Eric Allan Dolphy, Jr. was an American jazz alto saxophonist, bass clarinetist and flautist. On a few occasions, he played the clarinet and piccolo. Dolphy was one of several multi-instrumentalists to gain prominence around the time that he was active, his use of the bass clarinet helped to establish the instrument within jazz. Dolphy extended the vocabulary and boundaries of the alto saxophone, was among the earliest significant jazz flute soloists, his improvisational style was characterized by the use of wide intervals, in addition to using an array of extended techniques to emulate the sounds of human voices and animals. Although Dolphy's work is sometimes classified as free jazz, his compositions and solos were rooted in conventional tonal bebop harmony and melodic lines that suggest the influences of modern classical composers such as Béla Bartók and Igor Stravinsky. Dolphy was born in Los Angeles to Eric Allan Dolphy, Sr. and Sadie Dolphy, who immigrated to the United States from Panama.
He picked up the clarinet at the age of six, in less than a month was playing in the school's orchestra. He learned the oboe in junior high school, though he never recorded on the instrument. Hearing Fats Waller, Duke Ellington and Coleman Hawkins led him toward jazz, he picked up the saxophone and flute while in high school, he performed locally for several years, as a member of bebop big bands led by Roy Porter and Gerald Wilson. He was educated at Los Angeles City College and directed its orchestra. On early recordings, he played baritone saxophone, as well as alto saxophone and soprano clarinet, his father built a studio for Eric in their backyard, Eric had friends come by to jam. Dolphy had his big break as a member of Chico Hamilton's quintet. With the group he became known to a wider audience and was able to tour extensively through 1958-1959, when he parted ways with Hamilton and moved to New York City. Dolphy appears with Hamilton's band in the film Jazz on a Summer's Day playing flute during the Newport Jazz Festival of 1958.
Charles Mingus had known Dolphy from growing up in Los Angeles, the younger man joined Mingus' group shortly after arriving in New York. He took part in Mingus' big band recording Pre-Bird, is featured on "Bemoanable Lady", he joined Mingus' working band which included Ted Curson at this time. They worked at the Showplace during 1960 and recorded two albums together, Charles Mingus Presents Charles Mingus and Mingus at Antibes. Dolphy, Mingus said, "was a complete musician, he could fit anywhere. He was a fine lead alto in a big band, he could make it in a classical group. And, of course, he was his own man when he soloed.... He had mastered jazz, and he had mastered all the instruments. In fact, he knew more than was supposed to be possible to do on them."During this time, Dolphy participated in other recording sessions with Mingus for the Candid label and took part in the Newport Rebels session. In 1961, Dolphy left Mingus' band and went to Europe for a few months, where he was recorded in Scandinavia and Berlin.
He was among the musicians who worked on Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus in 1963, is featured on "Hora Decubitus". In early 1964, he joined Mingus' working band again, along with Jaki Byard, Johnny Coles, Clifford Jordan; this sextet worked at the Five Spot before playing at Cornell University and Town Hall in New York and subsequently touring Europe. The tour, although short, is well-documented. Dolphy and John Coltrane knew each other long before they formally played together, having met when Coltrane was in Los Angeles with Miles Davis, they would exchange ideas and learn from each other, after many nights sitting in with Coltrane's band, Dolphy was asked to become a full member. Coltrane had gained an audience and critical notice with Miles Davis's quintet, but alienated some jazz critics when he began to move away from hard bop. Although Coltrane's quintets with Dolphy are now well regarded, they provoked Down Beat magazine to brand Coltrane and Dolphy's music as'anti-jazz'. Coltrane said of this criticism: "they made it appear that we didn't know the first thing about music it hurt me to see get hurt in this thing."The initial release of Coltrane's residency at the Vanguard selected three tracks, only one of which featured Dolphy.
After being issued haphazardly over the next 30 years, a comprehensive box set featuring all of the recorded music from the Vanguard was released on Impulse! in 1997, called The Complete 1961 Village Vanguard Recordings. The set features Dolphy on both alto saxophone and bass clarinet, with Eric the featured soloist on their renditions of "Naima". A Pablo box set drawing on recordings of Coltrane's performances from his European tours of the early 1960s feature tunes absent from releases of the 1961 Village Vanguard material, such as "My Favorite Things", which Dolphy performs on flute. Before trumpeter Booker Little died at the age of 23, he and Dolphy had a short-lived musical partnership. Little's leader date for Candid, Out Front, featured Dolphy on alto, though he played bass clarinet and flute on some ensemble passages. In addition, Dolphy's album Far Cry recorded. Dolphy and Little co-led a quintet at the Five Spot during 1961; the rhythm section consisted of Richard Davis, Mal Waldron and Ed
William Back was an Australian cricketer who played at first-class level for Western Australia in 1893, including in its inaugural first-class match. Born on Rottnest Island, Back played for Fremantle in the WACA grade cricket competition, led the league's batting averages during the 1887–88 season, scoring 267 runs from ten innings at an average of 53.50. His only state-level matches played during Western Australia's tour of the eastern colonies in early 1893, he opened the batting for the side in both of its two first-class matches on the tour, against South Australia and Victoria, variously partnering with Percival Hussey, Harry Bennett, Ernest Randell. In the first match, Back scored four and seven runs, in the second match, a duck and one run, with Western Australia following on in both matches, he played in two other matches on tour, against the Melbourne Cricket Club and a "juniors" representative team from Victoria. Little else is known of his life. Having worked as a forwarding agent on the Fremantle wharves, Back died in Fremantle on 15 February 1911, was buried in the Anglican section of Fremantle Cemetery the following day.
He had been a member of a local fraternal organisation, the Oddfellows, before his death, as well as a founding member of the Fremantle District Cricket Club, who wore black armbands in their next match. List of Western Australia first-class cricketers
Francis Olympic Field is a stadium at Washington University in St. Louis, used as the main stadium for the 1904 Summer Olympics, it is used by the university's track and field, cross country and soccer teams. It is located in St. Louis County, Missouri on the far western edge of the university's Danforth Campus. Built in time for the 1904 World's Fair, the stadium once had a 19,000-person seating capacity, but stadium renovations in 1984 reduced the capacity to 3,300 people, it is one of the oldest sports venues west of the Mississippi River, still in use. Francis Olympic Field now utilizes artificial Field Turf, which can be configured for both soccer and football. Francis Olympic Field was named for former Missouri governor and president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition David R. Francis in October 1907; the word "Olympic" was added in 2019 to reflect its role in the 1904 Summer Olympics. The 1904 Summer Olympics were given to St. Louis, Missouri as a result of the efforts of David Rowland Francis, for whom the stadium and accompanying gymnasium are named.
Built in 1902, Francis Olympic Field's permanent stands represent one of the first applications of reinforced concrete technology. Both the stadium and its gymnasium are U. S. National Historic Landmarks. During those games, the stadium hosted the archery, cycling, gymnastics, roque, tug of war and wrestling events. At some dirt courts located outside the stadium, the tennis events took place. Following the 1904 Olympics, the stadium became the permanent home of the Bears, who were known as the Pikers. From the 1920s through the 1950s, the Bears played before crowds of as many as 19,000 people, competing against universities such as Notre Dame and Boston College, with half of the spectators in temporary wooden stands; the Bears now play as an NCAA Division III team. In the summer of 2004, Francis Olympic Field had its natural grass replaced with artificial FieldTurf. Francis Olympic Field is an annual host for the American Cancer Society's Relay for Life event; the Francis Gymnasium was the site of four U.
S. presidential debates in 1992, 2000, 2004, 2016, plus the vice-presidential debate in 2008. During both the 1984 and 1996 Olympic Torch relays, the Olympic Flame passed by Francis Olympic Field on its way to the site of the Olympic Games. Francis Olympic Field hosted the 1986 AAU/USA National Junior Olympic Games, the first and second National Senior Olympic Games, the 1985 NCAA Division III National Men's Soccer Championship. In July 1994, Francis Olympic Field served as a centerpiece for the U. S. Olympic Festival as 3,000 athletes were housed on the campus for the country's top amateur sporting events; the stadium was used by the St. Louis Stars soccer team during 1969–1970, again in 1975–1977, before their 1978 move to Anaheim, California, as they became the California Surf. Washington University Bears football