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Ernst-Happel-Stadion

The Ernst-Happel-Stadion, known as Praterstadion until 1992, sometimes called Wiener-Stadion, is a football stadium in Leopoldstadt, the 2nd district of Austria's capital Vienna. With 50,865 seats, it is the largest stadium in Austria, it was built between 1929 and 1931 for the second Workers' Olympiad to the design of German architect Otto Ernst Schweizer. The stadium was renamed in honour of Austrian footballer Ernst Happel following his death in 1992; the stadium hosted seven games in UEFA Euro 2008, including the final which saw Spain triumph over Germany. The stadium is owned by the City of Vienna, it is managed by the Wiener Stadthalle Betriebs und Veranstaltungsgesellschaft m.b. H. A subsidiary of Wien Holding, it is a UEFA Category 4 stadium, as such, it is the home of the Austrian national team. It hosts the Viennese clubs' games in Europa League; the stadium is served by Stadion station on the U2 metro line. The foundation stone was laid in November 1928 in honor of the 10-year celebration of the Republic of Austria.

The stadium was constructed in 23 months, from 1929 to 1931. It was built according to a design by the Tübingen architect Otto Ernst Schweizer and the second Workers' Olympiad. Schweizer designed the adjacent Stadionbad. According to its location in Vienna's Prater, it was named Prater Stadium, it was a modern stadium at the time in Europe, because of its short discharge time of only 7 to 8 minutes. The stadium had a capacity of 60,000 people. During the National Socialist Era following Anschluss, the stadium was used as a military barracks and staging area and as a temporary prison for the deportation of Jewish citizens. Between September 11 and 13, 1939, after the attack on Poland, over a thousand Polish-born Viennese Jews were detained on the orders Reinhard Heydrich, they were imprisoned beneath the grandstands in the corridors of Section B. On September 30, 1,038 prisoners were deported to the Buchenwald concentration camp; the next day, the stadium was back to being used for a football match.

44 men were released in early 1940, 26 were freed in 1945, the rest were murdered in the camps. In 1988, one of the surviving victims, Fritz Klein, was awarded a compensation by the Austrian government equivalent to 62,50 euros for being detained in the stadium. In 2003 a memorial plaque, commemorating these events, was unveiled in the VIP area by a private initiative. In 1944, the stadium was damaged during a bomb attack on the Wehrmarcht Staff offices. After the war and the reconstruction of the stadium, it was again sporting its original use. In 1956, the stadium's capacity was expanded to 92,708 people by Theodor Schull, but in 1965 the capacity was reduced; the attendance record was 91,000 spectators set on October 30, 1960 at the football match between Spain and Austria. In the mid-1980s, the stands were covered and equipped with seats. At its reopening a friendly match against archrivals Germany was organised. Austria won the match 4-1. After the death of former Austrian top player and coach Ernst Happel, the Prater Stadium was renamed after him in 1992.

In 1964, 1987, 1990, 1995, the Ernst Happel Stadium was the venue of the European Cup/UEFA Champions League final. In 1970, the stadium was the venue of the 1970 European Cup Winners' Cup Final which saw Manchester City F. C. beat Górnik Zabrze by 2 goals to 1 in an entertaining match. Neil Young and a Francis Lee penalty sealed the win for City; this final was played under torrential rain in what was an uncovered stadium. This along with the fact no Polish supporters were allowed to travel to the match restricted the attendance, variously reported at between 7,900 and 15,000 spectators. So, City's travelling support numbered over 4,000, a record for an English club playing on the continent. During the UEFA Euro 2008 tournament, the Ernst Happel Stadium was the venue for the Final match; the three group matches of the Austrian National Team, two quarter finals and a semifinal match took place in the stadium. In preparation for the tournament, the first and second place additional rows of seats increased the stadium's capacity to 53,000 seats.

Leading up to the tournament, it was fitted with a heated pitch in the summer of 2005. In May 2008, a connection to the Vienna U-Bahn was established, easing access from all over the city; the cost of the rebuilding was €39,600,000. The following games were played at the stadium during the UEFA Euro 2008: The Ernst Happel Stadium is the largest football stadium in Austria, it is the home of the Austrian national football team. Club football matches are limited to the domestic cup final and international competitions featuring one of Vienna's top clubs, FK Austria Wien and SK Rapid Wien, as their regular stadiums are too small to host UEFA Champions League and UEFA Cup matches. Vienna derby matches between FK Austria and SK Rapid have been played in the stadium; the stadium is rated one of UEFA's Five Star Stadiums permitting it to host the UEFA Champions League final. The seating capacity was temporarily expanded to 53,008 for the UEFA Euro 2008 championship, with the final played in the stadium.

The stadium hosted 3 group games, 2 quarter-final matches, a semi-final and final. The attendance record of 92,706 for the match against the Soviet Union was in 1960; the capacity has since been reduced. UEFA Euro 2008 Final: Spain 1–0 Germany 1995 UEFA Champions League Final: Ajax Amsterdam 1–0 Milan 1994 UEFA Cup Final: Internazionale 1–0 Austria Salzburg 1990 European Cup Final: Milan 1–0 Benfica 1987 European Cup Final: Porto 2–1 Bayern Munich 1970 European Cup Winners' Cup Final: M

Throwback Thursday

Throwback Thursday is a popular internet trend used among social media platforms such as Instagram and Facebook. Users will post nostalgic pictures of their past accompanied by the hashtag #TBT or ThrowbackThursday, it is used by people all over the world to share and relive their past experiences with anyone they want. While a majority of posts reflect positive moments in someone's past, the term throwback can be attributed to anything in the past. Sports Illustrated attributes the origin of the term to a sneaker-specific blog named Nice Kicks. According to SI, this blog began a practice of regular postings of photos of old basketball footwear in 2006, titling the series "Throwback Thursday". One other source agrees, how its usage spread. Since the slogan has blown up to the point where #TBT has been used on Instagram over 500 million times. While the trend has origins outside of social media, it only gained popularity once major apps such as Instagram began to rise in popularity as well. Throwback Thursday became popular due to the fact that people love to relive past memories whether it be their childhood, old relationships, past vacations, old songs, or anything that gives them a happy and nostalgic feeling.

People love to share their memories with others and attract attention in the form of comments and likes. Similar to Throwback Thursday, Flashback Friday was a popular hashtag several months before Throwback Thursday was. Although both hashtags are similar, what makes them different is the days in which one can post a nostalgic picture. Flashback Friday is a second chance for social media lovers to upload a photo if they have forgotten on Thursday, or for people to upload more vintage photos that allows them to share their content as many times as they want. On Fridays, social media users should #fbf to follow the trend. Monday Motivation

Premature atrial contraction

Premature atrial contractions known as atrial premature complexes or atrial premature beats, are a common cardiac dysrhythmia characterized by premature heartbeats originating in the atria. While the sinoatrial node regulates the heartbeat during normal sinus rhythm, PACs occur when another region of the atria depolarizes before the sinoatrial node and thus triggers a premature heartbeat; the exact cause of PACs is unclear. Elderly people that get PACs don't need any further attention besides follow ups due to unclear evidence. PACs are completely asymptomatic and may be noted only with Holter monitoring, but they can be perceived as a skipped beat or a jolt in the chest. In most cases, no treatment other than reassurance is needed for PACs, although medications such as beta blockers can reduce the frequency of symptomatic PACs. Hypertension, or abnormally high blood pressure signifies an elevated level of both psychological and physiological stress. Hypertension goes hand in hand with various atrial fibrillations including premature atrial contractions.

Additional factors that may contribute to spontaneous premature atrial contractions could be: Increased age Abnormal body height History of cardiovascular disease Abnormal ANP levels Elevated cholesterol Premature atrial contractions are diagnosed with an electrocardiogram, Holter monitor, or cardiac event monitor. On an electrocardiogram, PACs are characterized by an abnormally shaped P wave. Since the premature beat initiates outside the sinoatrial node, the associated P wave appears different from those seen in normal sinus rhythm; the atrial impulse propagates through the atrioventricular node and into the cardiac ventricles, resulting in a normal, narrow QRS complex. However, if the atrial beat is premature enough, it may reach the atrioventricular node during its refractory period, in which case it will not be conducted to the ventricle and there will be no QRS complex following the P wave. Premature atrial contractions are benign, requiring no treatment; the patient having the PAC will find these symptoms bothersome, in which case the doctor may treat the PACs.

Sometimes the PACs can indicate an increased risk for other cardiac arrhythmias. In this case the underlying cause is treated. A beta blocker will be prescribed for symptomatic PACs. In otherwise healthy patients, occasional premature atrial contractions are a common and normal finding and do not indicate any particular health risk. In patients with other underlying structural heart problems, PACs can trigger a more serious arrhythmia such as atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation. In otherwise healthy people, PACs disappear with adolescence. A supraventricular extrasystole is an extrasystole or premature electrical impulse in the heart, generated above the level of the ventricle; this can be either a premature atrial contraction or a premature impulse from the atrioventricular node. SVES should be viewed in contrast to a premature ventricular contraction that has a ventricular origin and the associated QRS change. Instead of the electrical impulse beginning in the sinoatrial node and propagating to the atrioventricular node, the signal is conducted both to the ventricle and back to the SA node where the signal began.

Premature junctional contraction Premature ventricular contraction

Ross Wilson (artist)

Ross Wilson is an artist from Northern Ireland. He studied Fine Art at the University of Ulster and at the Chelsea College of Art and Design and has been a visiting speaker at Harvard University and the University of Oxford, he resides and works in Northern Ireland. In 1997 his first public sculpture commission in bronze was placed at the Waterfront Belfast, he was commissioned for the centenary C. S. Lewis Sculpture in 1998, placed in east Belfast, his many portrait commissions have included Nobel Laureates Derek Walcott and Seamus Heaney, the playwright Arthur Miller. His work is displayed across the world among several public and private collections

Jian Wang (cellist)

Jian Wang began to study the cello with his father when he was four. At the age of ten, while a student at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music, he was featured in the celebrated documentary film From Mao to Mozart: Isaac Stern in China. Mr. Stern's encouragement and support paved the way for him to go to the United States and in 1985 he entered the Yale School of Music under a special programme where he studied with the renowned cellist Aldo Parisot. After graduating from Yale in 1988, he entered with full scholarship Juilliard School. Jian Wang has performed with many of the worlds leading orchestras, including Berlin Philharmonic, Royal Concertgebouw orchestra, New York Philharmonic and Philadelphia orchestras and Boston Symphonies, London Symphony, the Halle, the BBC orchestras, Zurich Tonhalle, Gothenburg Symphony, Stockholm Philharmonic, Santa Cecilia, La Scala, Mahler Chamber, Orchestre National de France, Orchestre de Paris, Czech Philhamonic, NHK Symphony; these concerts have been with many of the greatest conductors, such as Abbado, Jarvi, Dutoit, Chung, Van Zweden and Gustavo Dudamel.

As a jury member, Jian Wang has judged many of the most important competitions, including the Tchaikovsky cello competition, the Queen Elizabeth cello competition, the Isaac Stern violin competition and the Nielsen violin competition. Jian Wang has made many recordings, his latest releases being the Elgar Cello Concerto with the Sydney Symphony and Vladimir Ashkenazy, he has recorded an album of short pieces for Cello and Guitar titled Reverie, the complete Bach Cello Suites and a Baroque Album with the Camerata Salzburg, Brahms Double Concerto with the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, Claudio Abbado and Gil Shaham, the Haydn Concerti with the Gulbenkian Orchestra under Muhai Tang, Messiaens Quartet for the End of Time and Brahms and Schumann chamber music with Pires and Dumay. His instrument is graciously loaned to him by the family of the late Mr. Sau-Wing Lam. "Presenting Jian Wang" Brahms - "Piano Trios" with pianist Maria João Pires and violinist Augustin Dumay Mozart - "Piano Trios K.496 & K.502" with pianist Maria João Pires and violinist Augustin Dumay "Haydn Cello Concertos" Muhai Tang, "Olivier Messiaen: Quartet for the End of Time" with Gil Shaham, Paul Meyer and Myung-Whun Chung "Brahms Double Concerto" with Gil Shaham and Claudio Abbado "The Baroque Album" "JS Bach: The Unaccompanied Cello Suites" "Reverie" with guitarist Göran Söllscher Standard short biography of Jian Wang on the site of Deutsche Grammophon

Unrecognized Bedouin villages in Israel

Unrecognized Bedouin villages in Israel are rural Bedouin communities in the Negev and the Galilee which the Israeli government does not recognize as legal. They are referred to as "unrecognized villages"; the exact number of unrecognized villages is unknown. Different bodies use different definitions of the term "village"; as a result, numbers offered by them differ, but there is an increase in the last decade, in spite of a slow recognition process of some of these communities. According to Maha Qupty, representing the Bedouin advocacy organization RCUV, in 2004 there were 45 unrecognized Bedouin villages in the Negev. According to the Human Rights Watch report based upon the 2006 statistics offered by the Adva Center half of Bedouin citizens of Israel live in 39 such villages. According to another Bedouin advocacy organization The Association of Forty, in 2013 there were about 92 unrecognized villages in Israel, 59 of them were Bedouin villages in the Negev. According to the head of the Bedouin Administration, Yaakov Katz, geographer Arnon Soffer, in the Negev area alone, there were about 1000 illegal Bedouin concentrations with over 64,000 homes in 2011, with about 2200-2000 new buildings adding every year.

For comparison, in 2008 the Goldberg Commission stated that there were 50,000 illegal buildings in the Negev, about 1,500 to 2,000 more were built every year. Testifying before the Goldberg Committee in 2010, Israeli right-wing NGO Regavim reported 2,100 separate concentrations in Negev of 3–400 constructions each, covering over 800,000 dunams. According to the Israel Land Administration, Negev Bedouin claim area 12 times bigger than that of Tel Aviv. According to Prof. Sofer, the Bedouin make up about 2% of the Israeli population, but the unrecognized Bedouin communities spread on a vast territory and occupy more than 10 percent of Israel – north and east to Be'er Sheva. According to him, the Negev Bedouin started to settle west of Be'er Sheva and close to Mount Hebron, their communities spread south towards the Judean Desert. They occupy large spaces near Retamim and Revivim and get close to the Gaza Strip, occupy land in the central Negev near Mitzpe Ramon, close to the central area. In 2010 alone about 66 illegal Bedouin settlements were established in the area of Rehovot and Rishon LeZion.

According to Arnon Sofer, the illegal Bedouin expansion continues in all directions and occupies spaces that Israel did not know before. Between 1994 and 2007, Israel recognized 21 Arab townships with a similar illegal status until then. In the Galilee, most of the illegal villages were regulated and recognized, from a population of 90,000 Bedouin in the north, a few hundred still live in unrecognized villages. In the south, it is estimated; the unrecognized villages were built without official permission and thus remain ineligible for municipal services, such as connection to the electrical grid, water mains or trash-pickup, they cannot elect government representatives. They are scattered all over the Northern Negev and are situated adjacent to military fire zones, natural reserves, etc. For example, the unrecognized Bedouin village of Wadi al-Na'am is surrounded by an IDF munitions factory and military fire zone, the Efrat Oil Terminal – an oil-storage site, the Israel Electric Corporation and Mekorot – the national water carrier site.

According to a report by the Israeli NGO Adva Center, "The Bedouin living in the Negev constitute the only group of Arab citizens of Israel that still has a large-scale hold on the land, a hold that the state denies in principle, while recognizing in practice."According to the Israel Land Administration, some 60 per cent of the Negev Bedouin lived in seven permanent state-planned townships, such as Rahat, Tel as-Sabi, Shaqib al-Salam, Ar'arat an-Naqab, Kuseife and Hura, while the rest – "in illegal homes spread over hundreds of thousands of dunams". Since 2003 a number of illegal Bedouin communities were recognized by the state, several new ones were built totaling 12, they were united under Abu Basma Regional Council, split on 5 November 2012 into two newly created bodies: Neve Midbar Regional Council and al-Kasom Regional Council. As of July 2013, there are no updated official statistics on the number of Bedouin living outside the government-planned and recognized communities. During the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, the semi-arid region of the Negev was inhabited by semi-nomadic Bedouin tribes.

In 1858 the Turks enacted a law stating that all landowners names must be documented as a means of regulating matters relating to land in the Ottoman Empire. Most of the land in the Negev was classified as muwat; the Bedouin did not create a written record of their connection to the land, some argue that opposed to it, since it would make them subject to the Ottoman empire, what would require them to pay taxes and serve in the Ottoman army. When the publication of the Ottoman Lands Ordinance, the Negev area had no permanent settlement. By the year 1896 Negev Bedouin lived in complete freedom; the Ottomans did not intervene in the Negev and the Bedouins. According to Yosef Ben-Dor, only after a tribal war, the Turkish government marked tribal boundaries, but did not give the Bedouins in this agreement "ownership" of tribal territorial lands; the British government adopted the