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Helsinki

Helsinki is the capital and most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of the region of Uusimaa in southern Finland, has a population of 650,058; the city's urban area has a population of 1,268,296, making it by far the most populous urban area in Finland as well as the country's most important center for politics, finance and research. Helsinki is located 80 kilometres north of Tallinn, Estonia, 400 km east of Stockholm, 300 km west of Saint Petersburg, Russia, it has close historical ties with these three cities. Together with the cities of Espoo and Kauniainen, surrounding commuter towns, Helsinki forms the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which has a population of nearly 1.5 million. Considered to be Finland's only metropolis, it is the world's northernmost metro area with over one million people as well as the northernmost capital of an EU member state. After Stockholm and Oslo, Helsinki is the third largest municipality in the Nordic countries.

Swedish and Finnish are both official languages. The city is served by the international Helsinki Airport, located in the neighboring city of Vantaa, with frequent service to many destinations in Europe and Asia. Helsinki was the World Design Capital for 2012, the venue for the 1952 Summer Olympics, the host of the 52nd Eurovision Song Contest in 2007. Helsinki has one of the highest urban standards of living in the world. In 2011, the British magazine Monocle ranked Helsinki the world's most liveable city in its liveable cities index. In the Economist Intelligence Unit's 2016 liveability survey, Helsinki was ranked ninth among 140 cities. According to a theory presented in the 1630s, at the time of Swedish colonisation of coastal areas of Finland, colonists from Hälsingland in central Sweden had arrived at what is now known as the Vantaa River and called it Helsingå, which gave rise to the names of Helsinge village and church in the 1300s; this theory is questionable, because dialect research suggests that the settlers arrived from Uppland and nearby areas.

Others have proposed the name as having been derived from the Swedish word helsing, an archaic form of the word hals, referring to the narrowest part of a river, the rapids. Other Scandinavian cities at similar geographic locations were given similar names at the time, e.g. Helsingør in Denmark and Helsingborg in Sweden; when a town was founded in Forsby village in 1548, it was named Helsinge fors, "Helsinge rapids". The name refers to the Vanhankaupunginkoski rapids at the mouth of the river; the town was known as Helsinge or Helsing, from which the contemporary Finnish name arose. Official Finnish Government documents and Finnish language newspapers have used the name Helsinki since 1819, when the Senate of Finland moved itself into the city from Turku, the former capital of Finland; the decrees issued in Helsinki were dated with Helsinki as the place of issue. This is; as part of the Grand Duchy of Finland in the Russian Empire, Helsinki was known as Gelsingfors in Russian. In Helsinki slang, the city is called Hesa.

Helsset is the Northern Sami name of Helsinki. In the Iron Age the area occupied by present-day Helsinki was inhabited by Tavastians, they used the area for fishing and hunting, but due to a lack of archeological finds it is difficult to say how extensive their settlements were. Pollen analysis has shown that there were cultivating settlements in the area in the 10th century and surviving historical records from the 14th century describe Tavastian settlements in the area. Swedes colonized the coastline of the Helsinki region in the late 13th century after the successful Second Crusade to Finland, which led to the defeat of the Tavastians. Helsinki was established as a trading town by King Gustav I of Sweden in 1550 as the town of Helsingfors, which he intended to be a rival to the Hanseatic city of Reval. In order to populate his newly founded town, the King issued an order to resettle the bourgeoisie of Porvoo, Ekenäs, Rauma and Ulvila into the town. Little came of the plans as Helsinki remained a tiny town plagued by poverty and diseases.

The plague of 1710 killed the greater part of the inhabitants of Helsinki. The construction of the naval fortress Sveaborg in the 18th century helped improve Helsinki's status, but it was not until Russia defeated Sweden in the Finnish War and annexed Finland as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809 that the town began to develop into a substantial city. Russians besieged the Sveaborg fortress during the war, about one quarter of the town was destroyed in an 1808 fire. Russian Emperor Alexander I of Russia moved the Finnish capital from Turku to Helsinki in 1812 to reduce Swedish influence in Finland, to bring the capital closer to Saint Petersburg. Following the Great Fire of Turku in 1827, the Royal Academy of Turku, which at the time was the country's only university, was relocated to Helsinki and became the modern University of Helsinki; the move helped set it on a path of continuous growth. This transformation is apparent in the downtown core, rebuilt in the neoclassical style to resemble Saint Petersburg to a plan by the German-born architect C. L. Engel.

As elsewhere, technological advancements such as railroads and industrialization were key factors behind the city's growth. Despite the tumultuous nature of Fi

Intergalactic War (Blake's 7)

The Intergalactic War is a fictional event in the Blake's 7 science fiction television series. Linking the second and third season, it represented a culmination of the second series' Star One plot thread; the war was the single most important event in the Blake's 7 series, shifting the series emphasis and seeing the largest turnover in the cast. In the fictional universe of the series, it was a singular event curtailing the power of the Terran Federation. According to the episode "Pressure Point", thirty years before the series, the central Federation computer control, the massive computer banks that controlled transportation and weather on hundreds of worlds, was relocated to a small planet orbiting an uncharted white dwarf where it would not be found; the empty control complex was left on Earth to serve as a target for resistance groups. The new control center, named Star One, was protected in a number of ways, it was placed in the outer edge of the Galaxy where the star density was low so that it could not be found accidentally.

Servalan had knowledge of its location purged from the Federation ranks shortly before the beginning of the series. A small crew elected to stay on Star One to devote their lives to maintaining the machines, they were rigorously conditioned against betrayal. In the episode Star One, Orac speculated that an unstated time before the series, a scout ship from the nearby Andromeda Galaxy had appeared. To protect the Galaxy, thousands of anti-matter space mines were placed between Star One and Andromeda as well as at other strategic points in the Galaxy.. The quest to find Star One comprised a large part of the second series, with Blake traveling all over the Galaxy to find the location and deliver a decisive crippling blow to the corrupt Terran Federation, it served, according to script editor Chris Boucher, as a way to edge Blake into a more fanatical direction, willing to kill thousands in his quest to destroy the Federation. An unexpected plot twist was revealed in the second series' finale; when the Liberator crew arrived at Star One, they found that the Federation crew had been completely replaced by jellyfish-like aliens who were using morphing techniques to look human.

It turned out that when Space Commander Travis had discovered the location of Star One, he revealed this information to an alien invasion fleet from the nearby Andromeda galaxy. They had sabotaged Star One, disrupting the entire Federation, amassed an invasion fleet just outside the defence zone. Bitter and insane, Travis returned to deactivate the defence zone a "final act" against a humanity he now hated. Jenna Stannis and Blake independently decided to fight alongside the Federation against the external threat. Jenna had Orac alert the Federation space command's strategic computers to the danger in Blake's name, passing along coordinates to Star One; the aliens used Star One to create chaos throughout the Federation. Spaceships would crash into each other and severe weather conditions on many planets led to death and destruction. Military Supreme Commander Servalan took advantage of this in order to depose the President and seize power; when she received Jenna's message she believed it and commenced a "Red One Mobilisation", sending every ship in the vast Federation fleet to Star One from across the Galaxy.

Blake and Kerr Avon fought off the Andromedans and killed Travis, but not before one defence zone was deactivated. Blake ordered his crew to stop the sabotage of Star One so that humanity would have it to fight with, but one bomb went off damaging part of the station. Wounded by Travis, Blake asked Avon to fight against the Andromedan fleet until the Federation arrived. Avon agreed and the Liberator stood alone against a 600-strong fleet charging through the hole in the defence screen, with the nearest Federation units just under an hour away at maximum speed; the beginning of the battle between the Liberator and the Andromedan fleet constituted the second series finale and cliffhanger. The history of the Intergalactic War is uncertain. No canonical narrative was given. Only highlights were shown in the third series premiere episode Aftermath and hints of the battle were given by characters throughout the third season. What is known, principally from the episode Aftermath is that: The entire Andromedan fleet was destroyed 80% of the Federation fleet was destroyed, including the Star One facility A large part of the battle took place near Sarran, which would be far removed from the isolated Star One where the war began The Liberator was damaged and had to be abandoned late in the fighting The fight lasted long enough for many independent ships, such as Del Tarrant's, to get involved in the fighting.

The series did make clear that the Federation prevailed but at staggering cost in ships and men - over 80% of the fleet was destroyed. A Federation officer stated that the only reason they won at all was because they outnumbered the Andromedans, and the survivors faced other dangers, such as hostile natives and an organ bank stocking up its reserv

GAZ-64

The GAZ-64 was a 4x4 vehicle made by GAZ, succeeding the earlier GAZ-61. Its design was led by Vitaliy Grachev; the design process was exceptionally quick. Over 90,000 were produced in total, but the majority of the wartime production went to produce the BA-64 armoured car; the curb weigh of the car was 1,200 kg. It was powered by a 3285 cc, inline-4 engine giving a top speed of 100 km/h, it was produced using existing commercially available parts. The GAZ-64 was developed from a requirement developed during the 1940 war between the Soviet Union and Finland. Although it appears superficially similar to the American Jeep, it was developed using commercially available parts available in the Soviet Union, it was designed to replace the earlier GAZ-61, reconstructed in a short period under the leadership of Vitaly Grachev to create a 4×4 jeep, named the GAZ-64. It was succeeded by the more popular GAZ-67 and the GAZ-67B; the GAZ-64 and GAZ-67 were the basis for BA-64 armoured car. 646 GAZ-64s were made between March 1941 and summer 1942 by the GAZ or Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod company.

The name was translated from the Gorky automobile plant, a cooperation between the company Ford and the Soviet Union. Due to the availability of American made Jeeps provided by the American Lend-Lease program, the majority of wartime production of the GAZ-64 was dedicated to the BA-64 armored car. Due to GAZ-64 production being tied to BA-64 production, only around 2,500 were produced during the war. Post war production increased and more than 90,000 GAZ-64 were produced by the time production ended in 1953. Pročko, Evgenij. GAZ-64/67, GAZ-61/AR-NATI. Militaria. ISBN 978-83721-922-71 Thompson, Andy Cars of the Soviet Union: The Definitive History. Haynes Publishing. ISBN 1-84425-483-6 GAZ-64 – Old Russian Cars.com Ad for a 1/72 model of the GAZ-64 armored car Military Factory article