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Ernst Haeckel

Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel was a German zoologist, philosopher, professor, marine biologist, artist who discovered and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, coined many terms in biology, including ecology, phylum and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer held recapitulation theory claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny; the published artwork of Haeckel includes over 100 detailed, multi-colour illustrations of animals and sea creatures, collected in his Kunstformen der Natur. As a philosopher, Ernst Haeckel wrote Die Welträthsel, the genesis for the term "world riddle". Ernst Haeckel was born on 16 February 1834, in Potsdam. In 1852 Haeckel completed studies at the cathedral high-school of Merseburg, he studied medicine in Berlin and Würzburg with Albert von Kölliker, Franz Leydig, Rudolf Virchow, with the anatomist-physiologist Johannes Peter Müller.

Together with Hermann Steudner he attended. In 1857 Haeckel attained a doctorate in medicine, afterwards he received the license to practice medicine; the occupation of physician appeared less worthwhile to Haeckel after contact with suffering patients. Haeckel studied under Karl Gegenbaur at the University of Jena for three years, earning a habilitation in comparative anatomy in 1861, before becoming a professor of zoology at Jena, where he remained for 47 years, from 1862 to 1909. Between 1859 and 1866 Haeckel worked on many phyla, such as radiolarians and annelids. During a trip to the Mediterranean, Haeckel named nearly 150 new species of radiolarians. From 1866 to 1867 Haeckel made an extended journey to the Canary Islands with Hermann Fol. During this period, he met with Thomas Huxley and Charles Lyell. In 1867 he married Agnes Huschke, their son Walter was born in 1868, their daughters Elizabeth in 1871 and Emma in 1873. In 1869 he traveled as a researcher to Norway, in 1871 to Croatia, in 1873 to Egypt and Greece.

In 1907 he had a museum built in Jena to teach the public about evolution. Haeckel retired from teaching in 1909, in 1910 he withdrew from the Evangelical Church of Prussia. On the occasion of his 80th birthday celebration he was presented with a two-volume work entitled Was wir Ernst Haeckel verdanken, edited at the request of the German Monistenbund by Heinrich Schmidt of Jena. Haeckel's wife, died in 1915, he became frailer, breaking his leg and arm, he sold his "Villa Medusa" in Jena in 1918 to the Carl Zeiss foundation, which preserved his library. Haeckel died on 9 August 1919. Haeckel became the most famous proponent of Monism in Germany. Haeckel's affinity for the German Romantic movement, coupled with his acceptance of a form of Lamarckism, influenced his political beliefs. Rather than being a strict Darwinian, Haeckel believed that the characteristics of an organism were acquired through interactions with the environment and that ontogeny reflected phylogeny, he saw the social sciences as instances of "applied biology", that phrase was picked up and used for Nazi propaganda.

In 1906 Haeckel founded a group called the Monist League to promote his religious and political beliefs. This group lasted until 1933 and included such notable members as Wilhelm Ostwald, Georg von Arco, Helene Stöcker and Walter Arthur Berendsohn, he was the first person to use the term "first world war". Haeckel was a zoologist, an accomplished artist and illustrator, a professor of comparative anatomy. Although Haeckel's ideas are important to the history of evolutionary theory, although he was a competent invertebrate anatomist most famous for his work on radiolaria, many speculative concepts that he championed are now considered incorrect. For example, Haeckel described and named hypothetical ancestral microorganisms that have never been found, he was one of the first to consider psychology as a branch of physiology. He proposed the kingdom Protista in 1866, his chief interests lay in evolution and life development processes in general, including development of nonrandom form, which culminated in the beautifully illustrated Kunstformen der Natur.

Haeckel did not support natural selection. Haeckel advanced a version of the earlier recapitulation theory set out by Étienne Serres in the 1820s and supported by followers of Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire including Robert Edmond Grant, it proposed a link between ontogeny and phylogeny, summed up by Haeckel in the phrase "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny". His concept of recapitulation has been refuted in the form he gave it, in favour of the ideas first advanced by Karl Ernst von Baer; the strong recapitulation hypothesis views ontogeny as repeating forms of adult ancestors, while weak recapitulation means that what is repeated is the ancestral embryonic development process. Haeckel supported the theory with embryo drawings that have

Rip Radcliff

Raymond Allen Radcliff was a Major League Baseball outfielder and first baseman. He played for the Chicago White Sox, but played for the St. Louis Browns and the Detroit Tigers, his best season came in 1942 when he finished 9th in AL MVP voting. He was known for his ability to make contact, he hit.300 five times in his career. On July 18, 1936, Radcliff went 6-for-7 with 4 RBI in a 21-14 win against the A's, he had 200+ hit seasons in 1936 and 1940. During his ten-year career, Radcliff appeared in 1081 games and had a.311 batting average with 42 home runs and 533 RBI. His career numbers include 598 runs, 205 doubles, 50 triples, 40 stolen bases, 310 walks for a.362 on-base percentage and.417 slugging percentage. After retiring from baseball, Radcliff was employed by a road machinery company in Oklahoma, he died of a suspected heart attack at his Enid home in 1962. List of Major League Baseball single-game hits leaders Rip Radcliff at Find a Grave

An Experimental Enquiry Concerning the Source of the Heat which is Excited by Friction

"An Experimental Enquiry Concerning the Source of the Heat, Excited by Friction", published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, is a scientific paper by Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford that provided a substantial challenge to established theories of heat and began the 19th century revolution in thermodynamics. Rumford was an opponent of the caloric theory of heat which held that heat was a fluid that could be neither created nor destroyed, he had further developed the view that all liquids were absolute non-conductors of heat. His views were out of step with the accepted science of the time and the latter theory had been attacked by John Dalton and John Leslie. Rumford was influenced by the argument from design and it is that he wished to grant water a privileged and providential status in the regulation of human life. Though Rumford was to come to associate heat with motion, there is no evidence that he was committed to the kinetic theory or the principle of vis viva. In his 1798 paper, Rumford acknowledged that he had predecessors in the notion that heat was a form of motion.

Those predecessors included Francis Bacon, Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke, John Locke, Henry Cavendish. Rumford had observed the frictional heat generated by boring cannon at the arsenal in Munich. Rumford arranged for a specially blunted boring tool, he showed that the water could be boiled within two and a half hours and that the supply of frictional heat was inexhaustible. Rumford confirmed that no physical change had taken place in the material of the cannon by comparing the specific heats of the material machined away and that remaining were the same. Rumford argued that the indefinite generation of heat was incompatible with the caloric theory, he contended. Rumford made no attempt to further quantify the heat generated or to measure the mechanical equivalent of heat. Most established scientists, such as William Henry, as well as Thomas Thomson, believed that there was enough uncertainty in the caloric theory to allow its adaptation to account for the new results, it had proved robust and adaptable up to that time.

Furthermore, Thomson, Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Antoine César Becquerel observed that electricity could be indefinitely generated by friction. No educated scientist of the time was willing to hold. Rumford's claim of the "inexhaustible" supply of heat was a reckless extrapolation from the study. Charles Haldat made some penetrating criticisms of the reproducibility of Rumford's results and it is possible to see the whole experiment as somewhat tendentious. However, the experiment inspired the work of James Prescott Joule in the 1840s. Joule's more exact measurements were pivotal in establishing the kinetic theory at the expense of caloric. Cardwell, D. S. L.. From Watt to Clausius: The Rise of Thermodynamics in the Early Industrial Age. Heinemann: London. ISBN 0-435-54150-1