The Xia dynasty is the first dynasty in traditional Chinese history. According to tradition, the Xia dynasty was established by the legendary Yu the Great after Shun, the last of the Five Emperors gave his throne to him; the Xia was succeeded by the Shang dynasty. There are no contemporaneous records of the Xia, they are not mentioned in the oldest Chinese texts, the oracle bone inscriptions from the late Shang period; the earliest mentions occur in the oldest chapters of the Book of Documents, which report speeches from the early Western Zhou period, are accepted by most scholars as dating from that time. These speeches justify the Zhou conquest of the Shang as the passing of the Mandate of Heaven, likening it to the succession of the Xia by the Shang; this political philosophy was promoted by the Confucian school in the Eastern Zhou period. The succession of dynasties was incorporated into the Bamboo Annals and the Records of the Grand Historian, became the official position of imperial historiography and ideology.
Some scholars consider the Xia dynasty mythical, or at least unsubstantiated, while others identify it with the archaeological Erlitou culture. According to the traditional chronology based upon calculations by Liu Xin, the Xia ruled between 2205 and 1766 BC; the Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project, commissioned by the Chinese government in 1996, concluded that the Xia existed between 2070 and 1600 BC. The Xia dynasty was described in classic texts such as the Classic of History, the Bamboo Annals, the Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian. According to tradition, the Huaxia were the ancestral people of the Han Chinese. Traditional histories trace the development of the Xia to the legendary Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors. According to ancient Chinese texts, before the Xia dynasty was established, battles were frequent between the Xia tribe and Chi You's tribe; the Xia tribe developed around the time of Zhuanxu, one of the Five Emperors. The Records of the Grand Historian and the Classic of Rites say that Yu the Great is the grandson of Zhuanxu, but there are other records, like Ban Gu, that say Yu is the fifth generation of Zhuanxu.
Based on this, tradition ascribes the ancestry of the Xia clan to Zhuanxu. Gun, the father of Yu the Great, is the earliest recorded member of the Xia clan; when the Yellow River flooded, many tribes united together to stop the flooding. Gun was appointed by Emperor Yao to stop the flooding, he ordered the construction of large blockades to block the path of the water. The attempt of Gun to stop the flooding lasted for nine years, but it was a failure because the floods became stronger. After nine years, Yao had given his throne to Shun. Gun was ordered to be imprisoned for life to reform the Eastern Barbarians by Shun at Yushan, a mountain located between modern Donghai County in Jiangsu Province and Linshu County in Shandong Province. Yu was trusted by Shun, so Shun appointed him to finish his father's work, to stop the flooding. Yu's method was different from his father's: he organized people from different tribes and ordered them to help him build canals in all the major rivers that were flooding and lead the water out to the sea.
Yu was dedicated to his work. People were inspired, so much so that other tribes joined in the work. Legend says that in the 13 years it took him to complete the work to stop the floods, he never went back to his home village to stop and rest though he passed by his house three times. Yu's success in stopping the flooding increased agricultural production; the Xia tribe's power increased and Yu became the leader of the surrounding tribes. Soon afterwards Shun sent Yu to lead an army to suppress the Sanmiao tribe, which continuously abused the border tribes. After defeating them, he exiled them south to the Han River area; this victory strengthened the Xia tribe's power more. As Shun aged, he relinquished the throne to Yu, whom he deemed worthy. Yu's succession marks the start of the Xia dynasty; as Yu neared death he passed the throne to his son, Qi, instead of passing it to the most capable candidate, thus setting the precedent for dynastic rule or the Hereditary System. The Xia dynasty began a period of clan control.
It is believed. Jie, the last king, was said to be corrupt, he was overthrown by the first king of the Shang dynasty. Tang is said to have given the small state of Qi as a fief to the remnants of the Xia ruling family; this practice was referred to as "the two crownings and the three respects". Zengzi was a descendant of the Xia dynasty Kings through Shao Kang; the Kings of the State of Yue claimed descent from the Xia dynasty Kings through Shao Kang. The paucity of written evidence and the time gap between the supposed time of the Xia and the first written references to it have meant that the historicity of the Xia dynasty itself and the traditional narrative of its history is at best uncertain; the Skeptical School of early Chinese history, started by Gu Jiegang in the 1920s, was the first group of scholars within China to systematically question the traditional story of its early history. By critically examining the development of the narrative of early Chinese history throughout history, Gu concluded "the the time, the longer the legendary period of earlier history... early Chinese history is a tale told and retold for generations, during which new elements were added to the front end".
Some historians have suggested that the Zhou rulers invented the Xia as a pretext, to justi
Xu Xusheng known by his courtesy name Xu Bingchang, was a Chinese archaeologist and explorer born in Tanghe, Henan Province. Best known for his discovery of the Erlitou culture in 1959, he was one of China's most important and respected archaeologists and historians of the twentieth century, providing a model of archaeological methodology for future Chinese archaeologists, he was president of Beijing Normal University. In 1921, Xu was appointed professor in the department of philosophy, Peking University, teaching History of Western Philosophy. In 1926, he served as provost of Peking University, in the following year he led an expedition to northwest China to conduct archaeological investigations. In 1929, Xu Xusheng served as dean of National Peking University Women's Teachers College, he was president of Beijing Normal University from February 1931 to May 1932. He traveled to Xi'an in 1933. From 1934 to 1937 he investigated the Early Neolithic culture in Shaanxi Province, discovered by his team of archaeologists who carried out excavations at the Doujitai site in the middle Yellow River Valley, where his approach was said to have served as a model for archaeological methodology.
He became director of the Institute for Historical Studies in 1936. Xu was instrumental in conducting the first modern study of China's early "myths" based on the reports of antiquaries findings by archaeologists, he worked on the Historical Gazetteer of Beiping. He was elected to the Chinese National Assembly in 1947. Xu Xusheng became a research fellow of the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, surveyed Gaocheng in 1959; the Erlitou culture was discovered by him that year. He joined the Chinese Communist Party in 1957, was elected to the Third National People's Congress in 1964. Persecuted during the Cultural Revolution, Xu died during January 1976; as a historian, Xu Xusheng authored the 1943 book, Zhong-guogushi tie chuanshiio shidai, where he comments that the name of Five Emperors was not mentioned until the Warring States era and cannot be found in the Zuo Zhuan, Lunyu, Mozi or Mengzi. This was the first book to provide detailed facts concerning ancient Chinese history and archaeological finds and present a comprehensive history of China's prehistoric period.
Hudong Encyclopedia entry
Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors
The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors were two groups of mythological rulers or deities in ancient northern China. The Three Sovereigns is before The Five Emperors, The Five Emperors in history have been assigned dates in a period from circa 2852 BC to 2070 BC. Today they may be considered culture heroes; the dates of these mythological figures may be fictitious, but according to some accounts and reconstructions, they preceded the Xia Dynasty. The Three Sovereigns, sometimes known as the Three August Ones, were said to be god-kings, demigods or god emperors who used their abilities to improve the lives of their people and impart to them essential skills and knowledge; the Five Emperors are portrayed as exemplary sages who possessed great moral character and lived to a great age and ruled over a period of great peace. The Three Sovereigns are ascribed various identities in different Chinese historical texts; these kings are said to have helped introduce the use of fire, taught people how to build houses and invented farming.
The Yellow Emperor's wife is credited with the invention of silk culture. The discovery of medicine, the invention of the calendar and Chinese script are credited to the kings. After their era, Yu the Great founded the Xia Dynasty. According to a modern theory with roots in the late 19th century, the Yellow Emperor is the ancestor of the Huaxia people; the Mausoleum of the Yellow Emperor was established in Shaanxi Province to commemorate the ancestry legend. The Chinese word for emperor, huángdì, derives from this, as the first user of this title Qin Shi Huang considered his reunion of all of the lands of the former Kingdom of Zhou to be greater than the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors. A related concept appears in the legend of the Four shi; the four members are Youchao-shi, Suiren-shi, Fuxi-shi, Shennong-shi. The list sometimes extends to one more member being Nüwa-shi. Four of these five names appear in different lists of the Three Sovereigns. Shi is the meaning of clan or tribe in china，So none of them are a single person and in prehistoric times.
There is a saying that the Three Sovereigns are Youchao-shi, Shennong-shi. The Suiren teach people to drill wood for fire, so people can migrate; the Youchao teach people to build houses with wood, so that people leave the cave to expand into the plains. After the number of people became more, Shennong tried a variety of grasses to find suitable cereals to solve people's food problems. People call them the Three Sovereigns in order to miss their contribution,The tribe used their contribution as the name of the tribe. Depending on the source, there are many variations of who classifies as the Three Sovereigns or the Five Emperors. There are at least six to seven known variations. Many of the sources listed below were written in much periods and millennia after the supposed existence of these figures, instead of historical fact, they may reflect a desire in time periods to create a fictitious ancestry traceable to ancient culture heroes; the Emperors were asserted as ancestors of the Xia and Zhou dynasties.
The following appear in different groupings of the Three Sovereigns: Fuxi, Nüwa, Suiren, Gong Gong, Heavenly Sovereign, Earthly Sovereign, Tai Sovereign, Human Sovereign, the Yellow Emperor. The following appear in different groupings of the Five Emperors: Yellow Emperor, Emperor Ku, Emperor Yao, Emperor Shun, Shaohao and Yan Emperor. Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors portal List of Neolithic cultures of China Dawenkou culture Liangzhu culture Majiayao culture Qujialing culture Longshan culture Baodun culture Shijiahe culture Emperor of China. Translated by Allen, Herbert J. "Ssŭma Ch'ien's Historical Records, Introductory Chapter". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 26: 269–295. 1894. Doi:10.1017/S0035869X00143916. "The Annals of the Bamboo Books: The reigns of Huang-te, Chuen-heuh and Hëen-Yuen. The Chinese Classics, volume 3, part 1. Translated by Legge, James. 1865. Pp. 108–116
In geomorphology, an outburst flood, a type of megaflood, is a high-magnitude, low-frequency catastrophic flood involving a sudden release of much water. During the last deglaciation, numerous glacial lake outburst floods were caused by the collapse of either ice sheets or glaciers that formed the dams of proglacial lakes. Examples of older outburst floods are known from the geological past of the Earth and inferred from geomorphological evidence on Mars. Landslides and volcanic dams can block rivers and create lakes, which trigger such floods when the rock or earthen barrier collapses or is eroded. Lakes form behind glacial moraines, which can collapse and create outburst floods. Megafloods are paleofloods that involved rates of water flow larger than those in the historical record, they are studied through the sedimentary deposits and the erosional and constructional landforms that individual megafloods have created. Floods that are known to us through historical descriptions are related to meteorological events, such as heavy rains, rapid melting of snowpacks, or combination of these.
In the geological past of the Earth, geological research has shown that much larger events have occurred. In the case of outburst floods, such floods are linked to the collapse of a barrier which formed a lake, they fall in the following classification according to the mechanism responsible: Collapse of glacier dams that impound proglacial lakes. Rapid erosion, melting of ice sheets. Collapse of earthen barriers. Collapse of volcanic dams created by lahars, or pyroclastic flows. Overtopping of earthen or rock barriers Lake overtopping. Ocean spilling over a dividing ridge into a landlocked basin. A smaller scale example would be the Pantai Remis landslide. Examples where evidence for large ancient water flows has been documented or is under scrutiny include: An example is the lake overflow that caused one of the worst landslide-related disasters in history on June 10, 1786. A landslide dam on Sichuan's Dadu River, created by an earthquake ten days earlier and caused a flood that extended 1,400 km downstream and killed 100,000 people.
Postglacial rebound changes the tilt of ground. In lakes, this means that shores sink in the direction farther away from the former maximum depth of ice; when the lake rests against an esker, water pressure increases with the increases depth. The esker may fail under the load and burst, creating a new outflow. Lake Pielinen in Finland is an example of this. A rising sea flood, the proposed and much-discussed refilling of the freshwater glacial Black Sea with water from the Aegean, has been described as "a violent rush of salt water into a depressed fresh-water lake in a single catastrophe, the inspiration for the flood mythology"; the marine incursion, caused by the rising level of the Mediterranean occurred around 7,600 years ago. It remains an active subject of debate among geologists, with subsequent evidence discovered to both support and discredit the existence of the flood, while the theory that it is the basis of flood myths is not proven. In North America, during glacial maximum, there were no Great Lakes as we know them, but "proglacial" lakes formed and shifted.
They lay in the areas of the modern lakes, but their drainage sometimes passed south, into the Mississippi system, sometimes into the Arctic, or east into the Atlantic. The most famous of these proglacial lakes was Lake Agassiz; as ice-dam configurations failed, a series of great floods were released from Lake Agassiz, resulting in massive pulses of freshwater added to the world's oceans. The Missoula Floods of Oregon and Washington states were caused by breaking ice dams, resulting in the Channeled Scablands. Lake Bonneville, a pluvial lake, burst catastrophically in the Bonneville Flood about 14,500 years ago, due to its water overflowing and washing away a sill composed of two opposing alluvial fans which had blocked a gorge. Lake Bonneville was not a glacial lake, but glacial age climate change determined the lake level and its overflow; the first scientific report of a megaflood describes this event. The last of the North American proglacial lakes, north of the present Great Lakes, has been designated Glacial Lake Ojibway by geologists.
It reached its largest volume around 8,500 years ago. But its outlet was blocked by the great wall of the glaciers and it drained by tributaries, into the Ottawa and St. Lawrence Rivers far to the south. About 8,300 to 7,700 years ago, the melting ice dam over Hudson Bay's southernmost extension narrowed to the point where pressure and its buoyancy lifted it free, the ice-dam failed catastrophically. Lake Ojibway's beach terraces show; the volume of Lake Ojibway is estimated to have been about 163,000 km3, more than enough water to cover a flattened-out Antarctica with a sheet of water 10 metres deep. That volume was added to the world's oceans in a matter of months; the detailed timing and rates of change after the onset of melting of the great ice-sheets are subjects of continuing study. A theory proposed by Andrey Tchepalyga of the Russian Academy of Sciences dates the flooding of the Black Sea basin to an earlier time and from a different cause. According to Tchepalyga, global warming beginning from about 16,000 BP caused the melting of the Scandinavia Ice Sheet, resulting in massive river discharge that flowed into the Caspian Sea, raising it to as much as 50 metres above normal present-day levels.
The Sea of Azov rose so high t
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty. The classic account of the Shang comes from texts such as the Book of Documents, Bamboo Annals and Records of the Grand Historian. According to the traditional chronology based on calculations made 2,000 years ago by Liu Xin, the Shang ruled from 1766 to 1122 BC, but according to the chronology based upon the "current text" of Bamboo Annals, they ruled from 1556 to 1046 BC; the Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project dated them from c. 1600 to 1046 BC. The Shang dynasty is the earliest dynasty of traditional Chinese history supported by archaeological evidence. Excavation at the Ruins of Yin, identified as the last Shang capital, uncovered eleven major royal tombs and the foundations of palaces and ritual sites, containing weapons of war and remains from both animal and human sacrifices. Tens of thousands of bronze, stone and ceramic artifacts have been found.
The Anyang site has yielded the earliest known body of Chinese writing divinations inscribed on oracle bones – turtle shells, ox scapulae, or other bones. More than 20,000 were discovered in the initial scientific excavations during the 1920s and 1930s, over four times as many have been found since; the inscriptions provide critical insight into many topics from the politics and religious practices to the art and medicine of this early stage of Chinese civilization. Many events concerning the Shang dynasty are mentioned in various Chinese classics, including the Book of Documents, the Mencius and the Zuo Zhuan. Working from all the available documents, the Han dynasty historian Sima Qian assembled a sequential account of the Shang dynasty as part of his Records of the Grand Historian, his history describes some events in detail. A related, but different, account is given by the Bamboo Annals; the Annals were interred in 296 BC, but the text has a complex history and the authenticity of the surviving versions is controversial.
The name Yīn is used by Sima Qian for the dynasty, in the "current text" version of the Bamboo Annals for both the dynasty and its final capital. It has been a popular name for the Shang throughout history. Since the Records of Emperors and Kings by Huangfu Mi, it has been used to describe the half of the Shang dynasty. In Japan and Korea, the Shang are still referred to exclusively as the Yin dynasty; however it seems to have been a Zhou name for the earlier dynasty. The word does not appear in the oracle bones, which refer to the state as Shāng, the capital as Dàyì Shāng, it does not appear in securely-dated Western Zhou bronze inscriptions. Sima Qian's Annals of the Yin begins by describing the predynastic founder of the Shang lineage, Xie — appearing as Qi — as having been miraculously conceived when Jiandi, a wife of Emperor Ku, swallowed an egg dropped by a black bird. Xie is said to have helped Yu the Great to control the Great Flood and for his service to have been granted a place called Shang as a fief.
Sima Qian relates that the dynasty itself was founded 13 generations when Xie's descendant Tang overthrew the impious and cruel final Xia ruler in the Battle of Mingtiao. The Records recount events from the reigns of Tang, Tai Jia, Tai Wu, Pan Geng, Wu Ding, Wu Yi and the depraved final king Di Xin, but the rest of the Shang rulers are mentioned by name. According to the Records, the Shang moved their capital five times, with the final move to Yin in the reign of Pan Geng inaugurating the golden age of the dynasty. Di Xin, the last Shang king, is said to have committed suicide after his army was defeated by Wu of Zhou. Legends say that his army and his equipped slaves betrayed him by joining the Zhou rebels in the decisive Battle of Muye. According to the Yi Zhou Shu and Mencius the battle was bloody; the classic, Ming-era novel Fengshen Yanyi retells the story of the war between Shang and Zhou as a conflict where rival factions of gods supported different sides in the war. After the Shang were defeated, King Wu allowed Di Xin's son Wu Geng to rule the Shang as a vassal kingdom.
However, Zhou Wu sent an army to ensure that Wu Geng would not rebel. After Zhou Wu's death, the Shang joined the Rebellion of the Three Guards against the Duke of Zhou, but the rebellion collapsed after three years, leaving Zhou in control of Shang territory. After Shang's collapse, Zhou's rulers forcibly relocated "Yin diehards" and scattered them throughout Zhou territory; some surviving members of the Shang royal family collectively changed their surname from the ancestral name Zi to the name of their fallen dynasty, Yin. The family retained an aristocratic standing and provided needed administrative services to the succeeding Zhou dynasty; the Records of the Grand Historian states that King Cheng of Zhou, with the support of his regent and uncle, the Duke of Zhou, enfeoffed Weiziqi, a brother of Di Xin, as the Duke of Song, with its capital at Shangqiu. This practice was known as 二王三恪; the Dukes of Song would maintain rites honoring the Shang kings until Qi conquered Song in 286 BC. Confucius was a descendant of the Shang Kings through the Dukes of Song.
The Eastern Han dynasty bestowed the title of Duke of Song and "Duke Who Continues and Honours the Yin" upon Kong An because he was part of the Shang dynasty's legacy. This branch of the Confucius family is a separa
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Tang of Shang
Tang or Cheng Tang, recorded on oracle bones as Da Yi, was the first king of the Shang dynasty in Chinese history. He overthrew the last ruler of the Xia dynasty. Tang ruled Shang, one of the many kingdoms under the suzerainty of the Xia dynasty, for 17 years. During Jie's reign, Shang grew in power at the expense of Xia's other vassals, he was able to win many supporters from as many as 40 smaller kingdoms. Tang recognized that Jie used this to convince others. In one speech, Tang said that creating chaos was not something he wanted, but given the terror of Jie, he had to follow the Mandate of Heaven and use this opportunity to overthrow Xia; as an advantage he pointed out that Jie's own military generals would not obey his orders. In the 15th year of Jie's reign, Tang began moving Lü to the capital Bo. About two years Shang sent his minister Yi Yin as an envoy to Jie. Yi remained in the Xia capital before returning to Shang; the Shang's power continued to grow. In the 26th year of Jie's reign, Shang conquered Wen.
Two years Shang was attacked by Kunwu, several years of war between Shang and Kunwu followed. Despite this setback, Shang continued to expand on a number of fronts, gathering vassal troops in Jingbo; the Shang army and allied forces conquered Mitxu and attacked Gu, which too was conquered the following year. About this time chief historian of Jie, would flee from the Xia to the Shang; the Shang army defeated Xia army. Jie himself escaped and fled to Sanzong; the Shang forces under their general Wuzi pursued Jie to Cheng, captured him at Jiaomen, deposed him, bringing the Xia dynasty to an end. Jie was exiled in Nanchao. Jie would die of illness and Tang succeeded him as paramount King, inaugurating the Shang dynasty. Tang's reign was regarded as a good one by the Chinese, he lowered the conscription rate of soldiers. His influence spread to the Yellow River, many outlying tribes, such as Di and Qiang, became vassal states, he established Anyang as the new capital of China. Tang built. In the first five years of his reign, there were several droughts.
Tang ordered golden coins to be made and distributed to poor families, forced to sell their children because of the drought. It was intended for them to use this money to buy their children back. In the 9th year of his reign, he moved the Nine Tripod Cauldrons, made by Yu the Great, to the Shang Palace