Espoo is the second largest city and municipality in Finland. It is part of the Finnish Capital Region, along with the cities of Helsinki and Kauniainen, most of its population lives in the inner urban core of the Helsinki metropolitan area. Espoo shares its eastern border with Vantaa, while enclosing Kauniainen. Other bordering municipalities of Espoo are Nurmijärvi and Vihti in the north, Kirkkonummi in the west; the city is located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, in the region of Uusimaa, has a population of 284,444. Espoo encompasses 528 square kilometres; the national park of Nuuksio is situated in northwestern Espoo. Espoo does not have a traditional city center, having instead several local regional centers. Espoo is thus divided into seven major areas: Vanha-Espoo, Suur-Espoonlahti, Pohjois-Espoo, Suur-Kauklahti, Suur-Leppävaara, Suur-Matinkylä, Suur-Tapiola. Aalto University is based in Otaniemi, along with a thriving science community that includes numerous startups and organizations such as VTT – the Technical Research Center of Finland.
Several major companies are based in Espoo, including Nokia, HMD Global, Tieto, KONE, Fortum, Orion Corporation and Foreca, as well as video game developers Rovio and Remedy Entertainment. The city of Espoo is bilingual; the majority of the population, 83.6%, speaks Finnish as their mother tongue, while a minority of 8.3% speaks Swedish. 8 % of Espoo's population has a first language other than Swedish. The name Espoo comes from the Swedish name for the River Espoo, Espå, which in turn comes from the old Swedish word äspe, meaning a border of aspen, the Swedish word for "river", å, thus "a river bordered by aspen"; the name was first mentioned in 1431. The banks of the River Espoo are today populated with aspen; the first inhabitants in the area arrived about 9,000 years ago. Physical evidence indicates agriculture from ca. 1000 AD. Up to the 13th century, the area was a borderland between the hunting grounds of Finnish Proper and Tavastian Finns, with a sparse population. Immigrants from Sweden established permanent agricultural settlements to the area from the late 13th century onwards after the so-called Second Crusade to Finland.
Espoo was a subdivision of the Kirkkonummi congregation until 1486–1487. The oldest known document referring to Kirkkonummi is from 1330; the construction of the Espoo Cathedral, the oldest preserved building in Espoo, marks the independence of Espoo. Administratively, Espoo was a part of Uusimaa; when the province was split to Eastern and Western provinces governed from the Porvoo and Raasepori castles the eastern border of the Raasepori province was in Espoo. The 13th-century road connecting the most important cities in Finland at that time, the King's Road, passes through Espoo on its way from Stockholm via Turku and Porvoo to Viipuri. In 1557, King Gustav Vasa decided to stabilize and develop the region by founding a royal mansion in Espoo; the government bought the villages of Espåby and Mankby and transferred the population elsewhere, built the royal mansion in Espåby. The royal mansion housed the king's local plenipotentiary, collected royal tax in kind paid by labor on the mansion's farm.
The administrative center Espoon keskus has grown around the church and the Espoo railway station, but the municipality has retained a network-like structure to the modern day. In 1920, Espoo was only a rural municipality of about 9,000 inhabitants, of whom 70% were Swedish speaking. Agriculture was the primary source of income, with 75% of the population making their living from farming. Kauniainen was separated from Espoo in 1920, it gained city rights the same year as Espoo, in 1972. Espoo started to grow in the 1940s and'50s, it developed from a rural municipality into a fully-fledged industrial city, gaining city rights in 1972. Due to its proximity to Helsinki, Espoo soon became popular amongst people working in the capital. In the fifty years from 1950 to 2000, the population of Espoo grew from 22,000 to 210,000. Since 1945, the majority of people in Espoo have been Finnish-speaking. In 2006, the Swedish-speaking inhabitants represented 9% of the total population; the population growth is still continuing, but at a slower rate.
Espoo is located in southern Finland, along the shore of the Gulf of Finland, in the region of Uusimaa and the Helsinki sub-region. Prior to the abolition of Finnish provinces in 2009, Espoo was a part of the Southern Finland Province; the city borders Helsinki, the Finnish capital, to the east. Other neighbouring municipalities are Vantaa to the east and northeast, Nurmijärvi to the north, Vihti to the northwest, Kirkkonummi to the west and southwest. Espoo is a part of the Finnish Capital Region, the inner core of the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area. Espoo is divided into seven major areas: Vanha-Espoo, Suur-Espoonlahti, Pohjois-Espoo, Suur-Kauklahti, Suur-Leppävaara, Suur-Matinkylä, Suur-Tapiola; these major areas are divided into a total of 56 districts. Although Espoo is highly populated, it has large amounts of natural wilderness in the city's western and northern portions; the city has a total of 71 lakes, the l
Didymochlaena is a genus of fern with only one species, Didymochlaena truncatula known under the synonym Didymochlaena sinuosa. In the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016, it is the only genus in the family Didymochlaenaceae. Alternatively, the family may be placed in a broadly defined family Polypodiaceae sensu lato as the subfamily Didymochlaenoideae, it is grown as a house plant, is sometimes known as the mahogany maidenhair. The following cladogram for the suborder Polypodiineae, based on the consensus cladogram in the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016, shows a phylogenetic relationship between Didymochlaenaceae and the other families of the clade
Glebe Football Club is a football club based in Chislehurst in the London Borough of Bromley, England. Affiliated to both the Kent County Football Association and the London Football Association, they are members of the Southern Counties East League Premier Division and play at Foxbury Avenue; the club was established by Rocky McMillan as Glebe Globetrotters in 1995, was based in West Wickham. They were a youth team and were members of the Kent Youth League in 2013, when an adult team was formed and joined the Kent Invicta League. In 2016 the league merged into the Southern Counties East League. In 2015 -- 16 they won the London Senior Trophy. In 2016 -- 17 Glebe won earning promotion to the Premier Division. After joining the Kent Invicta League, the club played at Holmesdale's Oakley Road ground in Bromley. In 2014 they obtained a 25-year lease on Foxbury Avenue ground in Chislehurst, the former ground of Old Elthamians rugby club; the first match at the new ground on 18 July 2015 saw the club lose 3–2 to Canterbury City in front of a crowd of 42.
Southern Counties East League Division One champions 2016–17 London Senior Trophy Winners 2015–16 Best FA Cup performance: Extra-preliminary round, 2015–16 Best FA Vase performance: Third round, 2016–17 Glebe F. C. managers Official website