SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ertebølle culture

The Ertebølle culture is the name of a hunter-gatherer and fisher, pottery-making culture dating to the end of the Mesolithic period. The culture was concentrated in Southern Scandinavia, but genetically linked to related cultures in Northern Germany and the Northern Netherlands, it is named after the type site, a location in the small village of Ertebølle on Limfjorden in Danish Jutland. In the 1890s, the National Museum of Denmark excavated heaps of oyster shells there, mixed with mussels, snails and bone, antler and flint artifacts, which were evaluated as kitchen middens, or refuse dumps. Accordingly, the culture is less named the Kitchen Midden; as it is identical to the Ellerbek culture of Schleswig-Holstein, the combined name, Ertebølle-Ellerbek is used. The Ellerbek culture is named after a type site in Ellerbek, a community on the edge of Kiel, Germany. In the 1960s and 1970s another related culture was found in the Noordoostpolder in the Netherlands, near the village Swifterbant and the former island of Urk.

Named the Swifterbant culture they show a transition from hunter-gatherer to both animal husbandry cows and pigs, cultivation of barley and emmer wheat. During the formative stages contact with nearby Linear Pottery culture settlements in Limburg has been detected. Like the Ertebølle culture, they lived near open water, in this case creeks and bogs along post-glacial banks of the Overijsselse Vecht. Recent excavations show a local continuity going back to 5600 BC, when burial practices resembled the contemporary gravefields in Denmark and South Sweden "in all details", suggesting only part of a diverse ancestral "Ertebølle"-like heritage was locally continued into the Swifterbant tradition; the Ertebølle culture was contemporaneous with the Linear Pottery culture, food-producers whose northernmost border was located just to the south. The Ertebølle did not practice agriculture but it did utilize domestic grain in some capacity, which it must have obtained from the south; the Ertebølle culture replaced the earlier Kongemose culture of Denmark.

It was limited to the north by the Scandinavian Lihult cultures. It is divided into an early phase ca 5300 BC-ca 4500 BC, a phase ca 4500 BC-3950 BC. Shortly after 4100 BC the Ertebølle began to expand along the Baltic coast at least as far as Rügen. Shortly thereafter it was replaced by the Funnelbeaker culture. In recent years archaeologists have found the acronym EBK most convenient, parallel to LBK for German Linearbandkeramik and TRB for German Trichterbecher, Danish Tragtbæger and Dutch trechterbekercultuur. Ostensibly for Ertebølle Kultur, EBK could be either German or Danish and has the added advantage that Ellerbek begins with E; the Ertebølle culture falls within the Atlantic climate period and the Littorina Sea phase of the Baltic Sea basin. The Baltic coastline was flooded to a level of 5m-6m higher than now. Jutland was an archipelago. Marshes were extensive, with tracts of shallow water rich in fish; the environment itself thus invited settlement. The Ertebølle population settled on promontories, near or on beaches, on islands and along rivers and estuaries away from the dense forests.

The environment most like the range of the Ertebølle is the Wadden Sea region of the North Sea from the Netherlands to Denmark. Due to chance fluctuations in the sea level during Ertebølle occupation of the coast and subsequently, many of the culture sites are under 3m-4m of water; some have been excavated by underwater archaeology. The artifacts are in an excellent state of preservation. On the disadvantage side, water movements have disrupted many sites; the Ertebølle population derived its living from a variety of means, but chiefly from the sea. They grew healthy and multiplied on a diet of fish, they were masters of the inland waters. Like many peoples known in history, they were able to hunt seals from their dugouts, their materials were wood, with bone and flint for functions requiring harder surfaces. Homes were constructed of light wood; the materials encourage us to view them as transitory. They were able to place the dead in longer-used cemeteries; the dwelling-places were transitory, but the territories were not.

Skeletal remains are meagre. They have been studied and described in great detail from an anthropometric, or "man-measuring", point of view. Without resorting to this specialised language, the main conclusions are as follows; the Ertebølle and preceding Kongemose populations were of mixed race. On the one hand they did not differ from the current inhabitants of Denmark in skeleton. Soft tissue features, being known through reconstruction only, leave some room for variation. On the other hand, many skulls evidence facial dimensions of Cro-magnon man; the latter type prevailed in Late Paleolithic times in Europe. Genetic analysis by scientists from the University of Ferrara indicates that the Cro-magnons were ancestral to the current population of Europe. Two hypotheses concerning the origin of the Ertebølle population are therefore possible and have been proposed. One is that in the remains we are seeing an intermediate phase in the evolution of the popul

California Army National Guard

The California Army National Guard is the land force component of the California National Guard, one of the reserve components of the United States Army and is part of the National Guard of the United States. The California Army National Guard is composed of 18,450 soldiers. Nationwide, the Army National Guard comprises one half of the US Army's available combat forces and one third of its support organization. National coordination of various state National Guard units are maintained through the National Guard Bureau. Due to the non-exclusive, non-rival nature of the Army National Guard and U. S. military as a whole, the California Army National Guard operates as a public good. California Army National Guard units are equipped as part of the United States Army; the same enlisted and officer ranks and insignia are used and National Guardsmen are eligible to receive all United States military awards. The California Army National Guard bestows a number of state awards for local services rendered in or to the state of California.

40th Infantry Division 79th Infantry Brigade Combat Team 1st Battalion, 160th Infantry Regiment 1st Battalion, 184th Infantry Regiment 1st Squadron, 18th Cavalry Regiment 1st Battalion, 143rd Field Artillery Regiment 578th Brigade Engineer Battalion 40th Brigade Support Battalion 40th Combat Aviation Brigade Company C, 1st Battalion, 168th Aviation Regiment Company B, 1st Battalion, 126th Aviation Regiment 1st Battalion, 140th Aviation Regiment HHC and Company A, 3rd Battalion, 140th Aviation Regiment 640th Aviation Support Battalion 100th Troop Command 223rd Military Intelligence Battalion 250th Expeditionary Military Intelligence Battalion 1st Battalion, 144th Field Artillery Regiment 1st Battalion, 185th Infantry Regiment 49th Military Police Brigade 185th Military Police Battalion 143rd Military Police Battalion 579th Engineer Battalion 224th Sustainment Brigade 223rd Regimental Training Institute 115th Area Support Group Special Operations Detachment-North Company A, 5/19th Special Forces Group The California Army National Guard was formed with the passing of the Militia Act of 1903 known as the Dick Act.

Prior to that time, the California Army Guard originated from the state militia established by the Constitution of California in 1849. On April 4, 1850, the first California Legislature in San Jose adopted enabling legislation formally establishing a militia of volunteer or independent companies; the law required every free, able-bodied male citizen of the State to perform military duty or to pay a $2 fee for nonperformance of this duty. Such payment exempted the person from duty except in case of war, invasion, assistance to the sheriff, or a requisition of the militia, it provided that a judge of the superior court of a county should cause a suitable person to open a book, enter the names of persons who apply and are able to perform military duty. After required notice, the volunteers were to be organized, their officers and non-commissioned officers selected by election; the volunteer or independent companies were to be armed and equipped as in the Army of the United States. The units were to adopt a constitution and by-laws as well as rules and regulations for the government of its personnel and determination of fines and penalties to enforce them.

The legislature provided for the organization of these enrolled state militia, volunteers or independent companies into four divisions, each commanded by a major general and consisting of two brigades, with a statewide adjutant general responsible to the Governor of California. From 1852, the Quartermaster General of California was subsumed under the office of Adjutant General of California, when William H. Richardson resigned and Quartermaster General William Chauncey Kibbe became adjutant general by a law of 1852; the first unit, known as the First California Guard, was formed from volunteers in San Francisco, California under Captain Henry Morris Naglee on July 27, 1849, as a territorial militia. It was the first company organized under state authority. Under these regulations, 307 volunteer or independent companies were organized in the early years of the states history to oppose the Indians, hunt down bandits, quell riots or Vigilantes, protect officials, intervene in mining claim disputes and other civil disturbances.

During 1850, Governor Burnett called out the militia two times. The first was prompted by incidents involving the Yuma Indians at the confluence of the Gila and Colorado rivers on April 23, 1850; the second instance occurred in October 1850, when Governor Burnett ordered the sheriff of El Dorado County to muster 200 men. The commanders were instructed to "proceed to punish the Indians engaged in the late attacks in the vicinity of Ringgold, along the emigrant trail leading from Salt Lake to California."From 1850 to 1851 the Mariposa Battalion was raised to fight the Mariposa War in the Sierras. In 1851, the Garra Revolt occurred in San Diego County and the Governor called for troops, the Fitzgerald Volunteers were raised in San Diego to defend the County and conducted an expedition to Warners Ranch. Two companies of Rangers were organized in San Francisco from members of the three militia companies that existed in th

Mary Moore (infielder)

Mary Ann Moore is a former All-American Girls Professional Baseball League infielder. Listed at 5' 5", 145 lb. Moore batted and threw right handed, she was dubbed'Sis' by her teammates. Mary Moore played in the All-American League from 1950 through 1952 before a series of injuries hampered her career. Born in Detroit, Moore was 15 when she started to play fastpitch softball for the Wyandotte Chemicals team in a Michigan industrial league, she graduated from Lincoln Park High School in 1950. In between, Mary learned her baseball skills from her neighbor Eddie Lake, a former shortstop for the St. Louis Cardinals, Boston Red Sox and Detroit Tigers who joined the local kids on the sandlots ball for a game, she got her chance to play through an English teacher at her high school who introduced her to a former All-American League player, Doris Neal. Under Neal's guidance, Moore went to South Bend, Indiana for a tryout and was assigned to play at second base for the traveling Springfield Sallies in 1950.

By the Sallies and the Chicago Colleens played exhibition games and recruited new talent for the league, as they toured through the South and East. Highlights of these tours included contests at Griffith Stadium in Washington, D. C. and Yankee Stadium in New York. As a result, Mary led the Sallies in games played, runs batted in, total bases and walks, while hitting three home runs and scoring 65 runs to lead the team, but her greatest thrill on the tour was playing in Yankee Stadium and meeting Yogi Berra, Joe DiMaggio, Billy Martin and Phil Rizzuto, among other Yankees legends. After that, she was promoted to the Battle Creek Belles expansion team for the upcoming season. During the off-season, Moore worked in an auto parts factory and had two fingers cut off in a punch press; as a result, she thought. The injury was reminiscent of the one suffered by dead-ball era pitching star Mordecai Brown, who in his youth lost parts of two fingers on his right hand in an accident in a corn grinder. Through the years, Brown turned this handicap into an advantage by learning how to grip a baseball in a way that resulted in an exceptional curveball and pitched for seven different Major League clubs in a span of 14 seasons from 1903–1916, gaining induction to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1949.

Brown was nicknamed a moniker that he proudly used throughout his life. Moore felt better. Therefore, the injury did not stop her from going to spring training four months later; the determined Moore practiced with the Belles at training camp but team officials decided she was not ready to start the 1951 season. Towards the end of the season, she got a call to join the team when its lineup was depleted due to injuries, she retained her rookie status. She became a regular in 1952. During the midseason she sprained her right ankle while sliding into second base and her season was over. Moore was offered a contract to return to following season but she decided not to go back to the league. Moore was disappointed by her limited playing time due to her injuries, as she explained in an interview with historian W. C. Madden, it was a hard decision. Moore hit.148 with a.306 OBP and one double in 42 games for Battle Creek, driving in one run and scoring 11 more while stealing five bases. Afterwards, Moore worked for AT&T for 35 years before retiring in 1989.

She enjoyed bowling, playing golf and softball, as well as participating AAGPBL Players Association activities. The All-American League folded at the end of the 1954 season, but since 1988 there is a permanent display at the Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum at Cooperstown, New York that honors the players and the league staff rather than any individual figure