São Miguel Island
São Miguel Island, nicknamed "The Green Island", is the largest and most populous island in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores. The island covers 760 km2 and has around 140,000 inhabitants, with 45,000 people resident in Ponta Delgada, the archipelago's largest city. In 1427, São Miguel became the second of the islands discovered by Gonçalo Velho Cabral to be settled by colonists from continental Portugal; this date is uncertain, as it is believed that the island was discovered between 1426 and 1437 and inscribed in portolans from the middle of the 15th century. Its discovery was recorded by Father Gaspar Frutuoso in the seminal history of the Azores, Saudades da Terra, as he began: "This island of São Miguel where...we are, is mountainous and covered in ravines, it was, when we discovered it, covered in trees...due to its humidity, with its water showers and ravines warm with sun..." It was sometime after the initial settlement of Povoação Velha that a volcanic eruption occurred in the crater of Sete Cidades.
There are no records of the precise date, but Gaspar Frutuoso noted that navigators returning to São Miguel encountered the western part of the island changed and tree trunks and pumice stone floating in the waters around the island. After docking in Povoação, the settlers reported feeling aftershocks. In the early 15th century, Infante D. Henrique first authorized the settlement of the Azores, many settlers from the historical provinces of Estremadura, Alto Alentejo and Madeira travelled to São Miguel, under the Carta Régia; the fertile soils and temperate climate attracted settlers from other countries, notably French people and cultural minorities such as Jews and some Moors. Its geographic position and fertile soils permitted rapid economic development; the establishment of a military garrison made the island an obligatory port-of-call in the African and Asian commercial trade, while the export of sugar, orchil stabilized the island's export trade. The first capital of the island was Vila Franca do Campo, devastated by the 1522 Vila Franca earthquake and landslides.
The tragedy helped to elevate Ponta Delgada to the administrative and economic status of capital and business centre from 1546. During the 1580 Portuguese succession crisis, the people from São Miguel won the naval Battle of Vila Franca against a French squadron that supported the claims of the pretender António, Prior of Crato. With the Portuguese Restoration War, the island regained its position as a commercial centre, establishing new contacts in Brazil, colonized during this period; some of the island’s historic buildings, including mansions and churches, date from this period. In 1831, during the Liberal Wars, following the landing of troops loyal to Queen Maria II in Nordeste, a resistance to the Absolutist regime on the Island was organized. In 1832, this militia declared allegiance to the Charter and Queen Maria, forming a contingent that sailed to the continent where they were involved in the liberation of Porto. Following the Liberal Wars, the period of Devourism allowed the economy to flourish, the port of Ponta Delgada expanded, through the export of new crops such as tea and tobacco.
The development of the fishing industry, cultivation of food staples and expansion of the dairy industry permitted the growth of many of the population centres on the island. Following the Carnation Revolution, the island received the seat of the Presidency of the Autonomous Region of the Azores, located in Ponta Delgada, while its economic and political importance continued to grow within the archipelago. São Miguel is bisected by many faults from the northwest to southeast in the direction of the Terceira Rift, a triple junction of the Eurasian and North American tectonic plates; this system is best expressed in the western part of the island with extensive geological formations, such as the Mosteiros Graben, the Ribeira Grande Graben, the many cones and fissural structures along the interior of the island. In the ancient crater of Furnas the faults are aligned west-northwest to east-southeast. Zbysewsky, among others identifies eight geomorphological structures on São Miguel that correspond to the formative features that built the island, including: The Sete Cidades Massif – an area that occupies the extreme western part of the island, corresponds to a central volcanic crater and lake-filled caldera, with various cones, deposits of pumice, lava domes and maars.
In the northeastern flank of this volcano the Mosteiros Graben, a tectonic structure created from the collapse of lands and located along a northwest to southeast orientation. Along other regional fractures and radial faults there are ancient spatter cones and lava domes.
Steven Chu is an American physicist and a former government official. He is known for his research at Bell Labs and Stanford University regarding the cooling and trapping of atoms with laser light, for which he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1997, along with his scientific colleagues Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William Daniel Phillips. Chu served as the 12th United States Secretary of Energy from 2009 to 2013. At the time of his appointment as Energy Secretary, Chu was a professor of physics and molecular and cellular biology at the University of California and the director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, where his research was concerned with the study of biological systems at the single molecule level. Chu resigned as energy secretary on April 22, 2013, he returned to Stanford as Professor of Professor of Molecular & Cellular Physiology. Chu is a vocal advocate for more research into renewable energy and nuclear power, arguing that a shift away from fossil fuels is essential to combating climate change.
He has conceived of a global "glucose economy", a form of a low-carbon economy, in which glucose from tropical plants is shipped around like oil is today. Nobel Laureate Steven Chu Assumes Term as American Association for the Advancement of Science President. Chu was born in St. Louis, with ancestry from Liuhe, Taicang, in Jiangnan and graduated from Garden City High School, he received both a B. A. in mathematics and a B. S. in physics in 1970 from the University of Rochester. He went on to earn his Ph. D. in physics from the University of California, Berkeley under Eugene D. Commins, in 1976, during which he was supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship. Chu comes from a family of scholars, his father, Ju-Chin Chu, earned a doctorate in chemical engineering from MIT and taught at Washington University in St. Louis and Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, his mother studied economics, his maternal grandfather, Shu-tian Li, earned a Ph. D. from Cornell University, was a professor and president of Tianjin University.
His mother's uncle, Li Shu-hua, a physical scientist, studied physics at the Sorbonne before returning to China. Chu's older brother, Gilbert Chu, is a professor of biochemistry and medicine at Stanford University, his younger brother, Morgan Chu, is a partner and former co-managing partner at the law firm Irell & Manella. According to Chu, his two brothers and four cousins have four Ph. D.s, three M. D.s, a J. D. among them. In 1997, he married Jean Fetter, a British-American Oxford-trained physicist, he has two sons and Michael, from a previous marriage to Lisa Chu-Thielbar. Chu is interested in sports such as baseball and cycling, he taught himself tennis—by reading a book—in the eighth grade, was a second-string substitute for the school team for three years. He taught himself how to pole vault using bamboo poles obtained from the local carpet store. Chu said he never learned to speak Chinese because his parents always spoke to their children in English. After obtaining his doctorate he remained at Berkeley as a postdoctoral researcher for two years before joining Bell Labs, where he and his several co-workers carried out his Nobel Prize-winning laser cooling work.
He left Bell Labs and became a professor of physics at Stanford University in 1987, serving as the chair of its Physics Department from 1990 to 1993 and from 1999 to 2001. At Stanford and three others initiated the Bio-X program, which focuses on interdisciplinary research in biology and medicine, played a key role in securing the funding for the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology. In August 2004, Chu was appointed as the director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a U. S. Department of Energy National Laboratory, joined UC Berkeley's Department of Physics and Department of Molecular and Cell Biology. Under Chu's leadership, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been a center of research into biofuels and solar energy, he spearheaded the laboratory's Helios project, an initiative to develop methods of harnessing solar power as a source of renewable energy for transportation. Chu's early research focused on atomic physics by developing laser cooling techniques and the magneto-optical trapping of atoms using lasers.
He and his co-workers at Bell Labs developed a way to cool atoms by employing six laser beams opposed in pairs and arranged in three directions at right angles to each other. Trapping atoms with this method allows scientists to study individual atoms with great accuracy. Additionally, the technique can be used to construct an atomic clock with great precision. At Stanford, Chu's research interests expanded into biological physics and polymer physics at the single-molecule level, he studied enzyme activity and protein and RNA folding using techniques like fluorescence resonance energy transfer, atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers. His polymer physics research used individual DNA molecules to study polymer dynamics and their phase transitions, he continued researching atomic physics as well and developed new methods of laser cooling and trapping. Steven Chu is a co-winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1997 for the "development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light", shared with Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William Daniel Phillips.
He is a member of the U. S. National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, the Academia Sinica, is a foreign member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Korean Academy of Science and Engineering, he was awarded the Humboldt Prize by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in 1995. Chu received an honorary doctorate from Boston Un
United States Secretary of Energy
The United States Secretary of Energy is the head of the United States Department of Energy, a member of the Cabinet of the United States, fifteenth in the presidential line of succession. The position was formed on October 1, 1977 with the creation of the Department of Energy when President Jimmy Carter signed the Department of Energy Organization Act; the post focused on energy production and regulation. The emphasis soon shifted to developing technology for better and more efficient energy sources as well as energy education. After the end of the Cold War, the department's attention turned toward radioactive waste disposal and maintenance of environmental quality; the current Secretary of Energy is Rick PerryFormer Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger was the first Secretary of Energy, a Republican nominated to the post by Democratic President Jimmy Carter, the only time a president has appointed someone of another party to the post. Schlesinger is the only secretary to be dismissed from the post.
Hazel O'Leary, Bill Clinton's first Secretary of Energy, was the first female and African-American holder. The first Hispanic to serve as Energy Secretary was Clinton's second, Federico Peña. Spencer Abraham became the first Arab American to hold the position on January 20, 2001, serving under the administration of George W. Bush. Steven Chu became the first Asian American to hold the position on January 20, 2009, serving under the administration of Barack Obama, he is the longest-serving Secretary of Energy and the first individual to join the Cabinet having received a Nobel Prize. Parties Democratic Republican As of April 2019, there are nine living former Secretaries of Energy, the oldest being Charles Duncan Jr.. The most recent Secretary of Energy to die was Samuel Bodman on September 7, 2018. List of living former members of the United States Cabinet United States Secretary of Transportation White House Office of Energy and Climate Change Policy
President of Portugal
The President of the Portuguese Republic is the executive head of state of Portugal. The powers and duties of prior presidential offices, their relation with the Prime Minister and cabinets have over time differed with the various Portuguese constitutions; the current President of Portugal is Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa, who took office on 9 March 2016. The Portuguese Third Republic is a semi-presidential system. Unlike several other European presidents, the Portuguese President is quite powerful. Although it is the Prime Minister of Portugal and parliament that oversee much of the nation's actual day-to-day affairs, the Portuguese President wields significant influence and authority in the fields of national security and foreign policy; the President is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, holds the nation's most senior office, outranks all other politicians. The President's greatest power is their ability to choose the Prime Minister. However, since the Assembly of the Republic has the sole power to dismiss the Prime Minister's government, the Prime Minister named by the President must have the confidence of the majority of the representatives in the assembly, otherwise he or she may face a motion of no confidence.
The President has the discretionary power to dissolve parliament when sees it fit, President Sampaio made use of this prerogative in late 2004 to remove the controversial government of Pedro Santana Lopes, despite the absolute majority of deputies supporting the government. In 2003 President Sampaio intervened to limit the Portuguese participation in the Iraq War - as Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces he forbade the deployment of the Portuguese Army in a war that he disagreed with, clashing with the Prime-Minister José Manuel Barroso. Prior to the Carnation Revolution, the powers of the presidency varied widely; the constitution grants the following powers to the president: The President exercises the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces and Grand Master of the Three Orders and shall appoint and remove, at the proposal of the Government, the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces and the Military Staff Heads of the three branches the Armed Forces. The president can dissolve the Assembly of the Republic, which implies the need to call for new legislative elections and after the implementation of these, the resignation of the government.
The President appoints the Prime Minister, given the election results, appoints the other members of the Government by proposal of the Prime Minister. He can, dismiss the Government when this is necessary to ensure the smooth functioning of democratic institutions; the government bodies of the autonomous regions may be dissolved by the President, by committing serious acts contrary to the Constitution. The President declares a state of siege and emergency upon consultation with the Government and with permission of the Parliament. At the proposal of the Government and with the authorization of the Parliament, the President can declare war in the event of actual or imminent aggression and can propose peace; the President promulgates or vetoes the promulgation of laws, decree-laws, regulatory decrees and other decrees of the Government. In the area of his powers in international relations, the President of the Republic ratifies international treaties; the President decides on referendums put forth to him by Parliament.
The President of the Republic may request the Constitutional Court prior review of the constitutionality of the norms of international agreements or decrees that they have been sent for promulgation as an organic law, law or ordinance. The President shall appoint and remove, in some cases a proposal from the Government, holders of important state organs such as the Representatives of the Republic for the autonomous regions, the President of the Supreme Court and the Attorney General, five members of the Council of State and two members of the Supreme Judicial Council; the president appoints ambassadors and special envoys, following proposal by the Government, accredits the foreign diplomatic representatives. The President of the Republic, after consultation with the Government and commutes sentences. Under the Portuguese Constitution adopted in 1976, in the wake of the 1974 Carnation Revolution, the President is elected to a five-year term; the official residence of the Portuguese President is the Belém Palace.
The President is elected in a two-round system: if no candidate reaches 50% of the votes during the first round, the two candidates with the most votes face each other in a second round held two weeks later. However, the second round has only been needed once, during the 1986 presidential election. To date, all of the elected presidents since the Carnation Revolution have served for two consecutive terms, presidents rank as the most popular political figure in the country. However, the popularity of former President Cavaco
United States Department of Energy
The United States Department of Energy is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material. Its responsibilities include the nation's nuclear weapons program, nuclear reactor production for the United States Navy, energy conservation, energy-related research, radioactive waste disposal, domestic energy production, it directs research in genomics. DOE sponsors more research in the physical sciences than any other U. S. federal agency, the majority of, conducted through its system of National Laboratories. The agency is administered by the United States Secretary of Energy, its headquarters are located in Southwest Washington, D. C. on Independence Avenue in the James V. Forrestal Building, named for James Forrestal, as well as in Germantown, Maryland. Former Governor of Texas Rick Perry is the current Secretary of Energy, he was confirmed by a 62 to 37 vote in the United States Senate on March 2, 2017.
In 1942, during World War II, the United States started the Manhattan Project, a project to develop the atomic bomb, under the eye of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. After the war in 1946, the Atomic Energy Commission was created to control the future of the project. Among other nuclear projects, the AEC produced fabricated uranium fuel cores at locations such as Fernald Feed Materials Production Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1974, the AEC gave way to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, tasked with regulating the nuclear power industry, the Energy Research and Development Administration, tasked to manage the nuclear weapon, naval reactor, energy development programs; the 1973 oil crisis called attention to the need to consolidate energy policy. On August 4, 1977, President Jimmy Carter signed into law The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977, which created the Department of Energy; the new agency, which began operations on October 1, 1977, consolidated the Federal Energy Administration, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Power Commission, programs of various other agencies.
Former Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger, who served under Presidents Nixon and Ford during the Vietnam War, was appointed as the first secretary. In December 1999, the FBI was investigating. Wen Ho Lee was accused of stealing nuclear secrets from Los Alamos National Laboratory for the People's Republic of China. Federal officials, including then-Energy Secretary Bill Richardson, publicly named Lee as a suspect before he was charged with a crime; the U. S. Congress held hearings to investigate the Department of Energy's mishandling of his case. Republican senators thought that an independent agency should be in charge of nuclear weapons and security issues, not the Department of Energy. All but one of the 59 charges against Lee were dropped because the investigation proved that the plans the Chinese obtained could not have come from Lee. Lee won a $1.6 million settlement against the federal government and news agencies. In 2001, American Solar Challenge was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
After the 2005 race, the U. S. Department of Energy discontinued its sponsorship. Title XVII of Energy Policy Act of 2005 authorizes the DOE to issue loan guarantees to eligible projects that "avoid, reduce, or sequester air pollutants or anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases" and "employ new or improved technologies as compared to technologies in service in the United States at the time the guarantee is issued". In loan guarantees, a conditional commitment requires to meet an equity commitment, as well as other conditions, before the loan guarantee is completed; the United States Department of Energy, the Nuclear Threat Initiative, the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management, the International Atomic Energy Agency partnered to develop and launch the World Institute for Nuclear Security in September 2008. WINS is an international non-governmental organization designed to provide a forum to share best practices in strengthening the security and safety of nuclear and radioactive materials and facilities.
On March 28, 2017 a supervisor in the Office of International Climate and Clean Energy asked staff to avoid the phrases "climate change," "emissions reduction," or "Paris Agreement" in written memos, briefings or other written communication. A DOE spokesperson denied; the department is under the control and supervision of a United States Secretary of Energy, a political appointee of the President of the United States. The Energy Secretary is assisted in managing the department by a United States Deputy Secretary of Energy appointed by the president, who assumes the duties of the secretary in his absence; the department has three under secretaries, each appointed by the president, who oversee the major areas of the department's work. The president appoints seven officials with the rank of Assistant Secretary of Energy who have line management responsibility for major organizational elements of the Department; the Energy Secretary assigns their duties. Excerpt from the Code of Federal Regulations, in Title 10: Energy:The official seal of the Department of energy "includes a green shield bisected by a gold-colored lightning bolt, on, emblazoned a gold-colored symbolic sun, oil derrick and dynamo.
It is crested atop a white rope. Both appear on a blue field surrounded by concentric circles in which the name
Executive Office of the President of the United States
The Executive Office of the President of the United States is a group of agencies at the center of the executive branch of the United States federal government. The EOP supports the work of the President, it consists of several offices and agencies, such as the White House Office, National Security Council or Office of Management and Budget. With the increase in technological and global advancement, the size of the White House staff has increased to include an array of policy experts to address various fields of the modern day. There are about 4,000 positions in the Executive Office of the President, most of which do not require confirmation from the U. S. Senate; the budget for the EOP in FY 2017 was $714 million. The Executive Office is overseen by the White House Chief of Staff, since January 2, 2019 held by acting Chief of Staff, Mick Mulvaney, appointed by Donald Trump, the current and 45th President of the United States. In 1939, during Franklin D. Roosevelt's second term in office, the foundations of the modern White House staff were created.
Based on the recommendations of a presidentially commissioned panel of political science and public administration experts, known as the Brownlow Committee, Roosevelt was able to get Congress to approve the Reorganization Act of 1939. The Act led to Reorganization Plan No. 1, which created the EOP. The EOP encompassed two subunits at its outset: the White House Office and the Bureau of the Budget, the predecessor to today's Office of Management and Budget, created in 1921 and located in the Treasury Department, it absorbed most of the functions of the National Emergency Council. The new staff system appeared more ambitious on paper than in practice, but it laid the groundwork for the large and organizationally complex White House staff that would emerge during the presidencies of Roosevelt's successors. Roosevelt's efforts are notable in contrast to those of his predecessors in office. During the 19th century, presidents had few staff resources. Thomas Jefferson had one messenger and one secretary at his disposal, both of whose salaries were paid by the president personally.
It was not until 1857. By Ulysses S. Grant's presidency, the staff had grown to three. By 1900, the White House staff included one "secretary to the president", two assistant secretaries, two executive clerks, a stenographer, seven other office personnel. Under Warren G. Harding, there were thirty-one staff. During Herbert Hoover's presidency, two additional secretaries to the president were added by Congress, one of whom Hoover designated as his Press Secretary. From 1933 to 1939 as he expanded the scope of the federal government's policies and powers in response to the Great Depression, Roosevelt muddled through: his "brains trust" of top advisers were appointed to vacant positions in agencies and departments, whence they drew their salaries since the White House lacked statutory or budgetary authority to create new staff positions. After World War II, in particular during the presidency of Dwight David Eisenhower, the staff was expanded and reorganized. Eisenhower, a former U. S. Army general, had been Supreme Allied Commander during the war, brought ideas of effective organization from that experience.
Today, the staff is much bigger. Estimates indicate some 3,000 to 4,000 persons serve in EOP staff positions with policy-making responsibilities, with a budget of $300 to $400 million. Senior staff within the EOP have the title Assistant to the President, second-level staff have the title Deputy Assistant to the President, third-level staff have the title Special Assistant to the President; the core White House staff appointments, most EOP officials are not required to be confirmed by the U. S. Senate, although there are a handful of exceptions; the information in the following table is current as of April 4, 2018. Only principal executives are listed; the White House Office is a sub-unit of the Executive Office of the President. The various agencies of the EOP are listed above. Title 3 of the Code of Federal Regulations Title 5 of the Code of Federal Regulations White House Records Office Executive Office of the President The Debate Over Selected Presidential Assistants and Advisors: Appointment and Congressional Oversight Congressional Research Service Proposed and finalized federal regulations from the Executive Office of the President of the United States Works by Executive Office of the President of the United States at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Executive Office of the President of the United States at Internet Archive
James Richard "Rick" Perry is an American politician, the 14th and current United States Secretary of Energy, serving in the Cabinet of Donald Trump. Prior to his cabinet position, Perry served as the 47th Governor of Texas from December 2000 to January 2015. A Republican, he was elected Lieutenant Governor of Texas in 1998 and assumed the governorship in December 2000 when Governor George W. Bush resigned to become president. Perry was the longest-serving governor in Texas history. Perry was elected three times to full gubernatorial terms and is the fourth Texas Governor to serve three terms. With a tenure in office of 14 years, 30 days, Perry was, at the time he left office, the second longest-serving current governor. Perry ran unsuccessfully for the Republican nomination for president in 2012 and 2016. On December 14, 2016, President-elect Donald Trump announced his intention to nominate Perry as his Secretary of Energy. On March 2, 2017, he was confirmed by the United States Senate in a 62–37 vote.
A fifth-generation Texan, he was born on March 4, 1950, in Haskell and raised in Paint Creek, the son of dryland cotton farmers Joseph Ray Perry and Amelia June Holt Perry. He has one older sister. Perry's ancestry is entirely English, dating as far back as the original Thirteen Colonies, his family has been in Texas since before the Texas Revolution. His father, a Democrat, was a long-time Haskell County school board member. Perry has said that his interest in politics began in November 1961, when his father took him to the funeral of U. S. Representative Sam Rayburn. Perry earned the rank of Eagle Scout; the BSA has honored Perry with the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award. Perry graduated from Paint Creek High School in 1968. Perry attended Texas A&M University where he was a member of the Corps of Cadets and the Alpha Gamma Rho fraternity, he was elected senior class social secretary, a member and redpot in Aggie Bonfire, one of A&M's five "yell leaders". He graduated in 1972 with a Bachelor of Science degree in animal science.
In 1989, he said that "I was a bit of a free spirit, not structured real well for life outside of a military regime, I would have not lasted at Texas Tech or the University of Texas. I would have hit the fraternity scene and lasted about one semester." In the early 1970s, Perry interned during several summers with Southwestern Advantage, as a door-to-door book salesman. "I count my time working for Dortch Oldham as one of the most important formative experiences of my life", Perry said in 2010. "There is nothing that tests your commitment to a goal like getting a few doors closed in your face." He said that "Mr. Oldham taught legions of young people to communicate clearly and with passion, a lesson that has served me well in my life since then."Upon graduation from college in 1972, Perry was commissioned as an officer in the United States Air Force and completed pilot training in February 1974. He was assigned as a C-130 pilot with the 772nd Tactical Airlift Squadron at Dyess Air Force Base, located in Abilene, Texas.
Perry's duties included two-month overseas rotations at RAF Mildenhall, located in Mildenhall and Rhein-Main Air Base, located at Frankfurt am Main, Germany. His missions included a 1974 U. S. State Department drought relief effort in Mali and Chad, in 1976, earthquake relief in Guatemala, he left the United States Air Force in 1977 with the rank of Captain, returned to Texas, went into business farming cotton with his father. In 1984, Perry was elected to the Texas House of Representatives as a Democrat from district 64, which included his home county of Haskell, he served on the House Appropriations and Calendars committees during his three two-year terms in office. He befriended fellow freshman state representative Lena Guerrero, a staunch liberal Democrat who endorsed Perry's reelection bid in 2006. Perry was part of the "Pit Bulls", a group of Appropriations members who sat on the lower dais in the committee room who pushed for austere state budgets during the 1980s. At one point, The Dallas Morning News named him one of the ten most effective members of the legislature.
In 1987, Perry voted for a $5.7 billion tax increase proposed by Republican governor Bill Clements. Perry supported Al Gore in the 1988 Democratic presidential primaries and worked for Gore's campaign in Texas. On September 29, 1989, Perry announced that he was switching parties. In 1990, as a newly minted Republican, Perry challenged Jim Hightower, the incumbent Democratic Agriculture Commissioner. Karl Rove was Perry's campaign manager. In the Republican primary on March 13, 1990, Perry polled 276,558 votes, with Richard McIver garnering 176,976 votes and Gene L. Duke, who placed third, polling 132,497 votes. Since Perry fell shy of the necessary 50% to win outright, a runoff was held between Perry and McIver set on April 10, 1990. In the runoff, he emerged victorious. During 1990, Hightower's office was embroiled in an FBI investigation into bribery. Three aides were convicted in 1993 of using public funds for political fundraising, although Hightower himself was not found to be involved in the wrongdoings.
Perry narrowly defeated Hightower in November 1990, garnering 1,864,463 votes to Hightower's 1,820,145 votes. Rove raised $3 million to raise Perry's profile, "while tarnishing the name of Jim Hightower" resulting in Perry's name becoming a "household name in Texas—and Hightower's name synonymous with corruption"; as Agriculture Comm