The United States Secretary of Energy is the head of the United States Department of Energy, a member of the Cabinet of the United States, fifteenth in the presidential line of succession. The position was formed on October 1, 1977 with the creation of the Department of Energy when President Jimmy Carter signed the Department of Energy Organization Act; the post focused on energy production and regulation. The emphasis soon shifted to developing technology for better and more efficient energy sources as well as energy education. After the end of the Cold War, the department's attention turned toward radioactive waste disposal and maintenance of environmental quality; the current Secretary of Energy is Dan Brouillette. Former Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger was the first Secretary of Energy, a Republican nominated to the post by Democratic President Jimmy Carter, the only time a president has appointed someone of another party to the post. Schlesinger is the only secretary to be dismissed from the post.
Hazel O'Leary, Bill Clinton's first Secretary of Energy, was the first female and African-American holder. The first Hispanic to serve as Energy Secretary was Clinton's second, Federico Peña. Spencer Abraham became the first Arab American to hold the position on January 20, 2001, serving under the administration of George W. Bush. Steven Chu became the first Asian American to hold the position on January 20, 2009, serving under the administration of Barack Obama, he is the longest-serving Secretary of Energy and the first individual to join the Cabinet having received a Nobel Prize. Parties Democratic Republican As of February 2020, there are ten living former Secretaries of Energy, the oldest being Charles Duncan Jr.. The most recent Secretary of Energy to die was Samuel Bodman on September 7, 2018. List of living former members of the United States Cabinet United States Secretary of Transportation White House Office of Energy and Climate Change Policy
Hrefna Huld Jóhannesdóttir is an Icelandic former footballer and a former member of the Iceland women's national football team. She spent most of her career with KR and scored 179 goals in 220 Úrvalsdeild kvenna matches. In 2003 she won the Úrvalsdeild kvenna golden boot, she played college football for Auburn Montgomery and was named to the 2004 NAIA Women's Soccer All-American second team. Hrefna retired from football in 2012 due to mental health issues. Hrefna played 10 games for the Icelandic national football team from scoring 3 goals. Icelandic champion: 1997, 2000, 2002, 2003 Icelandic Women's Cup: 2002, 2007, 2008 Úrvalsdeild kvenna top goalscorer: 2003 NAIA Women's Soccer All-American second team: 2003 Icelandic statistics at ksi.is
The Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness is a professional membership organization that aims to encourage research on consciousness in cognitive science, neuroscience and other relevant disciplines in the sciences and humanities, directed toward understanding the nature and underlying mechanisms of consciousness. The organization was created in 1994 in Berkeley after the first Tucson meeting by Patrick Wilken; the original aim of the organization was to act as a framework by which the international academic community could generate meetings devoted to the academic study of consciousness. The original founding members included Bernard Baars, William Banks, George Buckner, David Chalmers, Stanley Klein, Bruce Mangan, Thomas Metzinger, David Rosenthal, Patrick Wilken. Since 1994 the organization has put on eleven meetings and assumed many other activities, including an e-print archive and the online journal Psyche. In 2008 the executive committee of the association was composed as follows: Michael Gazzaniga, David Rosenthal, Giulio Tononi.
In 2007 Christof Koch took over as Chair of the Board from Patrick Wilken. Since 1997, the ASSC has organised annual conferences to promote interaction and spread knowledge of scientific and philosophical advances in the field of consciousness research; the 2008 meeting was organized by Allen Houng and Ralph Adolphs, held between the 19th and 22 June at the Gis Convention Center, National Taiwan University in Taipei. The June 2009 meeting was held in Berlin, organized by Patrick Wilken and Michael Pauen. In addition to organizing annual meetings, the association promotes the academic study of consciousness in a number of other ways: The official journal of the society is the open-access journal Neuroscience of Consciousness; the association published the open-access journal Psyche until 2010. The association provides a available e-print archive of papers relevant to the study of consciousness; the society publishes occasional edited books on selected topics. To date three books have been published: Steven Laureys, ed..
Progress in Brain Research, The boundaries of consciousness: neurobiology and neuropathology. Elsevier. ISBN 0-444-51851-7.. The Unity of Consciousness: Binding and Dissociation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850857-3.. The Neural Correlates of Consciousness: Empirical and Conceptual Questions. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-13370-9.. Toward a Science of Consciousness ASSC homepage e-print archive containing work by members of the ASSC