Cercis canadensis is a large deciduous shrub or small tree, native to eastern North America from southern Ontario, Canada south to northern Florida but which can thrive as far west as California. It is the tree of Oklahoma. It typically grows to 6–9 m tall with an 8–10 m spread and it generally has a short, often twisted trunk and spreading branches. A 10-year-old tree will generally be around 5 m tall, the bark is dark in color, scaly with ridges somewhat apparent, sometimes with maroon patches. The twigs are slender and zigzag, nearly black in color, the winter buds are tiny and dark red to chestnut in color. The leaves are alternate and heart shaped with a margin, 7–12 cm long and wide and papery. The flowers are showy, light to dark pink in color,1.5 cm long, appearing in clusters from Spring to early Summer. The flowers are pollinated by long-tongued bees such as blueberry bees, short-tongued bees apparently cannot reach the nectaries. The fruit are flattened, brown, pea-like pods, 5–10 cm long that contain flat, elliptical, in some parts of southern Appalachia, green twigs from the eastern redbud are used as seasoning for wild game such as venison and opossum.
Because of this, in mountain areas the eastern redbud is sometimes known as the spicewood tree. In the wild, eastern redbud is a frequent native understory tree in mixed forests and it is much planted as a landscape ornamental plant. The leaves are eaten by the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera, for example the Io moth, in the United States, this tree is difficult to grow further west into arid areas west of western Kansas and Colorado, as there is not sufficient annual precipitation. Its far northern range of growth is the lower Midwest, Ohio Valley, there has been success with growing the tree in Columbus, which has become known as the Columbus Strain and a seed source for nurseries. Bark, Red brown, with fissures and scaly surface. Branchlets at first lustrous brown, become darker, Dark reddish brown, hard, coarse-grained, not strong. 0.6363, weight of cu. ft.39.65 lbs, winter buds, Chestnut brown, one-eighth inch long. Leaves, simple, heart-shaped or broadly ovate, two to five long, five to seven-nerved, chordate or truncate at the base, entire.
They come out of the bud folded along the line of the midrib, tawny green, in autumn they turn bright clear yellow
Pruning is a horticultural and silvicultural practice involving the selective removal of certain parts of a plant, such as branches, buds, or roots. The practice entails targeted removal of diseased, dead, non-productive, structurally unsound, or otherwise unwanted tissue from crop and landscape plants. In general, the smaller the branch that is cut, the easier it is for a plant to compartmentalize the wound and thus limit the potential for pathogen intrusion. It is therefore preferable to any necessary formative structural pruning cuts to young plants, rather than removing large. Specialized pruning practices may be applied to plants, such as roses, fruit trees. It is important when pruning that the limbs are kept intact. Different pruning techniques may be deployed on herbaceous plants than those used on perennial woody plants, hedges, by design, are usually maintained by hedge trimming, rather than by pruning. In nature, meteorological conditions such as wind and snow and this natural shedding is called abscission.
For arboricultural purposes the unions of tree branches are placed in one of three types, collarless or codominant and this is often referred to by arborists as target cutting. Branches die off for a number of reasons including light deficiency and disease damage, a dead branch will at some point decay back to the parent stem and fall off. This is normally a slow process but can be quickened by high winds or extreme temperature, the main reason deadwooding is performed is safety. Situations that usually demand removal of deadwood is trees that overhang public roads, public areas, trees located in wooded areas are usually assessed as lower risk but assessments consider the amount of visitors. Usually, trees adjacent to footpaths and access roads are considered for deadwood removal, another reason for deadwooding is amenity value, i. e. a tree with a large amount of deadwood throughout the crown looks more aesthetically pleasing with the deadwood removed. The physical practice of deadwooding can be carried out most of the year though not when the tree is coming into leaf, the deadwooding process speeds up the trees natural abscission process.
It reduces unwanted weight and wind resistance and can help overall balance and canopy thinning increases light and reduces wind resistance by selective removal of branches throughout the canopy of the tree. This is a practice which improves the trees strength against adverse weather conditions as the wind can pass through the tree resulting in less load being placed on the tree. The shape is vital for the survival of the tree and lopping off the wrong sections of a tree if it has surpassed its height limit can actually be extremely damaging and this can hinder its growth or cause an overbalance. Crown lifting involves the removal of the branches to a given height
The lemon, Citrus limon Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia. The trees ellipsoidal yellow fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world, primarily for its juice, the pulp and rind are used in cooking and baking. The juice of the lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid, the distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade and lemon meringue pie. The origin of the lemon is unknown, though lemons are thought to have first grown in Assam, a study of the genetic origin of the lemon reported it to be hybrid between bitter orange and citron. Lemons entered Europe near southern Italy no than the second century AD, they were not widely cultivated. They were introduced to Persia and to Iraq and Egypt around 700 AD, the lemon was first recorded in literature in a 10th-century Arabic treatise on farming, and was used as an ornamental plant in early Islamic gardens.
It was distributed throughout the Arab world and the Mediterranean region between 1000 and 1150. The first substantial cultivation of lemons in Europe began in Genoa in the middle of the 15th century, the lemon was introduced to the Americas in 1493 when Christopher Columbus brought lemon seeds to Hispaniola on his voyages. Spanish conquest throughout the New World helped spread lemon seeds and it was mainly used as an ornamental plant and for medicine. In the 19th century, lemons were increasingly planted in Florida, in 1747, James Linds experiments on seamen suffering from scurvy involved adding lemon juice to their diets, though vitamin C was not yet known. The origin of the lemon may be Middle Eastern. The word draws from the Old French limon, Italian limone, from the Arabic laymūn or līmūn, and from the Persian līmūn, a term for citrus fruit. The Bonnie Brae is oblong, thin-skinned, and seedless, the Eureka grows year-round and abundantly. This is the common supermarket lemon, known as Four Seasons because of its ability to produce fruit and this variety is available as a plant to domestic customers.
There is a pink-fleshed Eureka lemon, with a green, the Femminello St. Teresa, or Sorrento is native to Italy. This fruits zest is high in lemon oils and it is the variety traditionally used in the making of limoncello. The Meyer is a cross between a lemon and possibly an orange or a mandarin, and was named after Frank N. Meyer, who first introduced it to the USA in 1908. Thin-skinned and slightly less acidic than the Lisbon and Eureka lemons, Meyer lemons often mature to a yellow-orange color
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus /dʒuːˈnɪpərəs/ of the cypress family Cupressaceae. The highest-known Juniper forest occurs at an altitude of 16,000 feet in south-eastern Tibet, Junipers vary in size and shape from tall trees, 20–40 m tall, to columnar or low spreading shrubs with long trailing branches. They are evergreen with needle-like and/or scale-like leaves and they can be either monoecious or dioecious. The female seed cones are very distinctive, with fleshy, fruit-like coalescing scales which fuse together to form a structure, 4–27 mm long. In some species these berries are red-brown or orange but in most they are blue, they are often aromatic, the seed maturation time varies between species from 6–18 months after pollination. The male cones are similar to those of other Cupressaceae, with 6–20 scales, in zones 7 through 10, junipers can bloom and release pollen several times each year. A few species of juniper bloom in autumn, while most species pollinate from early winter until late spring.
Many junipers have two types of leaves and some twigs of trees have needle-like leaves 5–25 mm long. When juvenile foliage occurs on mature plants, it is most often found on shaded shoots, leaves on fast-growing whip shoots are often intermediate between juvenile and adult. In some species, all the foliage is of the juvenile needle-like type, in some of these, the needles are jointed at the base, in others, the needles merge smoothly with the stem, not jointed. The needle-leaves of junipers are hard and sharp, making the juvenile foliage very prickly to handle and this can be a valuable identification feature in seedlings, as the otherwise very similar juvenile foliage of cypresses and other related genera is soft and not prickly. Duplicana feed on the bark around injuries or canker, the number of juniper species is in dispute, with two recent studies giving very different totals, Farjon accepting 52 species, and Adams accepting 67 species. The junipers are divided into sections, though which species belong to which sections is still far from clear.
The section Juniperus is a monophyletic group though. The adult leaves are needle-like, in whorls of three, and jointed at the base, Cones with 3 separate seeds, needles with one stomatal band. Juniperus communis - Common Juniper Juniperus communis subsp, alpina - Alpine Juniper Juniperus conferta - Shore Juniper Juniperus rigida - Temple Juniper or Needle Juniper Juniperus sect. Oxycedrus, Cones with 3 separate seeds, needles with two stomatal bands, Cones with 3 seeds fused together, needles with two stomatal bands. Juniperus drupacea - Syrian Juniper Juniperus sect, the adult leaves are mostly scale-like, similar to those of Cupressus species, in opposite pairs or whorls of three, and the juvenile needle-like leaves are not jointed at the base
Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres, or 2% of the Earths surface, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a population of about 740 million as of 2015. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast, Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the period, marked the end of ancient history. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era, from the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania.
The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to economic and social change in Western Europe. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill and it includes all states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem is Ode to Joy and states celebrate peace, in classical Greek mythology, Europa is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, broad and ὤψ eye, broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it.
For the second part the divine attributes of grey-eyed Athena or ox-eyed Hera. The same naming motive according to cartographic convention appears in Greek Ανατολή, Martin Litchfield West stated that phonologically, the match between Europas name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor. Next to these there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning darkness. Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent, in some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa
Reaching 27.5 m in height, it is a large, striking evergreen tree with large, dark green leaves up to 20 cm long and 12 cm wide, and large, fragrant flowers up to 30 cm in diameter. Although endemic to the subtropical forests on the Gulf and south Atlantic coastal plain. The timber is hard and heavy, and has been used commercially to make furniture, Magnolia grandiflora is a medium to large evergreen tree which may grow 120 ft tall. It typically has a stem and a pyramidal shape. The leaves are simple and broadly ovate, 12–20 cm long and 6–12 cm broad and they are dark green and leathery, and often scurfy underneath with yellow-brown pubescence. Flowering is followed by the fruit, ovoid polyfollicle,7. 5–10 cm long. Exceptionally large trees have been reported in the far southern United States, the national champion is a specimen in Smith County, that stands an incredible 37 m. Magnolia grandiflora was one of the species first described by Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae in 1759.
He did not select a type specimen and its specific epithet is derived from the Latin words grandis big, and flor- flower. M. grandiflora is most commonly known as southern magnolia, a derived from its range in the Southern United States. Laurel magnolia, evergreen magnolia, large-flower magnolia or big laurel are alternative names, the timber is known simply as magnolia. Southern magnolias are native to the Southeastern United States, from coastal North Carolina south to central Florida and it is found on the edges of bodies of water and swamps, in association with sweetgum, water oak, and black tupelo. In more sheltered habitats, it grows as a large tree and it is killed by summer fires, and is missing from habitats that undergo regular burning. Despite preferring sites with increased moisture, it does not tolerate inundation and it grows on sand-hills in maritime forests, where it is found growing with live oaks and saw palmetto. In the eastern United States, it has become an escape, Magnolia grandiflora can produce seed by 10 years of age, although peak seed production is achieved closer to 25 years of age.
Around 50% of seeds can germinate, and they are spread by birds, opossums and turkey are known to eat the seeds. It had come to France, the French having collected it in the vicinity of the Mississippi River in Louisiana and it was glowingly described by Philip Miller in his 1731 work The Gardeners Dictionary. It is often planted in university campuses and allowed to grow into a tree, either with dependent branches
A hedge or hedgerow is a line of closely spaced shrubs and tree species and trained to form a barrier or to mark the boundary of an area, such as between neighbouring properties. Hedges used to separate a road from adjoining fields or one field from another, often they serve as windbreaks to improve conditions for the adjacent crops. When clipped and maintained, hedges are a form of topiary. The development of hedges over the centuries is preserved in their structure, the first hedges enclosed land for cereal crops during the Neolithic Age. The farms were of about 5 to 10 hectares, with fields about 0.1 hectares for hand cultivation, some hedges date from the Bronze and Iron Ages, 2000–4000 years ago, when traditional patterns of landscape became established. Others were built during the Medieval field rationalisations, more originated in the boom of the 18th and 19th centuries. In parts of Britain, early hedges were destroyed to make way for the manorial open-field system, many were replaced after the Enclosure Acts, removed again during modern agricultural intensification, and now some are being replanted for wildlife. A hedge may consist of a species or several, typically mixed at random.
In many newly planted British hedges, at least 60 per cent of the shrubs are hawthorn, the first two are particularly effective barriers to livestock. Other shrubs and trees used include holly, oak and willow, of the hedgerows in the Normandy region of France, Martin Blumenson said, The hedgerow is a fence, half earth, half hedge. The wall at the base is a parapet that varies in thickness from one to four or more feet. Growing out of the wall is a hedge of hawthorn, vines, originally property demarcations, hedgerows protect crops and cattle from the ocean winds that sweep across the land. The hedgerows of Normandy became barriers that slowed the advance of Allied troops following the D-Day invasion of WWII, there are thought to be around 1.8 million hedgerow trees in Britain with perhaps 98% of these being in England and Wales. Hedgerow trees are both an important part of the English landscape and are valuable habitats for wildlife, many hedgerow trees are veteran trees and therefore of great wildlife interest.
The most common species are oak and ash, though in the past elm would have been common, around 20 million elm trees, most of them hedgerow trees, were felled or died through Dutch elm disease in the late 1960s. Many other species are used, notably including beech and various nut, the age structure of British hedgerow trees is old because the number of new trees is not sufficient to replace the number of trees that are lost through age or disease. New trees can be established by planting but it is more successful to leave standard trees behind when laying hedges. Trees should be left at no closer than 10 metres apart, the distance allows the young trees to develop full crowns without competing or producing too much shade
The loquat is a species of flowering plant in the family Rosaceae, a native to the cooler hill regions of China to south-central China. Eriobotrya japonica was formerly thought to be related to the genus Mespilus. It is known as Japanese plum and Chinese plum, known as pipa in China, Eriobotrya japonica is a large evergreen shrub or small tree, with a rounded crown, short trunk and woolly new twigs. The tree can grow to 5–10 metres tall, but is often smaller, loquats are unusual among fruit trees in that the flowers appear in the autumn or early winter, and the fruits are ripe at any time from early spring to early summer. The flowers are 2 cm in diameter, with five petals, the flowers have a sweet, heady aroma that can be smelled from a distance. Loquat fruits, growing in clusters, are oval, rounded or pear-shaped, 3–5 centimetres long, with a smooth or downy, yellow or orange, the succulent, tangy flesh is white, yellow or orange and sweet to subacid or acid, depending on the cultivar. Each fruit contains one to ten ovules, with three to five being most common. A variable number of the ovules mature into large brown seeds, the skin, though thin, can be peeled off manually if the fruit is ripe.
In Egypt, varieties with sweeter fruits and fewer seeds are often grafted on inferior quality specimens, the fruits are the sweetest when soft and orange. The flavour is a mixture of peach and mild mango, the loquat is originally from China where related species can be found growing in the wild. It was introduced into Japan and became naturalised there in early times. Chinese immigrants are presumed to have carried the loquat to Hawaii, the loquat was often mentioned in ancient Chinese literature, such as the poems of Li Bai. In Portuguese literature, it is mentioned since before the Age of Discovery, over 800 loquat cultivars exist in Asia. Self-fertile variants include the Gold Nugget and Mogi cultivars, the boldly textured foliage adds a tropical look to gardens, contrasting well with many other plants. It is popular in the American South, there are many named cultivars, with orange or white flesh. Japan is the producer of loquats followed by Israel and Brazil. In Europe, Spain is the producer of loquat.
In temperate climates it is grown as an ornamental with winter protection, in the United Kingdom, it has gained the Royal Horticultural Societys Award of Garden Merit
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus /ˈpaɪrəs/, in the family Rosaceae. It is the name of the fruit of the trees. Several species of pear are valued for their fruit, while others are cultivated as ornamental trees. The word “pear” is probably from Germanic pera as a loanword of Vulgar Latin pira, the term pyriform is used to describe something pear-shaped. The pear is native to coastal and mildly temperate regions of the Old World, from western Europe and it is a medium-sized tree, reaching 10–17 metres tall, often with a tall, narrow crown, a few species are shrubby. The leaves are arranged, simple, 2–12 centimetres long, glossy green on some species, densely silvery-hairy in some others. Most pears are deciduous, but one or two species in southeast Asia are evergreen, most are cold-hardy, withstanding temperatures between −25 °C and −40 °C in winter, except for the evergreen species, which only tolerate temperatures down to about −15 °C. The flowers are white, rarely tinted yellow or pink, 2–4 centimetres diameter, the fruit is composed of the receptacle or upper end of the flower-stalk greatly dilated.
Enclosed within its cellular flesh is the fruit, five cartilaginous carpels. From the upper rim of the receptacle are given off the five sepals, the five petals and apples cannot always be distinguished by the form of the fruit, some pears look very much like some apples, e. g. the nashi pear. One major difference is that the flesh of pear fruit contains stone cells, Pear cultivation in cool temperate climates extends to the remotest antiquity, and there is evidence of its use as a food since prehistoric times. Many traces of it have been found in pile dwellings around Lake Zurich. The pear was cultivated by the Romans, who ate the raw or cooked. Plinys Natural History recommended stewing them with honey and noted three dozen varieties, the Roman cookbook De re coquinaria has a recipe for a spiced, stewed-pear patina, or soufflé. A certain race of pears, with white down on the undersurface of their leaves, is supposed to have originated from P. nivalis, and their fruit is chiefly used in France in the manufacture of perry.
Other small-fruited pears, distinguished by their early ripening and apple-like fruit, may be referred to as P. cordata, pears have been cultivated in China for approximately 3000 years. Court accounts of Henry III of England record pears shipped from La Rochelle-Normande, Asian species with medium to large edible fruit include P. pyrifolia, P. ussuriensis, P. × bretschneideri, P. × sinkiangensis, and P. pashia. Other small-fruited species are used as rootstocks for the cultivated forms
A plum is a fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. Mature plum fruit may have a waxy coating that gives them a glaucous appearance. This is a wax coating and is known as wax bloom. Dried plum fruits are called dried plums or prunes, although, in American English, prunes are a type of plum. Plums are a group of species. The commercially important plum trees are medium-sized, usually pruned to 5–6 metres height, the tree is of medium hardiness. Without pruning, the trees can reach 12 metres in height and they blossom in different months in different parts of the world, for example, in about January in Taiwan and early April in the United Kingdom. Fruits are usually of medium size, between 1 and 3 inches in diameter, globose to oval, the flesh is firm and juicy. The fruits peel is smooth, with a waxy surface that adheres to the flesh. The plum is a drupe, meaning its fleshy fruit surrounds a single hard seed, Plum has many species, and taxonomists differ on the count. Depending on the taxonomist, between 19 and 40 species of plum exist, from this diversity only two species, the hexaploid European plum and the diploid Japanese plum, are of worldwide commercial significance.
The origin of commercially important species is uncertain but may have involved P. cerasifera. Other species of plum variously originated in Europe and America, the subgenus Prunus is divided into three sections, Sect. It is juicy and can be fresh or used in jam-making or other recipes. Plum juice can be fermented into plum wine, in central England, a cider-like alcoholic beverage known as plum jerkum is made from plums. Dried plums are sweet and juicy and contain several antioxidants and prunes are known for their laxative effect. This effect has been attributed to compounds present in the fruits, such as dietary fiber, sorbitol. Prunes and prune juice are used to help regulate the functioning of the digestive system