Intermodal freight transport
Intermodal freight transport involves the transportation of freight in an intermodal container or vehicle, using multiple modes of transportation, without any handling of the freight itself when changing modes. The method reduces cargo handling, so improves security, reduces damage and loss, allows freight to be transported faster. Reduced costs over road trucking is the key benefit for inter-continental use; this may be offset by reduced timings for road transport over shorter distances. Intermodal transportation predates the railways; some of the earliest containers were those used for shipping coal on the Bridgewater Canal in England in the 1780s. Coal containers were soon deployed on the early canals and railways and were used for road/rail transfers. Wooden coal containers used on railways go back to the 1830s on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. In 1841, Isambard Kingdom Brunel introduced iron containers to move coal from the vale of Neath to Swansea Docks. By the outbreak of the First World War the Great Eastern Railway was using wooden containers to trans-ship passenger luggage between trains and sailings via the port of Harwich.
The early 1900s saw the first adoption of covered containers for the movement of furniture and intermodal freight between road and rail. A lack of standards limited the value of this service and this in turn drove standardisation. In the U. S. such containers, known as "lift vans", were in use from as early as 1911. In the United Kingdom containers were first standardised by the Railway Clearing House in the 1920s, allowing both railway owned and owned vehicles to be carried on standard container flats. By modern standards these containers were small, being 1.5 or 3.0 meters long wooden and with a curved roof and insufficient strength for stacking. From 1928 the London and Scottish Railway offered "door to door" intermodal road-rail services using these containers; this standard failed to become popular outside the United Kingdom. Pallets made their first major appearance during World War II, when the United States military assembled freight on pallets, allowing fast transfer between warehouses, trains and aircraft.
Because no freight handling was required, fewer personnel were needed and loading times were decreased. Truck trailers were first carried by railway before World War II, an arrangement called "piggyback", by the small Class I railroad, the Chicago Great Western in 1936; the Canadian Pacific Railway was a pioneer in piggyback transport, becoming the first major North American railway to introduce the service in 1952. In the United Kingdom, the big four railway companies offered services using standard RCH containers that could be craned on and off the back of trucks. Moving companies such as Pickfords offered private services in the same way. In 1933 in Europe, under the auspices of the International Chamber of Commerce, The International Container Bureau was established. In June 1933, Bureau International des Containers et du Transport Intermodal decided about obligatory parameters for container use in international traffic. Containers handled by means of lifting gear, such as cranes, overhead conveyors, etc. for traveling elevators, constructed after July 1, 1933.
Obligatory Regulations: Clause 1.—Containers are, as regards form, either of the closed or the open type, and, as regards capacity, either of the heavy or the light type. Clause 2.—The loading capacity of containers must be such that their total weight is: 5 metric tons for containers of the heavy type. In April 1935 BIC established a second standard for European containers: In the 1950s, a new standardized steel Intermodal container based on specifications from the United States Department of Defense began to revolutionize freight transportation; the International Organization for Standardization issued standards based upon the U. S. Department of Defense standards between 1968 and 1970; the White Pass and Yukon Route railway acquired the world's first container ship, the Clifford J. Rogers, built in 1955, introduced containers to its railway in 1956. In the United Kingdom, the modernisation plan and in turn the Beeching Report pushed containerization; the British Railways freightliner service was launched carrying 8-foot high pre-ISO containers.
The older wooden containers and the pre-ISO containers were replaced by 10-and-20-foot ISO standard containers, by 40-foot containers and larger. In the U. S. starting in the 1960s, the use of containers increased steadily. Rail intermodal traffic tripled between 1980 and 2002, according to the Association of American Railroads, from 3.1 million trailers and containers to 9.3 million. Large investments were made in intermodal freight projects. An example was the USD $740,000,000 Port of Oakland intermodal rail facility begun in the late 1980s. Since 1984, a mechanism for intermodal shipping known as double-stack rail transport has become common. Rising to the rate of nearly 70% of the United States' intermodal shipments, it transports more than one million containers per year; the double-stack rail cars design reduces damage in transit and provides greater cargo security by cradling the lower containers so their doors cannot be opened. A succession of large, domestic container sizes was introduced to increase shipping productivity.
Delaware and Hudson Railway
The Delaware and Hudson Railway is a railroad that operates in the northeastern United States. In 1991, after more than 150 years as an independent railroad, the D&H was purchased by Canadian Pacific Railway. CP operates D&H under its subsidiary Soo Line Corporation which operates Soo Line Railroad. D&H's name originates from the 1823 New York state corporation charter listing "The President and Company of the Delaware & Hudson Canal Co." authorizing an establishment of "water communication" between the Delaware River and the Hudson River. Nicknamed "The Bridge Line to New England and Canada," D&H connected New York with Montreal and New England. D&H has been known as "North America's oldest continually operated transportation company." On September 19, 2015, Norfolk Southern Railway completed acquisition of the D&H South Line from CP. The D&H South Line connects Schenectady, New York to Sunbury, Pennsylvania; the D&H South Line consists of the Sunbury Line and the Freight Line. The Nicholson Cutoff is located on the Sunbury Line, a former mainline of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad.
By the 1790s, industrializing eastern population centers were having increasing troubles getting charcoal to fuel their growing kilns and foundries. As local timber was denuded, efforts to find an alternative energy source began. During a fuel shortage in Philadelphia during the War of 1812 an employee by the direction of industrialist Josiah White conducted a series of experiments and discovered a number of ways that'rock coal' or anthracite could be ignited and burned; the fuel theretofore, had been seen more as a way to put out a fire, than a fuel to build one up, so its use had to overcome a lot of prejudice and his partner Erskine Hazard would found the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, creating the Lehigh Canal, inspiring the exploitation of the anthracite deposits found by William Wurts around Carbondale, Pennsylvania which lead to the development of Scranton. The Mills of White and Hazard, the regular large boatloads they proved they could supply had tipped the prejudice against anthracite to a wary plausibility in Philadelphia by 1822-1824 when the Lehigh was much damaged by flooding.
The news of its rapid repair and restoration together with the fact anthracite stocks had for a time run down, but not out establishing the reliable sourcing finished off the bias, as did the beginning of mine output reaching the Delaware basin markets due to the long delayed completion of the Schuylkill CanalWurts was a large thinker, inspired his brothers to back forming a company to deliver the new High Tech fuel, anthracite to New York City by building an ambitious canal to connect the Hudson River and the Delaware River, both to the coaldale coal deposits by chartering a Pennsylvania subsidiary corporation. The Delaware and Hudson Gravity Railroad to bring coal to the new canal; this cable railroad would grow in importance and become the far flung class I railroad, the Delaware and Hudson Railway. In the early 1820s, Philadelphia merchant William Wurts, who enjoyed walking about along Amerindian paths, what we today term, taking nature hikes—had heard of possible anthracite in the area, so took a trip to explore the sparsely settled regions of Northeastern Pennsylvania.
Finding coal outcrops, he realized the value of the extensive anthracite deposits. Returning to Philadelphia, he interested his brothers in backing the idea of building a canal to make it easier to transport coal to New York City, still feeling the effects of the depletion of stands of woodlands providing heating & cooking fire wood and squeezed by continuing post-War of 1812 import restrictions on British bituminous coal which it had once been relying on; the canal he proposed would tie the developing industries along the Delaware to the Hudson, which helped raise financing. At the time, nearly all the eastern cities were experiencing energy cost increases and difficulty in getting large quantities of fuel as most nearby timber stands had been used up; this general condition around most long establish cities and towns in the United States is one reason so much venture capital was raised for coal and coal transportation projects after 1823 and into the early 1840s, once Lehigh Coal & Navigation Company had blazed a way forward increasing annual shipping to over a remarkable 28,000 long tons by 1825.
The Delaware and Hudson Canal Company originates from the 1823 New York state corporation charter listing the unusual name of "The President and Company of the Delaware & Hudson Canal Co." authorizing an establishment of "water communication" between the Delaware River and the Hudson River. The D&H was chartered by separate laws in the states of New York and Pennsylvania in 1823 and 1826 allowing William Wurts and his brother Maurice to construct the Delaware and Hudson Canal and the gravity railroad which served it. In January 1825, following a demonstration of anthracite heating in a Wall Street coffeehouse, the D&H's public stock offering raised a million dollars. At the time, the Lehigh Canal had established a reliable flow of increasing annual tonnages, the industrial and heating uses of'rock coal' were well established. Ground was broken on July 13, 1825, the canal was opened to navigation in October 1828, it began at Rondout Creek at the location known as Creeklocks, between Rosendale.
From there it proceeded southwest a
Norfolk Southern Railway
The Norfolk Southern Railway is a Class I railroad in the United States. With headquarters in Norfolk, the company operates 19,420 miles route miles in 22 eastern states, the District of Columbia, has rights in Canada over the Albany to Montréal route of the Canadian Pacific Railway, on CN from Buffalo to St. Thomas. NS is responsible for maintaining 28,400 miles, with the remainder being operated under trackage rights from other parties responsible for maintenance; the most common commodity hauled on the railway is coal from mines in Indiana, Pennsylvania, Tennessee and West Virginia. The railway offers the largest intermodal network in eastern North America. NS is a major transporter of export coal; the railway's major sources of the mineral are located in: Pennsylvania's Cambria and Indiana counties, as well as the Monongahela Valley. In Pennsylvania, NS receives coal through interchange with R. J. Corman Railroad/Pennsylvania Lines at Cresson, originating in the "Clearfield Cluster". NS's export of West Virginia bituminous coal begins transport on portions of the well-engineered former Virginian Railway and the former N&W double-tracked line in Eastern Virginia to its Lambert's Point coal pier on Hampton Roads at Norfolk.
Coal transported by NS is thus exported to steel mills and power plants around the world. The company is a major transporter of auto parts and completed vehicles, it operates some in conjunction with other railways. NS was the first railway to employ roadrailers which are highway truck trailers with interchangeable wheel sets; the Norfolk Southern Railway's parent Norfolk Southern Corporation is based in Virginia. Norfolk Southern Corporation was incorporated on July 23, 1980 in the Commonwealth of Virginia and is publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol NSC; the primary business function of Norfolk Southern Corporation is the rail transportation of raw materials, intermediate products, finished goods across the Southeast and Midwest United States. The corporation further facilitates transport to the remainder of the United States through interchange with other rail carriers while serving overseas transport needs by serving several Atlantic and Gulf Coast ports; as of April 10, 2019, Norfolk Southern Corporation's total public stock value was over $51.6 billion.
On December 12, 2018, Norfolk Southern announced that it would be relocating its headquarters to Atlanta, leaving its hometown of Norfolk, Virginia after 38 years. The move is expected to be completed by the year 2021; the system began in 1982 with the creation of the Norfolk Southern Corporation, a holding company for the Southern Railway and Norfolk & Western Railway. The new company was given the name of the Norfolk Southern Railway, an older line acquired by SOU in 1974, that served North Carolina and the southeastern tip of Virginia. Headquarters for the new NS were established in Virginia; the company suffered a slight embarrassment when the marble headpiece at the building's entrance was unveiled, which read "Norfork Southern Railway". A new headpiece replaced the erroneous one several weeks later. NS aimed to compete in the eastern United States with CSX Transportation, formed after the Interstate Commerce Commission's 1980 approval of the merger of the Chessie System and the Seaboard System.
Norfolk Southern's predecessor railroads date to the early 19th century. The SR's earliest predecessor line was Rail Road. Chartered in 1827, the South Carolina Canal & Rail Road Company became the first to offer scheduled passenger train service with the inaugural run of the Best Friend of Charleston in 1830. Another early predecessor, the Richmond & Danville Railroad, was formed in 1847 and expanded into a large system after the American Civil War under Algernon S. Buford; the R&D fell on hard times and in 1894, it became a major portion of the new Southern Railway. Financier J. P. Morgan selected veteran railroader Samuel Spencer as president. Profitable and innovative, Southern became, in 1953, the first major U. S. railroad to switch to diesel-electric locomotives from steam. The City Point Railroad, established in 1838, was a 9-mile railroad in Virginia that started south of Richmond — City Point on the navigable portion of the James River, now part of the independent city of Hopewell — and ran to Petersburg.
It was acquired by the South Side Railroad in 1854. After the Civil War, it became part of the Atlantic, Mississippi & Ohio Railroad, a trunk line across Virginia's southern tier formed by mergers in 1870 by William Mahone, who had built the Norfolk & Petersburg Railroad in the 1850s; the AM&O was the oldest portion of the Norfolk & Western when it was formed in 1881, under new owners with a keen interest and financial investments in the coal fields of Western Virginia and West Virginia, a product which came to define and enrich the railroad. In the second half of the 20th century, the N&W acquired the Virginian Railway, the Wabash Railway, the Nickel Plate Road, among others. In 1982, the two systems formed the Norfolk Southern Railway; the system grew with the acquisition of over half of Conrail. In 1996, CSX bid to buy Conrail. S. responded with a bid of its own. On June 23, 1997, NS and CSX filed a joint application with the Surface Transportation Board for authority to purchas
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, sometimes other elements. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, tools, automobiles, machines and weapons. Iron is the base metal of steel. Iron is able to take on two crystalline forms, body centered cubic and face centered cubic, depending on its temperature. In the body-centered cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the center and eight atoms at the vertices of each cubic unit cell, it is the interaction of the allotropes of iron with the alloying elements carbon, that gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties. In pure iron, the crystal structure has little resistance to the iron atoms slipping past one another, so pure iron is quite ductile, or soft and formed. In steel, small amounts of carbon, other elements, inclusions within the iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that are common in the crystal lattices of iron atoms; the carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.14% of its weight.
Varying the amount of carbon and many other alloying elements, as well as controlling their chemical and physical makeup in the final steel, slows the movement of those dislocations that make pure iron ductile, thus controls and enhances its qualities. These qualities include such things as the hardness, quenching behavior, need for annealing, tempering behavior, yield strength, tensile strength of the resulting steel; the increase in steel's strength compared to pure iron is possible only by reducing iron's ductility. Steel was produced in bloomery furnaces for thousands of years, but its large-scale, industrial use began only after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century, with the production of blister steel and crucible steel. With the invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century, a new era of mass-produced steel began; this was followed by the Siemens–Martin process and the Gilchrist–Thomas process that refined the quality of steel. With their introductions, mild steel replaced wrought iron.
Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost of production and increasing the quality of the final product. Today, steel is one of the most common manmade materials in the world, with more than 1.6 billion tons produced annually. Modern steel is identified by various grades defined by assorted standards organizations; the noun steel originates from the Proto-Germanic adjective stahliją or stakhlijan, related to stahlaz or stahliją. The carbon content of steel is between 0.002% and 2.14% by weight for plain iron–carbon alloys. These values vary depending on alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, so on. Steel is an iron-carbon alloy that does not undergo eutectic reaction. In contrast, cast iron does undergo eutectic reaction. Too little carbon content leaves iron quite soft and weak. Carbon contents higher than those of steel make a brittle alloy called pig iron. While iron alloyed with carbon is called carbon steel, alloy steel is steel to which other alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the characteristics of steel.
Common alloying elements include: manganese, chromium, boron, vanadium, tungsten and niobium. Additional elements, most considered undesirable, are important in steel: phosphorus, sulfur and traces of oxygen and copper. Plain carbon-iron alloys with a higher than 2.1% carbon content are known as cast iron. With modern steelmaking techniques such as powder metal forming, it is possible to make high-carbon steels, but such are not common. Cast iron is not malleable when hot, but it can be formed by casting as it has a lower melting point than steel and good castability properties. Certain compositions of cast iron, while retaining the economies of melting and casting, can be heat treated after casting to make malleable iron or ductile iron objects. Steel is distinguishable from wrought iron, which may contain a small amount of carbon but large amounts of slag. Iron is found in the Earth's crust in the form of an ore an iron oxide, such as magnetite or hematite. Iron is extracted from iron ore by removing the oxygen through its combination with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon, lost to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.
This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower melting points, such as tin, which melts at about 250 °C, copper, which melts at about 1,100 °C, the combination, which has a melting point lower than 1,083 °C. In comparison, cast iron melts at about 1,375 °C. Small quantities of iron were smelted in ancient times, in the solid state, by heating the ore in a charcoal fire and welding the clumps together with a hammer and in the process squeezing out the impurities. With care, the carbon content could be controlled by moving it around in the fire. Unlike copper and tin, liquid or solid iron dissolves carbon quite readily. All of these temperatures could be reached with ancient methods used since the Bronze Age. Since the oxidation rate of iron increases beyond 800 °C, it is important that smelting take place in a low-oxygen environment. Smelting, using carbon to reduce iro
Hoboken Terminal is a commuter-oriented intermodal passenger station in Hoboken, Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. One of the New York metropolitan area's major transportation hubs, it is served by nine NJ Transit commuter rail lines, one Metro-North Railroad line, various NJT buses and private bus lines, the Hudson–Bergen Light Rail, the Port Authority Trans Hudson rapid transit system, NY Waterway-operated ferries. More than 50,000 people use the terminal daily, making it New Jersey's second-busiest railroad station and its third-busiest transportation facility, after Newark Liberty International Airport and Newark Penn Station. Hoboken Terminal is wheelchair accessible, with high-level platforms for light rail and PATH services and portable lifts for commuter rail services; the site of the terminal has been used since colonial times to link Manhattan Island and points west. It was long a ferry landing accessible via turnpike roads, plank roads. In 1811, the first steam-powered ferries began service under John Stevens, an inventor who founded Hoboken.
The coming of the railroads brought more travelers to the west bank of the Hudson River. Passengers traveling to Manhattan from most of the continental USA had to transfer to a ferry at the riverbank. Cuts and tunnels were constructed through Bergen Hill to rail–ferry terminals on the west bank of the river and the Upper New York Bay; the first of the Bergen Hill Tunnels under Jersey City Heights was opened in 1876 by the Morris and Essex Railroad, leased by the Delaware and Western Railroad. The DL&W built the modern terminal in 1907, opened the second parallel tunnel in 1908. Both tunnels are still used by NJ Transit; the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad tubes were extended to Hoboken Terminal. At the peak of intercity rail service, five passenger terminals were operated by competing railroad companies along the Hudson Waterfront. Of these, Hoboken Terminal is the only one still in active use; those at Weehawken and Exchange Place were demolished in the 1960s, while the Central Railroad of New Jersey Terminal was restored and is now part of Liberty State Park.
In October 1956, four years before its merger with the DL&W to form the Erie Lackawanna Railway, the Erie Railroad began shifting its trains from Pavonia Terminal to Hoboken. The Erie moved its Northern Branch trains to Hoboken in 1959. In October 1965, on former Erie routes, there were five weekday trains run to Midvale, three to Nyack on the Northern Branch, three to Waldwick via the Newark Branch, two to Essex Fells on its Caldwell Branch, two to Carlton Hill, one to Newton. All those trains were dropped in 1966; the last intercity trains that called at the station, with service to Chicago and Buffalo, were discontinued on January 5, 1970. Numerous streetcar lines, including the Hoboken Inclined Cable Railway, originated/terminated at the station until bustitution was completed on August 7, 1949. Ferry service from the terminal to lower Manhattan ended on November 22, 1967, it resumed in 1989 on the south side of the terminal and moved back to the restored ferry slips inside the historic terminal on December 7, 2011.
The station was badly damaged during Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012, with a 5 feet storm surge inundating the facility. The waiting room reopened in January 2013. In December 1985, an NJ Transit train crashed into the concrete bumper at Hoboken Terminal, injuring 54; the 1985 crash was said to have been caused by a lubricant, applied to the tracks to test train wheels. In May 2011, a PATH train crashed in the basement of Hoboken Terminal; the NTSB determined the accident was caused by "the failure of the engineer to control the speed of the train entering the station."On the morning of September 29, 2016, an NJ Transit train crashed through a bumper block and into the concourse of the station, killing one person and injuring more than 110 people. Tracks 10 through 17 were reopened on October 10, 2016, with most remaining tracks reopened a week later; the pedestrian concourse reopened on May 14, 2017. Track 6 reopened for service in June 2017 and track 5 reopened for service sometime around September 2018.
The permanent repairs to the concourse roof and supports are ongoing. In a statement published in February 2019, NJ Transit stated that repairs and renovations are continuing and will last for one year, which translates to estimated completion sometime around early 2020. In 1930, Thomas Edison was at the controls for the first departure of a regular-service electric multiple unit train from Hoboken Terminal to Montclair. One of the first installations of central air-conditioning in a public space was at the station, as was the first non-experimental use of mobile phones; the station has been used for film shoots, including Funny Girl, Three Days of the Condor, Once Upon a Time in America, The Station Agent, The Curse of the Jade Scorpion, Julie & Julia, Kal Ho Naa Ho, Rod Stewart's Downtown Train video and Eric Clapton's video for his 1996 single "Change the World". Main Line Bergen County Line Pascack Valley Line Morristown Line and Gladstone Branch of the Morris and Essex Lines Montclair-Boonton Line North Jersey Coast Line Meadowlands Rail Line Port Jervis Line Raritan Valley Line Access to other NJ Transit rail lines is available at Newark Penn Station, Secaucus Junction, or Newark Broad Street.
PATH trains provide 24-hour service from a three-track underground stati
Hurricane Agnes was the second tropical cyclone and first named storm of the 1972 Atlantic hurricane season. Agnes developed on June 14 from the interaction of a polar front and an upper trough over the Yucatán Peninsula. Forming as a tropical depression, the storm headed eastward and emerged into the western Caribbean Sea on June 15. Once in the Caribbean, the depression began to strengthen, by the following day, it became Tropical Storm Agnes. Thereafter, Agnes curved northward and passed just west of Cuba on June 17. Early on June 18, the storm intensified enough to be upgraded to Hurricane Agnes. Heading northward, the hurricane made landfall near Panama City, Florida late on June 19. After moving inland, Agnes weakened and was only a tropical depression when it entered Georgia; the weakening trend halted as the storm crossed into South Carolina. While over eastern North Carolina, Agnes re-strengthened into a tropical storm on June 21, as a result of baroclinic activity. Early the following day, the storm emerged into the Atlantic Ocean before re-curving northwestward and making landfall near New York City as a strong tropical storm.
Agnes became an extratropical cyclone on June 23, tracked to the northwest of Great Britain, before being absorbed by another extratropical cyclone on July 6. Agnes was, at the costliest hurricane to hit the United States in recorded history. Though it moved across the Yucatán Peninsula, the damage Agnes caused in Mexico is unknown. Although the storm bypassed the tip of Cuba, heavy rainfall occurred. In Florida, Agnes caused a significant tornado outbreak, with at least 26 confirmed twisters, two of which were spawned in Georgia; the tornadoes and two unconfirmed tornadoes in Florida alone resulted in over $4.5 million in damage and six fatalities. At least 2,082 structures in Florida were destroyed. About 1,355 other dwellings experienced minor losses. Though Agnes made landfall as a hurricane, no hurricane-force winds were reported. Along the coast abnormally high tides resulted in extensive damage between Apalachicola and Cedar Key. Light to moderate rainfall was reported in Florida. In Georgia, damage was limited to two tornadoes, which caused $275,000 in losses.
Minimal effects were recorded in Alabama, Delaware, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee. The most significant effects, by far, occurred in Pennsylvania due to intense flooding; the hurricane flooded the Susquehanna River and the Lackawanna River causing major damage to the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton metropolitan area. In both Pennsylvania and New Jersey combined, about 43,594 structures were either destroyed or damaged. In Canada, a mobile home was toppled. Overall, Agnes caused 128 fatalities and nearly $3 billion in damage, though more it is estimated that there were $2.1 billion in losses associated with the storm. Due to the significant effects, the name Agnes was retired in the spring of 1973. In early-mid June 1972, atmospheric conditions favored tropical cyclogenesis in the Caribbean Sea. Banded convection developed in the northwestern Caribbean Sea by June 11, though the system did not organize. After an upper trough moved east, wind shear decreased, causing lower atmospheric pressures observations in Cozumel, Quintana Roo, Mexico.
It is estimated that a tropical depression developed by 1200 UTC on June 14, while centered over the Yucatán Peninsula, about 78 miles southeast of Mérida, Yucatán. The depression tracked eastward and entered the western Caribbean Sea on June 15. Operationally, the National Hurricane Center did not initiate advisories on the depression until 1500 UTC on June 15. Early on June 16 at 0000 UTC, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Agnes. However, the depression was not operationally upgraded until sixteen hours later. After becoming a tropical storm on June 16, Agnes curved northward and approached the Yucatán Channel. Late on June 17, it was noted that projected path indicated the of landfall in western Cuba. However, the storm remained offshore, though it brushed the western tip of Cuba. At 1200 UTC on June 18, Agnes intensified into a hurricane while in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico. Prematurely, the National Hurricane Center operationally upgraded Agnes to a hurricane at 0200 UTC on that day.
Upon becoming a hurricane, Agnes attained its maximum sustained winds of 85 mph, though it had not reached its minimum atmospheric pressure. Due to unfavorable conditions, Agnes leveled-off in intensity and weakened to a minimal hurricane while approaching the Gulf Coast of the United States. Shortly before 2200 UTC on June 19, Agnes made landfall near Cape San Blas, Florida with winds of 75 mph. At 0000 UTC on June 20, only a few hours after moving inland, Agnes weakened to a tropical storm. After crossing the Florida/Alabama/Georgia stateline, Agnes weakened to a tropical depression. While over Georgia, the depression curved northeastward and to the east-northeast after entering South Carolina. Though the storm had not dissipated, the National Hurricane Center issued its final bulletin on Agnes at 1600 UTC on June 20. By early on June 21, a large extratropical trough spawned a low pressure area, which resulted in baroclinic activity; as a result, Agnes restrengthened into a tropical storm at 1800 UTC on June 21, while centered over eastern North Carolina.
Three hours the National Hurricane Center noted decreasing atmospheric pressures, indicated that winds had reached gale-force winds and o