Esports is a form of sport competition using video games. Esports takes the form of organized, multiplayer video game competitions between professional players, individually or as teams. Although organized competitions have long been a part of video game culture, these were between amateurs until the late 2000s, when participation by professional gamers and spectatorship in these events through live streaming saw a large surge in popularity. By the 2010s, esports was a significant factor in the video game industry, with many game developers designing and providing funding for tournaments and other events; the most common video game genres associated with esports are multiplayer online battle arena, first-person shooter, card games, battle royales, real-time strategy. Popular esport franchises include League of Legends, Counter-Strike, Super Smash Bros. and StarCraft, among many others. Tournaments such as the League of Legends World Championship, Dota 2's International, the fighting game-specific Evolution Championship Series and Intel Extreme Masters are among the most popular in esports.
Many other competitions use a series of league play with sponsored teams, such as the Overwatch League. Although the legitimacy of esports as a true sporting competition remains in question, they have been featured alongside traditional sports in some multinational events in Asia, with the International Olympic Committee having discussed their inclusion into future Olympic events. By the late 2010s, it was estimated that the total audience of esports would grow to 454 million viewers, with revenue increasing to over US$1 billion; the increasing availability of online streaming media platforms YouTube and Twitch, have become central to the growth and promotion of esports competitions. Despite viewership being 85% male and 15% female, with a majority of viewers between the ages of 18 and 34, female gamers have played professionally; the popularity and recognition of esports first took place in Asia in China and South Korea, with the latter having licensed professional players since 2000. Despite its large video game industry, esports in Japan is underdeveloped, with this being attributed to its broad anti-gambling laws which prohibit paid professional gaming tournaments.
Outside of Asia, esports are popular in Europe and the Americas, with both regional and international events taking place in those regions. The earliest known video game competition took place on 19 October 1972 at Stanford University for the game Spacewar. Stanford students were invited to an "Intergalactic spacewar olympics" whose grand prize was a year's subscription for Rolling Stone, with Bruce Baumgart winning the five-man-free-for-all tournament and Tovar and Robert E. Maas winning the team competition; the Space Invaders Championship held by Atari in 1980 was the earliest large scale video game competition, attracting more than 10,000 participants across the United States, establishing competitive gaming as a mainstream hobby. In 1980, Walter Day founded; the organization went on to help promote video games and publicize its records through publications such as the Guinness Book of World Records, in 1983 it created the U. S. National Video Game Team; the team was involved in competitions, such as running the Video Game Masters Tournament for Guinness World Records and sponsoring the North American Video Game Challenge tournament.
During the 1970s and 1980s, video game players and tournaments began being featured in well-circulated newspapers and popular magazines including Life and Time. One of the most well known classic arcade game players is Billy Mitchell, credited with the records for high scores in six games including Pac-Man and Donkey Kong in the 1985 issue of the Guinness Book of World Records; some of those records would be removed in 2018 amid allegations of fraud. Televised esports events aired during this period included the American show Starcade which ran from 1982–1984 airing a total of 133 episodes, on which contestants would attempt to beat each other's high scores on an arcade game. A video game tournament was included as part of TV show That's Incredible!, tournaments were featured as part of the plot of various films, including 1982's Tron. In the UK, the BBC game show First Class included competitive video game rounds featuring the contemporary arcade games, such as Hyper Sports, 720° and Paperboy.
The 1988 game Netrek was an Internet game for up to 16 players, written entirely in cross-platform open source software. Netrek was the third Internet game, the first Internet game to use metaservers to locate open game servers, the first to have persistent user information. In 1993 it was credited by Wired Magazine as "the first online sports game"; the fighting game Street Fighter II popularized the concept of direct, tournament-level competition between two players. Video games most relied on high scores to determine the best player, but this changed with Street Fighter II, where players would instead challenge each other directly, "face-to-face," to determine the best player, paving the way for the competitive multiplayer and deathmatch modes found in modern action games; the popularity of fighting games such as Street Fighter and Marvel vs. Capcom in the 1990s led to the foundation of the international Evolution Championship Series esports tournament in 1996. Large esports tournaments in the 1990s include the 1990 Nintendo World Championships, which toured across the United States, held its finals at Universal Studios Hollywood in California.
Nintendo held a 2nd Wo
Sydney Adventist College is an independent Seventh-Day Adventist co-educational early learning and primary day school, located in Auburn, an inner-western suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Established in 1919 at Burwood, Sydney Adventist College was open to students from all religious and cultural backgrounds. Since December 2012 it has only catered to Prep to Year 6 students at the Macquarie Street Auburn Campus; the School is operated by the Greater Sydney Conference. It is a part of the Seventh-day Adventist education system, the world's second largest Christian school system; the school is affiliated with the health food company Sanitarium, The Adventist Development and Relief Agency, the Sydney Adventist Hospital and the Seventh Day Adventist Churches in Sydney. It is related to Avondale College, a tertiary college located in Cooranbong; the school first opened as'Burwood Adventist High School' with 20 students in 1919 at Patterson Street, Concord, an inner-western suburb in Sydney.
The school was conducted by the former Australasian Union Conference. It opened as an intermediate school as a gateway for the several Adventist primary schools in Sydney and Avondale College. In 1922 the school was a secondary department for what was Auburn Adventist Primary School. In 1937 a property was purchased at Burwood and the school moved there; the school provided Years 7, 8 and 9, having 50 students. Enrolment rose to over 120 students and the school found it was in need of a newer and larger location. In 1952, the school was opened in Strathfield as Burwood Adventist High School; the building was a single-storey building in a'U' shape. In 1965, junior high students from Wahroonga Adventist School and Marrickville Adventist School were all transferred to Burwood Adventist High School due to overcrowding, the high school system at Wahroonga and Hustville schools ceased; the school had now changed its name to Strathfield Adventist High School. In 1966 the school was in need of major extensions, therefore the second-storey and basement floors were built on above and below of the existing single storey.
In 1967, the school was in need of more classrooms. The East Wing was built, as well as extensions to the "U" building; the school had developed into a full high school system and was renamed Sydney Adventist High School in the same year. In 1973 the new and larger two-storey library was built; the School Activity Centre and Technology and Applied Studies Building was opened in 1984. The Library needed extensions, that addition was completed in 1995. In 1993 Sydney Adventist High School was renamed Sydney Adventist College; the school motto was changed together with the name change, from Nihil Sine Labore to Nihil Sine Deo. Extensions were completed at the front of the school for the Administration office and Student Services office in 2005. On 13 June 2012, a letter was sent out to all the members of school from the Adventist Education Board announcing the proposed closure of Sydney Adventist College at the end of the school year due to financial difficulties within the Seventh-Day Adventist Schools Ltd system.
The Auburn campus remained become a K-6 primary school from January 2013 onwards. The campus consists of a large two-storey building, a large playing field, a basketball court, six handball courts, a medium-sized playground and sandpit, a small field. All students take religion classes each year; these classes cover topics in Christian and denominational doctrines. Instructors in other disciplines begin each class period with prayer or a short devotional thought, many which encourage student input. Weekly, the entire student body gathers together for an hour-long chapel service. Outside the classrooms there is year-round spiritually oriented programming that relies on student involvement; the school offers soccer for girls. Seventh-day Adventist education List of non-government schools in New South Wales List of Seventh-day Adventist secondary schools
Kurt Attinger was a Swiss curler. He played lead position on the Swiss rink that won the 1984 European Curling Championships and a silver medal at the 1984 World Men's Championship. Attinger grew up in a family of curlers, his father Peter Sr. is a 1972 Swiss men's champion. His brothers - Peter Jr. Bernhard and Werner are curlers too, they won Worlds medals when they played on Peter Jr.'s team. His nephew Felix is the skip of a team that won the Swiss men's silver in 2017 and bronze in 2016, with Peter Jr. coaching this team. Bernhard's daughter, Sandra Ramstein-Attinger is a competitive curler too, she played in three Women's Worlds with teams skipped by Silvana Tirinzoni and Binia Feltscher-Beeli. Kurt Attinger died in 2011 of cancer. Kurt Attinger on the World Curling Federation database
Nacaduba pavana, the small four-line blue or Singapore four-line blue, is a species of lycaenid butterfly found in Southeast Asia. Male upperside: purple with a frosted silvery-blue sheen much as in N. macrophthalma. Forewing: a slender black anteciliary line. Hindwing: costal and dorsal margins somewhat broadly dull brown, an anteciliary black line as on the forewing. Underside: ground colour and markings similar to those of N. macrophthalma but far more slender and more neatly defined. Antennae, head and abdomen as in N. macrophthalma. Female upperside, forewing: costa broadly and termen still more broadly brown. Hindwing: pale brown, much paler than the brown on the forewing. Underside: similar to that of the male, ground colour paler, transverse white strigae broader. Both male and female have the basal area of the forewing within the transverse white strigae lining the inner side of the discocellulars immaculate, as in N. macrophthalma and N. kerriana. Charles Thomas Bingham reports the butterfly from Sikkim.
Described from Java. As per Savela the butterfly ranges from Tibet, India - Myanmar, Malaysia, Langkawi, Sumatra and Sulawesi; the butterfly has five subspecies: N. p. pavana N. p. singapura N. p. vajuva N. p. georgi N. p. visuna The subspecies N. p. vajuva Frühstorfer 1916, known as the violet four-line blue, occurs in India and Thailand. It was earlier considered a separate species. List of butterflies of India Evans, W. H.. The Identification of Indian Butterflies. Mumbai, India: Bombay Natural History Society. Haribal, Meena; the Butterflies of Sikkim Himalaya and Their Natural History. Gangtok, India: Sikkim Nature Conservation Foundation. Wynter-Blyth, Mark Alexander. Butterflies of the Indian Region. Bombay, India: Bombay Natural History Society. ISBN 978-8170192329. Takanami, Yusuke & Seki, Yasuo. "Genus Nacaduba". A Synonymic List of Lycaenidae from the Philippines. Archived from the original on September 2, 2001 – via Internet Archive. With images
Matsuyama City Station, informally known as "Shieki", is the terminus for the Iyo Railway's rail and bus lines. It forms one of Matsuyama's city centers. Matsuyama City Station, Matsuyama's first central train station, preceding the JR Matsuyama Station by four decades, was constructed in 1888 by the Iyo Railway company as part of the first railway in Shikoku and the third private railway in Japan; the first Iyotetsu line ran between the City Station and the port of Mitsugahama, with an interim stop at Komachi. The station called Matsuyama was renamed as Togawa Station in 1888, again as Matsuyama in 1902. In 1927, the name was usurped by the government railway's Matsuyama Station and the new name Matsuyama-shi was given; the station building houses the terminus for three Iyo Railway lines: the Takahama Line, the Yokogawara Line, the Gunchū Line. A tram station in front of the station building is the terminus for five of the six streetcar lines with the exception of Line 6, the Botchan Ressha, a replica of the original Iyo Railway locomotives.
Zino was a Thoroughbred racehorse which won the 2000 Guineas Stakes in 1982. Owned by Gerry Oldham, trained by François Boutin and ridden by Freddie Head, Zino won the 1982 2000 Guineas Stakes at Newmarket, beating Wind and Wuthering in a photo-finish, in a time of 1:37.13. Zino is one of eleven winners of the 2000 Guineas to have been trained in France since 1900. Zino was inbred 4 x 4 to Owen Tudor, meaning that this stallion appears twice in the fourth generation of his pedigree. Zino's pedigree and partial racing stats