there were a number of mandatory courses for the young to learn the skills of homemaking. In high school, courses included cooking, home economics and consumer science, food and cooking hygiene; this latter may underlie the tradition. More most of these courses have been abolished, many youths in high school and college would study child development and the management of children's behavior. Early nineteenth-century ideals required be the responsibility of the woman.
Traditional wives who stayed home and did not work were required by social ideals to create and maintain a peaceful space to provide to her husband and children. For women in a pre-modern environment, “it is the duty and privilege and solemn responsibility, which make this art of home-making more interesting and important to her than any other art in the world.” The twentieth century began with similar homemaking roles as the 1900s. In the late 1990s, marriage consisted of both husband participating in homemaking. Professors at the University of Southern California, Darlene Piña and Vern Bengtson, extensively researched marriage dynamics and household labor in the late twentieth century, they concluded that “all wives benefit by their husbands’ greater involvement in household labor.” The division of labor within the home promotes a healthy relationship between wife. Concluding, that likelihood of increased happiness within marriage is vastly improved when homemaking is shared with the husband.
According to a 2015 survey of American Households by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, over 50% of women are the majority of the housework. Men reported doing housework -- such as doing laundry. On an average day, women spent an hour more on doing household activities than did men. Women spent more than twice as much time preparing food and drink and doing interior cleaning, over three times as much time doing laundry as did men. Men spent more than twice as much time doing activities related to lawn and houseplants, including interior and exterior maintenance and decoration as did women. In modern marriages, the division of labor within the context of marriage much still unevenly distributed. However, both parties contribute to the creation and maintenance of the home; the method and function of housework are different in the industrial world and in other countries, with the balance of convenience, labor-saving devices and easier methods being in the industrial homemaker's favor. The reason for this is that mechanical invention has been applied extensively to different tasks of the home.
Inventors have developed mechanical labor-saving devices not only for the shop and office, but for the home. There are, on the market, thousands of household tools and equipment for every domestic need, it only remains for the homemaker to choose between them. Another reason for the great supply and demand for household labor savers in the industrial world is that the homemaker has to face the complex problem of scarce domestic help. With cheap labor, the need for the mechanical replacers of labor, or "mechanical servants," will not be keenly felt, the majority of homemakers perform their own household tasks, it is to this class of homemakers who are concerned in domestic work that the labor-saver and improved modern tool most appeal. The homemaker's time and effort are worth conserving by every means. Homemakers should, therefore, be eager to buy and use all the household tools that will save their strength and time and liberate them from household drudgery. While some homemakers are "handy" with tools, the fact remains that most homemakers are unfamiliar with the different principles involved in mechanical tools and devices.
The homemaker, however, is called to have knowledge of the principles of applied mechanics. Courses in school physics leave a student with little practical knowledge that can be applied to domestic equipment; the gaining of knowledge concerning domestic tools may lead the homemaker to purchase good quality equipment, which may assist in saving time and labor. Housekeeping by the homemaker is the care and control of property, ensuring its maintenance and proper use and appearance. A home is a place of residence. In a private home a maid or housekeeper might be employed to do some of the housekeeping. Housework is work done by the act of housekeeping; some housekeeping is housecleaning and some housekeeping is home chores. Home chores are housework that needs to be done at regular intervals, Housekeeping includes the budget and control of expenditures, preparing meals and buying food, paying the heat bill, cleaning the house. Most modern-day houses contain a means of preparing food. A kitchen is a room or part of a room used by the Homemaker for cooking, food preparation and food preservation.
In the West, a modern kitchen is
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.