Ernani is an operatic dramma lirico in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Francesco Maria Piave, based on the play Hernani by Victor Hugo. Verdi was commissioned by the Teatro La Fenice in Venice to write an opera, but finding the right subject took some time, the composer worked with the inexperienced Piave in shaping first one and another drama by Hugo into an acceptable libretto; as musicologist Roger Parker notes, the composer "intervened on several important points, insisting for example that the role of Ernani be sung by a tenor. Ernani was first performed on 9 March 1844 and it was "immensely popular, was revived countless times during its early years", it became Verdi's most popular opera until it was superseded by Il trovatore after 1853. In 1904 it became the first opera to be recorded completely. Following the success of both Nabucco and I Lombardi, Verdi was approached by many opera companies wanting to commission him to write an opera for their houses. Rather than prepare another for La Scala, he was interested in a commission for two operas for the 1843–44 season which came from the President of the Teatro la Fenice in Venice, Marquis Nanni Mocenigo.

However, the composer was only willing to accept the terms which he proposed: 12,000 Austrian lire to be paid after the first performance, not the third as proposed by Venice. Amongst other stipulations, he demanded the right to choose his own subject, his own librettist, to pay him directly, as well as refusing to accept the requirement that a full orchestral score be available in advance. In addition, he had the right to choose the singers from the assembled company for that season. David Kimbell notes one additional demand: "He explains - and this was rare at the time - that he began to compose only when the libretto was completed to his satisfaction because'when I have a general conception of the whole poem, the music comes of its own accord' "Once this agreement was settled upon, the next step was to choose a subject, something which took some time. Several subjects came to Verdi's attention: for example, Byron's The Corsair was considered, but the right baritone was not available. In thinking about an opera about the Venetian Foscari family, he found that it was forbidden by the censor in order to avoid upsetting any of the descendants of that family who were living in Venice.

However, both of these subjects were to become Verdi operas, Il corsaro and I due Foscari. An unsolicited manuscript from the unknown Francesco Piave proposed an opera, based on Victor Hugo's play, on which he had started work. Mocenigo assured the composer of Piave's sense of the theatre and of musical forms, so they agreed to proceed, although by the time of its approval by the Fenice authorities, it had become Allan Cameron, a story set in the time just prior to the accession of Britain's Charles II. Verdi took control and made it clear to Piave what he wanted in the way of a theatrical experience: "... Let's have as few words as possible Remember that brevity is never a fault But I do insist on brevity because that's what the public wants...."The idea for Hernani The Cromwell libretto arrived from Piave in pieces, Verdi put it away until he had the complete version to work from. However, when the composer and La Fenice's president met in Venice in late August, Verdi expressed some dissatisfaction at how the libretto had turned out.

Mocenigo's casual reference to Hugo's successful 1830 drama Hernani as an idea for a libretto caught Verdi's imagination, as seen in a letter which the latter wrote to Mocenigo in early September which expressed concerns about Allan Cameron and the way it had turned out, though noting that this was "the fault of the subject and not the poet". He continues: But oh, if only we could do Hernani instead that would be tremendous. I know that it would mean a great deal of trouble for the poet but my first task would be to try and compensate him..... all he would have to do would be to condense and tighten up. Tomorrow I'll write at length to Piave setting out all the scenes from Hernani which seem to me suitable. At this point he continues with suggestions for the poet. For Verdi, the appeal of Hugo's work – which the latter described as "Romanticism or the Liberalism in literature" – was "the struggle between love and honour", Budden sums up this appeal as "Within Hugo's scheme each illogical action follows logically from the one that precedes it, giving Verdi the pace, the eventfulness and above all the dramatic unity that he has been looking for."Setting the play as the opera, Ernani However, Piave was not at all pleased by this turn of events and felt that an opera based on Hernani could not be staged for reasons of censorship.

For instance, the King's first appearance in the play is from a cupboard where he has been hiding since some time after his arrival and before he meets Elvira. Thus he overhears much of the interaction between Elvira and Ernani before revealing himself. Verdi must have realized that no king "would be allowed to hide in a cupboard", something which Budden notes, but the La Fenice directorate did approve the concept and the librettist was offered compensation, although he saved his Allan Cameron in reserve in case of mishap. As it evolved, the opera – titled Don Ruy Gomez de Silva in synopsis form – came more and more "to reflect the unique character of t


Concrescence is a condition of teeth where the cementum overlying the roots of at least two teeth join together. It involves only two teeth; the most involved teeth are upper second and third molars. The prevalence rate is 0.04%. Occlusion problems causing cheek biting and traumatic ulcers. Involved teeth may not erupt completely. May cause localized periodontal destruction due to aetiological factors. May cause fracture of the floor of the maxillary sinus; this condition arises as the result of traumatic overcrowding of teeth. True concrescence occurs during root formation phase, whereas acquired concrescence occurs after the radicular phase of development is complete, it is difficult to diagnose clinically. Radiographs taken at different angles can aid detection of concrescence. Histological examination for extracted teeth could confirm diagnosis. If the condition is not affecting the patient, no treatment is needed. Concrescence teeth could be replaced with full crowns. However, if the teeth are having recurrent problems, non-restorable or pain, extraction should be considered

Artists' Quarter

The Artists' Quarter was a well-known, musician-owned and operated jazz club in the Twin Cities. The club opened in the early 1970s in Minneapolis, Minnesota at 26th street and Nicollet Avenue south. After the original club closed in 1990, drummer Kenny Horst opened a new location at the corner of Fifth and Jackson streets in Saint Paul, Minnesota in 1995; the club moved to the basement of the historic Hamm Building in downtown St. Paul in 2001; the club featured both local and touring musicians. Many famous musicians played at the AQ, including Roy Haynes, Mose Allison, Joey DeFrancesco, Sweets Edison, Lew Tabackin, Eric Alexander, Jack McDuff, Dewey Redman, Curtis Fuller, Benny Golson, Wallace Roney, others. Lee Konitz, Roy Haynes, David Hazeltine, Ira Sullivan, Bill Carrothers, Dean Granros, Phil Hey Quartet, Atlantis Quartet, Bobby Peterson, Bob Malach, Andrés Prado, Billy Holloman have all recorded live albums at the Artists' Quarter; the club was voted one of the top 100 jazz clubs in the world in 2009 by Down Beat magazine,Additionally, the AQ hosted the Soapboxing Poetry Slam, home of the 2009 and 2010 National Poetry Slam Championship Teams.

On October 7, 2013, owner Kenny Horst announced that he would be closing the club on January 1, 2014, due to rising costs since his landlord died in 2012. On October 28, 2013, St. Paul mayor Chris Coleman pledged to keep the AQ open, though no details were shared at that time; as of January 1, 2014, the club is closed. Roy Haynes earned a Grammy nomination for his drum solo, “Hippidy Hop,” from the live album Whereas, recorded at the club over the weekend of January 20, 2006. List of jazz clubs Jazz Police Artists' Quarter Club Review "Artists' Quarter website". Retrieved 2006-07-31. Artists' Quarter Page on Myspace