Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Alkiza is a village located in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the north of Spain. In 2014 Alkiza had a total population of 373. Media related to Alkiza at Wikimedia Commons Official Website Information available in Spanish and Basque. ALKIZA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Information available in Spanish
Aretxabaleta is a town in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the Autonomous Community of Basque Country, northern Spain. It is located on the Bergara road adjacent to its larger northern neighbor, the city of Arrasate, the smaller Eskoriatza to the south. In the past, the Basque name "Aretxabaleta" was used, both in Spanish and in English with the Spanish spelling, Arechavaleta; the local government decided to change the spelling to the Basque "Aretxabaleta" on June 4, 1979. Their decision was authorized by Spanish central government on March 3, 1981. Official Website Information Basque. ARETXABALETA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Information available in Spanish
Aia is a village situated on the slopes of Mount Pagoeta in the Basque province of Gipuzkoa, Spain. It is located 30 km to the west of Donostia-San Sebastián and about 10 km inland from the coastal town of Zarautz. Aia is set amongst hills and forests, surrounded by mountains; the town has the Church of San Esteban, which includes a notable centrepiece. The population of Aia has declined since the 1950s, to a population of 1,750 in 2005. Based on cave paintings and engravings and stone implements that have been found in the Aia district, it is believed that human habitation of the area dates back to over 10,000 years ago; the town of Aia itself was mentioned in one of the oldest documents of Gipuzkoa dated 1025. The town was mentioned as being part of the Union of Sayaz in the Decree of the Brotherhood of the Province of Gupuzkoa in 1375. Farming was the main economic activity in the Aia district, with families of the small villages living within closed, self-sufficient economic systems. Land was owned by the municipality and rented to the farmers to work.
Specialised crafts began to develop, in particular Aia became a main centre for the production of iron. This was due to the abundance of natural deposits of iron in the area. Numerous foundries were established in the area, which had a significant impact on the growth of the local population, it was from these foundries. The demise of these old forges in Guipúzcoa was brought about by the introduction of blast furnaces that ran on coal. Aia is situated within Basque farmlands, unchanged over several hundred years, it has several tourist attractions, including the 1,335-acre Pagoeta Nature Reserve which sits to the west of the town of Aia and preserves the natural environment of the area, as well as the district's cultural heritage. The park contains a number of ruins of old mills and farmhouses, some ancient burial mounds dating back 5,000 years; the Agorregi Forge, located within the park, is one of the best preserved examples of a foundry in Gipuzkoa province. The forge which can be seen today was built in 1754 by the Lord of Laurgain Palace over the ruins of an earlier version.
Lying at the bottom of a deep valley near Manterola farmhouse, it used the river's hydraulic energy to power its bellows and turn its waterwheels. Situated near Aia and within the Pagoeta Nature Reserve is the Iturraran Botanic Garden; the garden was established in 1986 and includes more than 1,000 species of plants and shrubs from all over the world. It includes some endangered flora of the Basque Country. Aia is a municipality formed by a principal nucleus – the town of Aia – and its neighbourhoods, which resemble small villages, it comprises eleven neighbourhoods: Alzola: A parish with 11 inhabitants. Andatza o San Pedro: 249 inhabitants. Arratola Aldea: 38 inhabitants. Arrutiegia: 106 inhabitants. Elcano: 100 inhabitants; this neighbourhood is shared with Zarauz. Etxetaballa: 45 inhabitants. Iruretaegia: 97 inhabitants. Kurpidea: 59 inhabitants. Laurgain: 78 inhabitants. Olaskoegia: 202 inhabitants. Santio Erreka: 254 inhabitants. Urdaneta: 78 inhabitantsThe urban nucleus of Aia has about 470 inhabitants.
Aia official website Information available in Spanish and Basque. 360 degree view of Aia AIA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Mondragón known as Arrasate/Mondragón is a town and municipality in Gipuzkoa province, Basque Country, Spain. Its population in 2015 was 21,933; the town is best known as the birthplace of the Mondragón Cooperative Corporation, the world's largest worker cooperative, whose foundation was inspired in the 1940s by the Catholic priest José María Arizmendiarrieta. In 2002 the MCC contributed 3.7% towards the total GDP of the Basque Country and 7.6% to the industrial GDP. The valley of the High Deba where the town is located enjoyed a high level of employment in the 1980s while the rest of the Basque industrial areas suffered from the steel crisis. Noted poverty expert and sociology professor Barbara J. Peters of Southampton College, Long Island University, has studied the incorporated and resident-owned town of Mondragón. "In Mondragón, I saw no signs of poverty. I saw no signs of extreme wealth," Peters said. "I saw people looking out for each other….. It's a caring form of capitalism.”The spa at Santa Águeda was the location of the 1897 murder of Spanish politician Antonio Cánovas del Castillo by Michele Angiolillo.
Mondragón serves as base of Mondragón University, a private university created in 1997, connected with the MCC companies. All of the university's graduates find their first job within three months after completing their studies due to this strong link. Mondragón University is divided into engineering and enterprise faculties; the faculty of engineering is in Mondragon and Goierri. The humanities faculty is in Eskoriatza and the enterprise faculty is in Bidasoa and Oñati; the student enrollment is 3,500 and is growing. The majority of the students are from Gipuzkoa and surrounding villages, although in the last few years, the number of students from Bilbao, San Sebastián and the Basque Country capital, Vitoria-Gasteiz, has increased significantly. Pierre Boutron's French language film Fiesta!, adapted from a novel written by José Luis de Vilallonga, was set in Mondragón during the Spanish Civil War. Excavating at the Artazu VII site located in the Kobate Quarry in Arrasate. General information of Arrasate/Mondragón Pictures of Arrasate/Mondragón in FLICKR Municipality pages in Basque and Spanish Mondragon University homepage ARRASATE/MONDRAGÓN in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Information available in Spanish
The Oiartzun River is a short river in the Basque Country in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. It is the smallest river of Gipuzkoa flowing into the Bay of Biscay; the Oiartzun rises in the Aiako Harria massif at an altitude higher than 700 m. It flows down through steep slopes and falls, with an average drop to its mouth of 5.49%. The river meanders through several hamlets of the town of the same name. On its last stage, it crosses the A-8 motorway squeezed up into a canal all along Errenteria, before joining the Bay of Pasaia; the river underwent severe environmental problems on its last 10 km during the whole 20th century on account of the paper mill located in Errenteria, while the issue was redressed by the early 21st century
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona