Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson, doing business as Ericsson, is a Swedish multinational networking and telecommunications company headquartered in Stockholm. The company offers services and infrastructure in information and communications technology for telecommunications operators, traditional telecommunications and Internet Protocol networking equipment and fixed broadband and business support services, cable television, IPTV, video systems, an extensive services operation. Ericsson had a 27% market share in the 2G/3G/4G mobile network infrastructure market in 2018; the company was founded in 1876 by Lars Magnus Ericsson. The company operates in around 180 countries. Ericsson holds over 49,000 granted patents as of September 2019, including many in wireless communications. Lars Magnus Ericsson began his association with telephones in his youth as an instrument maker, he worked for a firm. In 1876, at the age of 30, he started a telegraph repair shop with help from his friend Carl Johan Andersson in central Stockholm and repaired foreign-made telephones.
In 1878 Ericsson began selling his own telephone equipment. His telephones were not technically innovative. In 1878 he made an agreement to supply telephones and switchboards to Sweden's first telecommunications operating company, Stockholms Allmänna Telefonaktiebolag. In 1878, local telephone importer Numa Peterson hired Ericsson to adjust some telephones from the Bell Telephone Company, he analyzed the technology. He was familiar with Bell and Siemens Halske telephones through his firm's repair work for Telegrafverket and Swedish State Railways, he improved these designs to produce a higher-quality instrument to be used by new telephone companies such as Rikstelefon to provide cheaper service than the Bell Group. Ericsson had no patent or royalty problems because Bell had not patented their inventions in Scandinavia, his training as an instrument maker was reflected in the standard of finish and the ornate design of Ericsson telephones of this period. At the end of the year, he started to manufacture telephones much like those of Siemens.
Ericsson became a major supplier of telephone equipment to Scandinavia. Its factory could not keep up with demand. Much of its raw materials were imported. Much of the walnut wood used for cabinets was imported from the United States. Stockholm's telephone network expanded that year and the company reformed into a telephone manufacturer; when Bell bought the biggest telephone network in Stockholm, it only allowed its own telephones to be used with it. Ericsson's equipment was sold to free telephone associations in the Swedish countryside and in other Nordic countries; the prices of Bell equipment and services led Henrik Tore Cedergren to form an independent telephone company called Stockholms Allmänna Telefonaktiebolag in 1883. As Bell would not deliver equipment to competitors, he formed a pact with Ericsson to supply the equipment for his new telephone network. In 1918 the companies were merged into Allmänna Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson. In 1884, a multiple-switchboard manual telephone exchange was copied from a design by C. E. Scribner at Western Electric.
This was legal because the device was not patented in Sweden, although in the United States it had held patent 529421 since 1879. A single switchboard could handle up to 10,000 lines; the following year, LM Ericsson and Cedergren toured the United States, visiting several telephone exchange stations to gather "inspiration". They found U. S. switchboard designs were more advanced but Ericsson telephones were equal to others. In 1884, a technician named Anton Avén at Stockholms Allmänna Telefonaktiebolag combined the earpiece and the mouthpiece of a standard telephone into a handset, it was used by operators in the exchanges where operators needed to have one hand free when talking to customers. Ericsson picked up this invention and incorporated it into Ericsson products, beginning with a telephone named The Dachshund; as production grew in the late 1890s, the Swedish market seemed to be reaching saturation, Ericsson expanded into foreign markets through a number of agents. The UK and Russia were early markets, where factories were established improve the chances of gaining local contracts and to augment the output of the Swedish factory.
In the UK, the National Telephone Company was a major customer. The Nordic countries were Ericsson customers. Other countries and colonies were exposed to Ericsson products through the influence of their parent countries; these included Australia and New Zealand, which by the late 1890s were Ericsson's largest non-European markets. Mass production techniques now established. Despite their successes elsewhere, Ericsson did not make significant sales into the United States; the Bell Group and Automatic Electric dominated the market. Ericsson sold its U. S. assets. Sales in Mexico led to inroads into South American countries. South Africa and China were generating significant sales. With his company now multinational, Lars Ericsson stepped down from the company in 1901. Ericsson ignored the growth of automatic telephony in the United State
Adam Kwasnik is an Australian former professional association football player who played as a striker. Kwasnik was part of the inaugural Central Coast Mariners squad in 2005–06, was a substitute in the final that the Mariners lost 1–0, he was the leading Mariners goalscorer with seven goals in a disappointing campaign in 2006–07 for the Mariners. Kwasnik was scorer of the 200th goal in the A-League on 20 January 2006. Kwasnik started in the 2008 A-League Grand Final that the Mariners lost 1–0.'Kwas', as he is known to teammates and fans alike, is second on the Mariners all-time leading goalscorers list with 35 goals from 136. He had his own superstition of training with one sock around his ankle and the other pulled up to his knee. Kwasnik made the move to Wellington Phoenix for the 2008–2009 season. After a disappointing season at the Phoenix, Kwasnik signed on 9 February 2009 with his former club Central Coast Mariners for the upcoming 2009 AFC Champions League and for the 2009–10 A-League season.
Kwasnik was loaned out to Chinese Super League club and Mariners sister club Chengdu Blades during the 2010–11 off-season. He debuted in the season opener against Shandong Luneng and equalized to make it 3–3; the game would finish 3–3. After injuries caused limited playing time in the Mariners' Championship winning season of 2012–13 and a new injury halted his 2013–14 season, Kwasnik announced his retirement, he is involved with youth clinics in the Central Coast area and still associated with the Mariners. Central Coast Mariners: A-League Premiership: 2007–2008, 2011–2012 A-League Championship: 2012–13 Australia OFC U-20 Championship: 2002 Central Coast Mariners profile Oz Football profile
Anindita Paul is an Indian singer. Anindita Paul was born in Guwahati, the daughter of Amal Kanti Paul and Shyamali Paul, her father was in the Contract and Vigilance departments of the Food Corporation of India while her mother was a homemaker, musically inclined and had performed in college fests. Birth: 1975 She acquired a Visharad degree in Indian classical music from an institution affiliated to the Bhatkhande Music Institute in Lucknow, she trained with Dwipen Roy in Guwahati and visited Kolkata to learn from Pandit Ajoy Chakraborty. Paul began singing at stage shows in Assam, she was soon Modern song at All India Radio Guwahati. Though her father had been hesitant about encouraging her to pursue a musical career, he was soon won over by her dedication to her vocal riyaaz. In 2000, Paul issued her first Assamese album Bilot Tire Birai Podumor Pahi Oye; the lyrics were penned by Assamese poet Shri Kamalananda Bhattacharya who crafted the compositions. Paul sang three songs, for the album. In 2010, Paul spanned different musical genres with her first solo album Tumar Prasangshat whose title was given by the late Shri Hiren Bhattacharyya.
Tumar Prasangshat was an album of mixed genres - modern Assamese song which had a tinge of ballet, R&B and pop-rock while keeping in mind indigenous sensibilities. One of the leading female playback singers in Assamese, Anindita has rendered songs for many feature films. After the attention corralled by her song'Bilot Tirebirai', Anindita got offers to sing for many Assamese music-directors and this led to her cinematic breakthrough. Renowned Assamese composer Zubeen Garg asked her to sing his composition in the film Prem Aru Prem and this marked the start of a creatively rewarding association which continues till date. Anindita is recognized for her felicity with soft romantic numbers as well as classical songs and has sung in many films for several music-directors, she remains popular and her upcoming films include Gaane Ki Aane and Songhat. Prominent milestones include the songs'Biphol sokupanire' from Jetuka Pator Dore and'Kor ejak shopun jen boroshun' from Munin Barua's acclaimed Dinabandhu.
After the latter song, Anindita shifted to Mumbai but continued to be flooded with appreciation from people who adored the song. Anindita's singing credentials have been established in a vast range of media platforms, she sang under Zubeen Garg's music direction in the Hindi film Strings and the Hindi-Assamese bilingual Ekhon Nedekha Nodir Xhipare. She has crooned for some notable Bengali films, including Kumauner Konya under the music direction of the legendary Ravindra Jain, she has lent her voice to the TV serial ‘Remix’ for music director Pritam. Anindita can be heard on the remix album'Play-Gal Mix' and'Dance Attack', has recorded two Telegu Devotional songs for renowned flautist Naveen Kumar in Mumbai. Anindita has performed in the prestigious Spirit of Unity Concert for Universal Integration at Visakhapatnam in the year 2007. At the film's recordings, she was fortunate to meet and interact with her senior who sang a song for the movie. Anindita is a popular name in the world of advertisement jingles and is the voice behind well-known commercials for'Fair & Lovely','Action Flotter','Nerolac Paints','Herbalife','iBall Andi Hd6'.
She has sung for an advertisement for'Care Honey Lotion' in Pakistan. Paul has been nominated twice for the National Film Awards - for the song'Kor Ejak Shopun Jen Boroshun' from the film Dinabandhu and for'Biphol Sokupanire' from Jetuka Pator Dore. 2004 Jyotirupa Media Award for Best Female Playback Singer for'Kor Ejak Shopun Jen Boroshun' 2005 Prag Cine Award for Best Female Playback Singer for'Kor Ejak Shopun Jen Boroshun' 2010 Prag Cine Award for Best Female Playback Singer for'Biphol sokupanire' 2014 Prag Cine Award for Best Female Playback Singer for Raag 2015 Assam State Award Best Female Playback Singer for Raag. Official Website